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Pholis gunnellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
ROCK GUNNEL
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Pholidae   Pholis


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Pholis gunnellus (Linnaeus , 1758)

Rock gunnel Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Pholis gunnellus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Pholis gunnellus (Rock gunnel) Pholis gunnellus
Picture by Noren, M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pholidae (Gunnels)
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 48978 ), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 35388 ).   Polar; 72°N - 43°N, 76°W - 45°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4693 ); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 72462 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Ribbon - shaped body with 9 - 13 eye spots along the base of the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in shallow waters (seashore, tide pools), but descends (especially in winter) to 100 m or more. May remain out of water under rocks or seaweeds (Ref. 31184 ). Feeds on small crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks and fish eggs. The eggs are laid on the sea bed in a large clump, which is closely guarded until hatched (Ref. 9900 ). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184 ). Spawning occur in November - January . Female lays 80-200 eggs in a large ball under a stone or in an empty bivalve shell (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Male and female coil around the egg ball (Ref. 58332 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Makushok, V.M. , 1986. Pholididae. p. 1124-1125. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4693 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 4.3 - 11.9, mean 9.5 (based on 692 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00195 (0.00086 - 0.00441), b=3.17 (2.97 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.46 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-3; K=0.18-0.29; tmax=12). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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