|California Fungi—Pluteus cervinus
(Photo: © Michael Wood)
Der Führer in die Pilz. 99. 1871.
Cap 5-13 cm broad, convex, nearly plane in age, umbonate; dark brown to grey-brown, lighter in age; smooth to faintly fibrillose, moist; flesh soft, white; odor of radish.
Gills free, close, white, becoming pinkish to flesh-colored at maturity.
Stipe 5-12 cm tall, 0.7-1.7 cm thick, equal to enlarged at base; white to pallid, sometimes with dark fibrils; veil absent.
Spores 5.0-7.5 x 4-6 µm, smooth, elliptical. Spore print salmon-pink.
Solitary to scattered on hardwood and conifer logs, occasionally from buried wood, in sawdust piles or wood chips; fruiting from after the first fall rains through mid-winter.
Edible, but taste and texture are mediocre.
gets its common name, Deer Mushroom, from its dull brown color which blends well with the logs on which it typically fruits. It is recognized by a brown, smooth to faintly fibrillose, moist cap, free, white gills that turn pinkish at maturity, the lack of a ring, and a lignicolous habit. Other
species that could be confused with the Deer Mushroom include
is a more compact, stout mushroom with a nearly black, wrinkled cap while
, as its latin name suggests, can be recognized by its dark gill edges. Some
species resemble Pluteus cervinus in size and spore color, but all have attached gills and are terrestrial, not lignicolous. A related genus,
is distinguished by a volva.
(1986). Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA. 959 p.
Banerjee, P. & Sundberg, W.J.
(1995). The Genus
(Pluteaceae, Agaricales) in the Midwestern United States. Mycotaxon 53: 189-246.
Bas, C., Kyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E. & Vellinga, E.C.
(1990). Flora Agaricina Neerlandica -- Critical monographs on the families of agarics and boleti occuring in the Netherlands. Volume 2. Pluteaceae, Tricholomataceae. A. A. Balkema: Rotterdam, Netherlands. 137 p.
Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F.
(1995). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 4: Agarics (2nd Part). Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 368 p.
Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A.
(2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
(1974). Fungi That Decay Ponderosa Pine. University of Arizona Press: Tuscon, AZ. 197 p.
Lindsey, J.P. & Gilbertson, R.L.
(1978). Basidiomycetes that Decay Aspen in North America. J. Cramer: Vaduz. 406 p.
(1986). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti. Vol 4. Pluteaceae:
. Royal Botanic Garden: Edinburgh, Scotland. 99 p.
(1956). Contributions Towards a Monograph of the Genus
. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 39(2): 145-232.
(1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
Other Descriptions and Photos
(D & CP)
(D & CP)
Arora (1986): p. 255 (D), p. 256 (P)
Arora (1991): p. 38 (D & CP)
Fischer & Bessette: p. 77 (D & CP)
Jordan: p. 201 (D & CP)
Lincoff: p. 675 (D), plates 231, 232 (CP)
: p. 119 (D & CP)
Miller: sp. 165 (D & CP)
Phillips: p. 138 (CP), p. 139 (D)
Smith & Weber: sp. 167 (D & CP)
(D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)
The Fungi of California
Copyright © 1996-2020 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens