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Scorpaena cardinalis Richardson, 1842
Billy Bougain; Cardinal Scorpionfish; Coral Cod; Coral Perch; Eastern Red Scorpioncod; Fire Cod; Northern Scorpionfish; Ocean Perch; Prickly Heat; Red Rock Cod; Red Rock-cod; Red Rockcod; Red Scorpion-cod; Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner, 1866

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Scorpaenidae   Scorpaena

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Scorpaena&speciesname=cardinalis ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Scorpaena&speciesname=cardinalis
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Scorpaena&speciesname=cardinalis ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Scorpaena-cardinalis.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson , 1842

Eastern red scorpionfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Scorpaena cardinalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Scorpaena cardinalis (Eastern red scorpionfish) Scorpaena cardinalis
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae (Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Scorpaena: Latin, scorpaena = a kind of fish, 1706 (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Solander & Richardson .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 154 m (Ref. 93606 ).   Temperate

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: northern New Zealand and offshore islands of the Tasman Sea (Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs, New South Wales, Australia; not recorded from the coastal waters of Australian mainland).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26966 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-9. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D 9 (8 rays in one specimen), with the 4th (rarely third) dorsal-fin spine longest; pectoral-fin rays 16-18 (mode 17); scale rows in longitudinal series 60-74 (68); pored lateral-line scales 23-25 (24); scales above lateral line 6-9 (8), below 21-26 (22); scale rows between 6th dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 8 or 9 (9); scale rows between last dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line 8-11 (10); pre-dorsal scale rows 4-8 (6); gill rakers on upper limb 4-6 (5), lower limb 9-13 (12) [8-10 (9) and 1-4 (3) rakers on ceratohyal and hypobranchial, respectively], total rakers 14-18 (17); exposed cycloid scales covering pectoral-fin base and anteroventral surface of body (some scales covered by thin skin, especially in large adults); no longitudinal ridge on lateral surface of maxilla; lateral lacrimal spine with 2 spinous points; anterior lacrimal spine with 1-3 small spinous points on its posterior margin; posterior lacrima spine with 1-3 spinous points, directed posteroventraly throughout life; median interorbital ridge present; no coonal spines; occipital pit and supplement preopercular spine present; pterotic spine simple, smooth distally throughout life; space between upper and lower opercular spines covered by thin skin without sensory pores or canals; a few skin flaps or tentacles on anterodorsal surface of body; without a large black blotch on spinous portion of dorsal fin in both sexes; 2 large white blotches, their diameters subequal to pupil diameter, on caudal-fin base (Ref. 93606 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocks, crevices and caverns at all depths. Occasionally found in large rock pools in the lower littoral zone. Is nocturnally active and feeds mainly on small mobile benthic animals. Stalks its prey and swallows it whole (Ref. 26966 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Motomura, H., C.D. Struthers, M.A. McGrouther and A.L. Stewart , 2011. Validity of Scorpaena jacksoniensis and a redescription of S. cardinalis , a senior synonym of S. cookii (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae). Ichthyol. Res. 58 (4):315-332. (Ref. 93606 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 16 - 22.6, mean 17.6 (based on 56 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00696 - 0.04547), b=3.03 (2.80 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Sa-a, Pascualita Fish Forum
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