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Scleropages leichardti Günther, 1864
Barramundi; Burramundi; Dawson River Salmon; Spotted Barramundi; Spotted Saratoga; Osteoglossum leichardti Günther, 1864; Scleropages guentheri Castelnau, 1876; Osteoglossum guentheri Castelnau, 1876; Spotted Bonytongue

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Osteoglossidae   Scleropages

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/7340a8f8-b1cb-4d81-9a5b-ae8e9218bf8e/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/7340a8f8-b1cb-4d81-9a5b-ae8e9218bf8e/
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Scleropages&speciesname=leichardti ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Scleropages-leichardti.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Scleropages-leichardti.html ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Scleropages-leichardti.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Scleropages leichardti Günther , 1864

Southern saratoga Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Scleropages leichardti (Southern saratoga) Scleropages leichardti
Picture by Poole, S.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes (Bony tongues) > Osteoglossidae (Arowanas)
Etymology: Scleropages: Greek, skleros = hard + Greek, page, -es = knot (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Günther .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; pelagic.   Tropical; 24°C - 40°C (Ref. 40276 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Oceania: Fitzroy River system of central-eastern Queensland, Australia. Introduced to a few other systems in southeastern Queensland. Protected in Indonesia, where it does not occur, probably as a misidentification of Scleropages jardinii (Ref. 12217 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894 ); common length : 55.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Live in still waters and slow-flowing sections of streams. They are usually seen near the surface or near shore among aquatic vegetation (Ref. 39857 , 44894 ). Territorial and aggressive towards other fishes, particularly conspecifics. Scratches and wounds resulting from fighting arre frequently exhibited by adults captured in the wild (Ref. 44894 ). Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, fishes, frogs and crayfish. Mouthbrooders (Ref. 39857 , 44894 ). Breeding occurs prior to the wet season at temperatures between 20°C and 23°C. A renowned angling species (Ref. 44894 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

"Spawning is by direct pairing. For several days prior to the estimated egg-laying time, the pairs were in continuous close company, swimming near the surface. Courting activities include close following, intermittent angled swimming (head down), vent nudging and lifting by the male. Individual males are capable of participating in at least two spawnings per season. A male will repair with a new available female within several weeks of an initial mating. Females carrying unhatched eggs or larvae in the mouth are distinguished by a conspicuous white chin during the incubation period. Incubating females spend more time at the surface, exhibit no aggression to other non-carrying individuals and show no interest in food. Occasionally two incubating females will briefly act aggressively towards each other. During the latter stages of incubation the females concerned continually circle and inspect shallow shore areas. Temporary release and recall of developing larvae occurs during daylight hours. The female comes into the littoral shallows, releases the full brood and continues swimming slowly parallel to the bank. Larvae maintain station around the head of the adult with individuals making brief excursions to the pond edge. The released juveniles are observed closely by the female. A sudden kinking movement of her body is followed by the rapid return of young to her mouth" (Ref. 39857 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Allen, G.R. , 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Lower Risk: near threatened (LR/nt)  ; Date assessed: 01 August 1996

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5781   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00140 - 0.00941), b=3.12 (2.90 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.61 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fec < 100). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .

Entered by Torres, Armi G. Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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