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Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810)
SANDTIGER SHARK
Bumpytail Ragged-tooth; Herbst's Nurse Shark; Herbsts Nurse Shark; Sand Tiger Shark; Smalltooth Sand Tiger; Smalltooth Sandtiger; Carcharias ferox Risso, 1810; Carcharias herbsti Whitley, 1950; Odontaspis herbsti Whitley, 1950; Squalus ferox Risso, 1810; Ragged-tooth Shark

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Odontaspididae   Odontaspis

Odontaspis ferox
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Odontaspis ferox

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Odontaspis ferox
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Odontaspis ferox
Odontaspis ferox
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Odontaspis ferox
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Overview
Main identification features A large shark with a robust body; head with a long, bulbously conical snout; eyes moderately large, without nictitating eyelids; mouth relatively long, extending behind eyes; 5 gill slits, all before pectoral; teeth moderately large with prominent dagger-like middle point and 2-3 small points on either side; second dorsal fin only slightly smaller than first dorsal and situated well in front of anal fin; tail fin asymmetrical with distinct notch at front top of base, and strong ventral lobe.

Medium grey on back, light grey below; young with black tips on dorsal fins.

Size: reaches 410 cm.

Habitat: rocky shores.

Depth: 10-530 m.

Circumglobal in mainly subtropical waters; in the eastern Pacific it is known from Southern California to the western Gulf of California; recently discovered at Malpelo, where it may have a resident population.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); Antitropical (North and South temperate).
Depth Range Max: 530 m.
Depth Range Min: 10 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=4; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-82; Latitudinal range=29; Longitudinal range=36.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bathydemersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + East (not West) Atlantic; All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Data deficient; Listed.
Length Max: 410 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California province, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(1):1-249.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Risso, A., 1810., Ichthyologie de Nice, ou histoire naturelle des poissons du département des Alpes Maritimes. F. Schoell, Paris., Ichthyol. Nice, :1-388.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/05caf060-30d9-4cdd-a4d5-0576f46d5696 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/05caf060-30d9-4cdd-a4d5-0576f46d5696
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » LAMNIFORMES (Order) » ODONTASPIDIDAE (Family) » Odontaspis Agassiz, 1838 (Genus) » Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810)

Species Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810)

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CAAB : 37008003 Taxon concept Odontaspis_ferox last modified 2014-03-13 14:41:28.159

Species Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810)

Sandtiger Shark , Bumpytail Ragged-tooth, Herbst's Nurse Shark, Herbsts Nurse Shark, Sand Tiger Shark, Smalltooth Sand Tiger, Smalltooth Sandtiger

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Generic Combinations

 

Introduction

The species is a Protected Species in New South Wales.

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Sydney, NSW to Gabo Island, VIC (37º34´S), western VIC and northwestern WA; tropical, temperate, circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38)

Ecological Descriptors

Benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, marine.

Extra Ecological Information

13-880 m

 

General References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. [219]

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes) . Rome : FAO, FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1 Vol. 2 269 pp. [64]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [176]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Odontaspididae. pp. 1264-1267 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1267]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [146]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [160]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [29]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [3] (9, as Carcharias herbsti )

White, W. 2008. Shark Families Heterodontidae to Pristiophoridae. pp. 32-100 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast . Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [35]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (86, as Odontaspis herbsti )

 

Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. [219] (FAO) (Smalltooth Sand Tiger)

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes) . Rome : FAO, FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1 Vol. 2 269 pp. [64] (Herbsts Nurse Shark, Sand Tiger Shark, Smalltooth Sandtiger)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [146] (Bumpytail Ragged-tooth)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [3] (Herbst's Nurse Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Sandtiger Shark )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Odontaspis&speciesname=ferox ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Odontaspis&speciesname=ferox
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Odontaspis&speciesname=ferox ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Odontaspis-ferox.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Odontaspis ferox (Risso , 1810)

Smalltooth sand tiger Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Google image Image of Odontaspis ferox (Smalltooth sand tiger) Odontaspis ferox
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Odontaspididae (Sand tigers)
Etymology: Odontaspis: Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, aspis, -idos = shield (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Risso .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 2000 m (Ref. 26346 ), usually 13 - 880 m (Ref. 89422 ).   Deep-water; 50°N - 49°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54681 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Gascony, Madeira, Morocco, Mediterranean; also Cape Verde (Ref. 27000 ). Western Atlantic: Yucatan Shelf, Mexico (Ref. 9939 ), Brazil (Ref. 53443 ). Indo-West Pacific: off South Africa and Maldives, Madagascar, southern Japan, Australia, and New Zealand (Ref. 13568 ). Expected to occur in the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 13568 ). Central Pacific: off Hawaii (Ref. 13568 ). Eastern Pacific: off southern California, USA and Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 13568 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - 360 cm
Max length : 450 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89422 ); max. published weight: 289.0 kg (Ref. 9939 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A shark with a short, pointed snout, small eyes, protruding spike-like teeth, and small, equal-sized dorsal and anal fins; first dorsal closer to pectoral than to pelvic fins (Ref. 5578 ). Grey above, paler below (Ref. 6586 ); may have red spots on sides (Ref. 5578 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on or near the bottom of the continental and insular shelves and upper slopes (Ref. 6871 ); sometimes in shallow water (Ref. 6871 ). Tagging showed the species dives up to 2,000 m at Malpelo Island, Colombia (S.Bessudo, pers.comm. 06/09). Feeds on small bony fishes, squids, and crustaceans (Ref. 13568 ). Uses its long body cavity and large, oily liver to regulate buoyancy. Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 50449 ). Not implicated in attacks on people (Ref. 247 ). Flesh utilized for human consumption and liver for its high squalene content (Ref. 247 ); utilization of fins, jaws and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed (Ref. 50449 ). Two young born at 105 cm or larger (Ref. 26346 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd); Date assessed: 14 February 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 247 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(fisheries: species profile ; publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Ecology
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Synonyms
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Predators
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Fecundity
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Age/Size
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Length-weight
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Speed
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Tools

E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 12.2 - 23.9, mean 17.3 (based on 810 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.8125   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.56 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
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