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Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers. ) Maire
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Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

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Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii

Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
Panaeolina foenisecii
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Panaeolina foenisecii
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California Fungi—Paneolina foenisecii Paneolina foenisecii
(Photo: © Fred Stevens)

Paneolina foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Maire
Treb. Mus. Ciènc. nat. Barcelona, sér. bot. 15(2): 109. 1933.

Common Name: haymaker's mushroom

Synonyms: Paneolus foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) Kühner; Psathyrella foenisecii (Pers.:Fr.) A.H. Sm.

  • Pileus

    Cap 1.5-3.0 cm broad, conic, becoming convex, broadly so at maturity; surface smooth to faintly wrinkled, cracking in dry weather, hygrophanous, dull brown fading to light greyish-brown, the margin often with a dark band; flesh thin, light brown; odor and taste mild.

  • Lamellae

    Gills broad, adnate to seceding, close, light brown at first, dark brown in age, the edges lighter, mottled at maturity.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 3-7 cm tall, 2-3 mm thick, hollow, fragile, equal to tapering downward; surface pallid, darker at the base, indistinctly longitudinally striate; veil absent.

  • Spores

    Spores 12-14 x 6-7.5 µm, elliptical, minutely warted, with an apical pore; spore print dark-brown to purple-brown.

  • Habitat

    Scattered to gregarious in grassy areas, e.g. lawns, golf courses and playing fields; fruiting from late spring to early fall.

  • Edibility

    Doubtful; too small and unsubstantial to be of culinary value; said to contain insignificant amounts of the hallucinogenic compounds psilocin and psilocybin.

  • Comments

    Although common in grass during the warmer months of the year, Paneolina foenisecii is easily overlooked due to its diminutive size and drab coloration. It often fruits with other lawn species like Marasmius oreades , Leucoagaricus naucinus , Agaricus californicus , A. campestris and A. arvensis . Paneolina foenisecii is distinguished by a hygrophanous, brown cap, gills which are mottled at maturity, a fragile, hollow stipe, and dark-brown to purple-brown spores. It is most likely to be confused with Psathyrella gracilis . This species, actually a species complex, is similar in size, cap color, spore color and even has a fragile, hollow stipe. It however lacks mottled gills and grows typically in wood chips rather than in grass.

  • References

    Ammirati, J.F., Traquair, J.A. & Horgen, P.A. (1985). Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN. 396 p.
    Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. (1995). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 4: Agarics (2nd Part). Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 368 p.
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A. (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. ed. (2008). Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. 965 p.
    Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J. ed. (2012). Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid and gastroid genera. Vol. 2. 572 p.
    Smith, A.H.
    (1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
    Smith, A.H. (1972). The North American Species of Psathyrella (Mem. NY. Bot. Gard.: 24). New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, NY. 521 p.
    Watling, Roy & Gregory, Norma M. (1987). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti. Vol 5. Strophariaceae & Coprinaceae p.p.: Hypholoma , Melanotus , Psilocybe , Stropharia , Lacymaria , & Panaeolus . Royal Botanic Garden: Edinburgh, Scotland. 121 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos Main Photo
    • Mushroom Observer: Panaeolina foenisecii (CP)
    • Wikipedia: Panaeolus foenisecii (D & CP)
    • George Barron's Fungi of Canada (East): Paneolina foenisecii (D & CP)
    • Pilze, Pilze, Pilze: Paneolina foenisecii (CP)fig. 108 (CP)
    • Arora (1986): p. 360 (D & P) [as Paneolus foenisecii ]
    • Benjamin: p. 382 (D), plate 13 (CP) [as Paneolus foenisecii ]
    • Jordan: p. 238 (D & CP) [as Paneolus foenisecii ]
    • McKenny et al. : p. 161 (D & CP)
    • Miller: sp. 192 (D & CP) [as Paneolus foenisecii ]
    • Smith & Weber: sp. 225 (D & CP) [as Psathyrella foenisecii ]
    • Stamets: p. 77 (D & CP) [as Paneolus foenisecii ]

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

The Fungi of California
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