Mustelus henlei (Gill, 1863)
  Fish   Triakidae   Mustelus

Mustelus henlei
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Mustelus henlei

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Mustelus henlei
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Mustelus henlei

Mustelus henlei
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Mustelus henlei

Mustelus henlei Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Mustelus henlei
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Main identification features
  • lip folds: upper greater than lowerspiracle smallnostrils short
  • 1st dorsal fin triangular
  • 1st dorsal fin and 2nd dorsal fin : rear fibrous, dark
  • teeth pointed
  • skin denticles: 3 pointed
  • c: no lower extension
Elongate, slender body; snout pointed, short; eyes horizontal ovals, with ventral nictitating membranes; width between eyes = 3.9-5.6% of total length; mouth angular, short; upper lip fold distinctly longer than lower lip fold; teeth high, triangular, pointed; 5 gill slits, last 2 over pectoral fin base; 2 large dorsal fins, second slightly smaller than first; first dorsal broadly triangular, nearer pelvic than pectoral; distance between dorsal fins = 19-24% of total length; anal fin smaller than and with origin under middle of second dorsal; dorsal fins, and sometimes anal and tail, with fibrous rear edges; tail strongly asymmetrical,lower tail lobe not expanded, not with concave rear edge; skin denticles on flank with 3 points, canal along entire center.

Copper brown above, white below; fibrous rear edges to dorsal, anal and tail fins dark.

Size: 100 cm.

Habitat: continental shelf, demersal, especially enclosed bays and shallow muddy bottoms.

Depth: 0-281 m.

Temperate eastern Pacific; California to Baja and the Gulf of California; southern Colombia to Peru.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ); Antitropical (North and South temperate).
Depth Range Max: 281 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic worms; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sponges/seasquirts/bryozoa.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=40; Southern limit=-7; Western limit=-124; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=47; Longitudinal range=46.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 100 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; Continent only; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gill, T.N., 1863., On the classification of the families and genera of the Squali of California., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 14:483-501.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Pérez Jiménez, J.C., Sosa Nishizaki, O., Castillo Geniz, J.L., 2005., A new Eastern North Pacific smoothhound shark (Genus Mustelus, Family Triakidae) from the Gulf of California., Copeia, 2005:834-845.
  • Pérez-Mellado, J., Findley, LL. F., 1985., Evaluación de la ictiofauna acompañante del camarón capturado en las costas de Sonora y norte de Sinaloa, México. In Yáñez-Arancibia, A. (Ed.) Recursos pesqueros potenciales de México: La pesca acompañante del camarón., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Cap. 5:201-254.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Mustelus henlei (Gill , 1863)

Brown smooth-hound Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Google image Image of Mustelus henlei (Brown smooth-hound) Mustelus henlei
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Triakidae (Houndsharks) > Triakinae
Etymology: Mustelus: Latin, mustela, -ae = weasel (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Gill .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 281 m (Ref. 96339 ).   Subtropical; 48°N - 18°S, 126°W - 72°W (Ref. 55310 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to the Gulf of California; Ecuador and Peru.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 51 - 63 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31395 ); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 6098 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found on the continental shelves from the intertidal region to at least 200 m depth. They feed on crabs, ghost shrimps, mantis shrimps, isopods, squids, polychaete worms, tunicates and small bony fishes. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 3 to 5 young in a litter. Size at birth between 19 and 21 cm. Readily kept in captivity. Utilized for human consumption. Marketed fresh, smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous with a yolk-sac placenta; with 3 to 5 young in a litter. Size at birth ranges from 19-21 cm (Ref. 244 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Polyandry is a common life history strategy among the elasmobranchs and for M. henlei , the occurrence and frequency of polyandric behavior may vary depending on location and density of breeding individuals (Ref. 95902 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 03 December 2014

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

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Food items
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Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 9.7 - 23.5, mean 15.4 (based on 100 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00119 - 0.00483), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.6   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.127; K=0.26; tm=2-6; tmax=15; Fec=3). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low .

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