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Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.) Quél.
Life   Fungi   Basidiomycota   Bolbitiaceae   Panaeolus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

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Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolus papilionaceus var papilionaceus

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California Fungi—Panaeolus papilionaceus Panaeolus papilionaceus © Fred Stevens -- Click for Larger Image
(Photo: © Fred Stevens)

Panaeolus papilionaceus (Fries) Quélet
Champ. Jura. Vosg. 1: 151. 1872.

Common Name: none

Synonyms: Panaeolus campanulatus , Panaeolus retirugis , Panaeolus sphinctrinus

  • Pileus

    Cap 1.5-4.0 cm broad, obtusely conic, becoming bell-shaped; margin at first slightly incurved, then decurved, decorated with white veil fragments, the latter sometimes obscure in age; surface smooth, dry, subviscid in moist weather, olive-brown to grey-brown, occasionally yellowish-brown to reddish-brown at the disc; flesh greyish to buff-brown, thin; odor mild.

  • Lamellae

    Gills adnate to adnexed, sometimes seceding, close, broad, pale grey, the faces mottled darker from maturing spores, edges pallid; in age blackish overall.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 6-12 cm long, 2-4 mm thick, slender, fragile, hollow, more or less equal but sometimes slightly enlarged at the apex and base; surface striate above, otherwise pruinose (at least when young), grey-brown, darker where handled; partial veil fibrillose-membranous, white, evanescent, leaving fragments on the pileal margin.

  • Spores

    Spores 12-17 x 7-10 µm, elliptical, smooth, with an apical pore; spore print black.

  • Habitat

    Fruiting singly or in small groups on cow/horse manure and in pastures; fruiting spring and fall.

  • Edibility

    Not recommended; probably not toxic, but related species may be mildly hallucinogenic.

  • Comments

    Panaeolus papilionaceus is characterized by a grey-brown, smooth bell-shaped cap with appendiculate margin, dark mottled gills with whitish edges, a slender, fragile stipe and a habit of growing on horse/cow dung or in herbivore-enriched pastures. Until recently, this species was a part of a confusing group mushrooms that included Panaeolus campanulatus , P. sphrinctrinus and P. retirugis . However, work by Gerhardt (1996) indicates the latter are conspecific, P. papilionaceus being the oldest valid name. Another dung inhabiting Panaeolus that may be encountered in our area is P. semiovatus a relatively large species which has a smooth, pale colored cap and an annulus.

  • References

    Ammirati, J.F., Traquair, J.A. & Horgen, P.A. (1985). Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN. 396 p.
    Bougher, N.L. & Syme, K. (1998). Fungi of Southern Australia. University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands, Australia. 391 p.
    Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. (1995). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 4: Agarics (2nd Part). Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 368 p.
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A. (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Doveri, F. (2004). Fungi Fimicoli Italici. Associazione Micologica Bresadola: Trento, Italy. 1104 p.
    Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Opera Bot. 147: 1-52.
    Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. ed. (2008). Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. 965 p.
    Smith, A.H. (1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
    Watling, Roy & Gregory, Norma M. (1987). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti. Vol 5. Strophariaceae & Coprinaceae p.p.: Hypholoma , Melanotus , Psilocybe , Stropharia , Lacymaria , & Panaeolus . Royal Botanic Garden: Edinburgh, Scotland. 121 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos
  • Main Photo
    • Boleslaw Kuznik : Panaeolus papilionaceus (CP)
    • Boleslaw Kuznik : Panaeolus papilionaceus (CP)
    • R. A. Chilton: Panaeolus sphinctrinus (CP)
    • Pilze, Pilze, Pilze: Panaeolus campanulatus (CP)
    • Mushroom Observer: Panaeolus papilionaceus (CP)
    • Arora (1986): p. 356 (D & P) [as Panaeolus campanulatus ]
    • Arora (1991): p. 128 (D & CP) [as Panaeolus campanulatus ]
    • Jordan: p. 238 (D & CP)
    • Lincoff: p. 602 (D), plate 87 (CP) [as Panaeolus campanulatus ]
    • McKenny et al. : p. 162 (D & CP) [as Panaeolus campanulatus ]
    • Miller: p. 193 (D) [as Panaeolus campanulatus ]
    • Phillips: p. 205 (D & CP) [as Panaeolus retirugis ]
    • Stamets: p. 78 (D), p. 79 (CP)

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

The Fungi of California
Copyright © 1997-2017 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens
A MykoWeb Page

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Fungi  
 Phylum Basidiomycota  
 Class Basidiomycetes  
 Order Agaricales  
 Family Psathyrellaceae  
 Genus Panaeolus  
  Panaeolus papilionaceus    (Bull.:Fr.) Quèl. 
Provider: Chou, Wen-Neng 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Agaricus campanulatus Agaricus papilionaceus Galerula campanulata Panaeolus papilionaceus papilionaceus   details
Citation: 張東柱等:大自然的魔法師-臺灣大型真菌: 120, 2001
Name Code: 143132
  
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Panaeolus+papilionaceus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Fungi ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Panaeolus+papilionaceus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Fungi

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Number of matches : 14
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Panaeolus papilionaceus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Fungi") ORDER BY taxon

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Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0041 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0045 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0046 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0044 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0047 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0040 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0051 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0042 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0038 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0039 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0043 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0048 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 8253 3202 2364 0052 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Panaeolus papilionaceus
Panaeolus papilionaceus
ID: 0000 0000 0210 2591 [detail]
© 2010 George W. Hartwell

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