1. 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993)
2. Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes.. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p.
3. Knapp, L. W. 1999. Family Platycephalidae. In: Carpenter and Niem (ed). Species identification guide for fisheries purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. v. 4: iii-v
Dorsal fin with I-VIII spines and 11-12 soft rays; anal fin with 11-12 soft rays; pectoral fin with 20-22 soft rays; lateral line scales 35-42; gill rakers 1+3-5. Side of head unicarinate. A short, branched supra ocular cirrus present. Infraorbital ridge entirely serrated over eye. Preopercular spines 3-5, not noticeably slanting towards mid-line; no smooth notch under eye. Antorbital margin with 3 antrorse spines. Lower side of head unicarinate. Lateral line scales frequently 37 or 38, anterior 7 to 27 scales bearing a small spine or ridge. Iris lappet bearing numerous short branches with bifurcate tips. Upper surface of eye with a short, branched cirrus.
Inhabit demersal marine environment; depth range -200m; occurs inshore; taken by trawling over sand and mud bottoms to 250 m. Nocturnal, buried in the substrate during the day.
Western Pacific: southern Japan, Taiwan, South China Sea, Philippines, northwest shelf of Australia through Timor and Arafura seas.