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Myliobatis australis Macleay, 1881
SOUTHERN EAGLE RAY
Bull Ray; Bull-ray; Bullray; Common Eagle Ray; Cowfish; Cowray; Fly-aways; Mill Ray; Millray; Whip Ray; Whiptail Ray; Aetobatus australis Macleay, 1881; Holorhinus australis Macleay, 1881; Australian Bull Ray

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Myliobatis


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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/8321fa08-83f2-4abe-affe-80a59e6ca496 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/8321fa08-83f2-4abe-affe-80a59e6ca496
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Myliobatis&speciesname=australis ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Myliobatis&speciesname=australis
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Myliobatis&speciesname=australis ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Myliobatis-australis.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Myliobatis australis Macleay , 1881

Australian bull ray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Myliobatis australis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Myliobatis australis (Australian bull ray) Myliobatis australis
Picture by Danna, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Macleay .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 85 m (Ref. 9862 ).   Subtropical; 27°S - 43°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia, from Western Australia to Queensland. Possibly occurring off New Zealand.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871 ); max. published weight: 56.5 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Commonly found off beaches and over sand flats in shallow water. Also found offshore down to 85 m (Ref. 9862 ). Feeds mainly on crabs and shellfish (Ref. 6871 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens , 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous




Human uses

Gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 15 - 20.1, mean 17.4 (based on 236 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.6   ±0.55 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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