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Squatina armata (Philippi, 1887)
SOUTH PACIFIC ANGELSHARK
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Squatinidae   Squatina

Squatina armata
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Squatina armata

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Squatina armata
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Squatina armata
espa˝ol

Overview
Main identification features
  • eye 16 percent of distance between eyes
  • chest and abdomen with denticles
  • nostril barbel narrow, curved, notched
  • distance between nostrils less than distance between eyes
South Pacific angel shark Angelote del Pacifico sur

Front half of body and head (including pectoral and pelvic fins) roughly diamond shaped and greatly flattened; with a distinct neck between the pectorals; distance between nostrils distinctly less than that between eyes; nostril barbell narrow, notched and convex; eyes relatively small (6.3 times in space between them) on top of head, with prominent spiracles behind them; mouth at front; pectoral and pelvic fins greatly enlarged; dorsal fins small, about equal sized, situated near tail fin; lower lobe of tail larger; denticles on lower surface almost entirely covering the pectoral and pelvic fins, with a transverse band on chest, a large patch on the abdomen and almost entirely covering the underside of the tail.

Grey to grey-brown, mottled and blotched with olive; irregular dusky areas on tail and dorsal fins; lower surface white.

Reaches 155 cm.

On sandy bottoms.

Depth range 3-200m.

A basically temperate species that ranges from Costa Rica to Chile, plus Malpelo, Isla Gorgona and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 200 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=10; Southern limit=-42; Western limit=-93; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=52; Longitudinal range=23.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva; No pelagic phase.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: East Pacific endemic; TEP non-endemic; All species.
Habitat: Sand & gravel; Mud; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 155 cm.
Regional Endemism: Peruvian province, primarily; Island (s); Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Links to other sites

References
  • Philippi, R. A., 1887., Historia natural.--Sobre los tiburones y algunos otros peces de Chile. [Plus:] Apendice sobre el peje-espada, peje-aguja, peje-perro i vieja negra., An. Univ. Santiago Chile, 71:535-574.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Squatina armata (Philippi , 1887)

Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Squatina armata Squatina armata
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Philippi .

Issue
This species is questionably a synonym of Squatina californica Ayres, 1859 in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jul. 2010: Ref. 84883 ) following various authors. Please send references, or more studies are needed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southeast Pacific: Chile. Not in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Peque├▒o, G. , 1989. Peces de Chile. Lista sistematica revisada y comentada. Rev. Biol. Mar., Valparaiso 24(2):1-132. (Ref. 9068 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Data deficient (DD)  ; Date assessed: 30 April 2004

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00281 - 0.01956), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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