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Mediterranean starry ray
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Common name (e.g. trout)
Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) >
(Skates and rays) >
(Skates) > Rajinae
Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 343 m (Ref.
), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref.
). Subtropical; 46°N - 30°N, 10°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: endemic to the Mediterranean but may spread to the Strait of Gibraltar, northern Morocco and possibly south to Mauritania.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
Inhabit inshore waters (Ref.
). Depth range to 170 m (Ref.
), and from 333-343 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref.
). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals (Ref.
). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref.
). Egg capsules are 4.5 cm long and 3.0 cm wide (Ref.
). Minimum depth range (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref.
). Spawning peak in summer to early autumn with 30 to more than 100 egg-cases per year depending on the size of the female (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn
, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
Near Threatened (NT)
; Date assessed:
16 September 2014
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
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IGFA World Record
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
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Tree of Life
) | World Records Freshwater Fishing |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 13.3 - 15.7, mean 14.3 (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00251 (0.00152 - 0.00416), b=3.25 (3.11 - 3.39), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Binohlan, Crispina B.
David, Elizabeth B.
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