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Xenistius californiensis (Steindachner, 1876)
CALIFORNIAN SALEMA
California salema

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Haemulidae   Xenistius

Xenistius californiensis
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Xenistius californiensis

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Xenistius californiensis
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Xenistius californiensis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • elongate; eye large
  • 6-7 (3-4 in juvenile) brown stripes
  • mouth oblique;lower jaw projects
Elongate; eye large; mouth oblique, lower jaw projecting; dorsal rays IX-XI,I-II,12-14; dorsal fin deeply notched, but two portions joined at base; base of spinous part of dorsal fin longer than base of soft part; anal rays III,11-13; lateral- line scales 50-55; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 15-20; body elongate, depth 3.2-3.5 in standard length.

Silvery with 6-7 orange-brown stripes on side, only 3-4 stripes on upper half of body evident in small specimens.

Size: reaches 30 cm.

Habitat: forms large schools around piers and on weed- covered rocky reefs.

Depth: 0-33 m.

Southern California to the Gulf of California to Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 33 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: zooplankton; pelagic fish larvae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=39; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 30 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • García-Rodríguez , F. J. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad íctica en la Bahía de La Paz por … lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus californianus. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:151-162.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Moore, R.H. and Herbinson, K.T., 2002., First record of the armed grunt, Conodon serrifer (Haemulaide), in southern California., Calif. Fish & Game, 88:178-180.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Pondella II, D.J., Gintert, B.E., Cobb, J.R., Allen, L.G., 2005., Biogeography of the nearshore rocky-reef fishes at the southern and Baja California islands., Journal of Biogeography, 32:187-201.
  • Pérez-Mellado, J., Findley, LL. F., 1985., Evaluación de la ictiofauna acompañante del camarón capturado en las costas de Sonora y norte de Sinaloa, México. In Yáñez-Arancibia, A. (Ed.) Recursos pesqueros potenciales de México: La pesca acompañante del camarón., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Cap. 5:201-254.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rodríguez-Romero, J., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sanchez, F.J., Aguilar-Palomino, B., Arvizú-Martínez, J., 1998., Ecology of fish communities from the soft bottoms of Bahía Concepción, México., Arch. Fish. Mar. Res., 46:61-76.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Steindachner, F., 1876., Ichthyologische Beiträage (III). Bemerkungen über Serranus nebulifer und S. clathratus sp. Gird., Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 72:29-96.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Haemulon californiensis (Steindachner , 1876)

Californian salema Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Haemulon californiensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Haemulon californiensis (Californian salema) Haemulon californiensis
Juvenile picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Haemulidae (Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Steindachner .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 11 m (Ref. 2850 ).   Subtropical; 37°N - 19°S, 123°W - 70°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay in California, USA to Peru; common in southern California but rare north of Point Conception, California.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114 ); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs among rocks and high up in kelp beds (Ref. 2850 ). Usually in schools (Ref. 2850 ). Primarily nocturnal feeders but occasionally forage during the day. Although the species is a good foodfish, it is of limited interest due to its small size.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann , 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 25 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.3 - 29, mean 24.2 (based on 267 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00706 - 0.03101), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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