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Common name (e.g. trout)
Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) >
(Skates and rays) >
(Skates) > Rajinae
Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref.
. More on author:
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 400 m (Ref.
Northeast Atlantic: known only from the western Mediterranean, more common along the African coasts.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
Found mainly on soft bottoms (Ref.
). Feed mainly on crustaceans and bony fishes depending on the sex, size and also partly with the season (Ref.
). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref.
). About 20-62 eggs are laid by an individual in a year (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref.
). Ripe females occurring mostly in the winter and deposit 20 to 62 egg-cases per year depending on size (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace. Y oung may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn
, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
Least Concern (LC)
; Date assessed:
17 December 2014
Threat to humans
Stamps, Coins Misc.
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Websites from users
Catalog of Fishes
) | GloBI |
| IGFA World Record |
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
| Reef Life Survey |
Tree of Life
) | World Records Freshwater Fishing |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 13.1 - 15.1, mean 14 (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00158 (0.00089 - 0.00284), b=3.29 (3.14 - 3.44), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=20).
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Agustin, Liza Q.
Luna, Susan M.
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