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Manta birostris (Walbaum, 1792)
AUSTRALIAN DEVILRAY
Manta Ray; Chevron Manta; Devil Ray; Devilfish; Giant Manta; Munguna; Oceanic Manta; Pacific Manta Ray; Pelagic Manta; Prince Alfreds Ray; Cephalopterus manta Bancroft, 1829; Raja birostris Walbum, 1792

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Manta

Manta birostris
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Manta birostris

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Manta birostris
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Manta birostris
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Overview
Main identification features
  • head wide, with large paddles
  • mouth at front
Head projecting with a pari of paddle-like extensions; large triangular "wings" (pectoral fin flaps); tail long and whip-like; disc above and below covered with small denticles; mouth at front of head, relatively wide; head relatively wide; teeth in lower jaw only; tail without spines .

Dark grey to black above, sometimes with white patches on shoulders; white on underside.

Size: to at least 8 m disc width and over two tons in weight.

Habitat: inshore and offshore pelagic.

Depth: 0-30 m.

Circumtropical; throughout our region except the northern Gulf of California.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: zooplankton; Pelagic crustacea; bony fishes; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=35; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-120; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=39; Longitudinal range=42.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Water column; Estuary.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Data deficient; Listed.
Length Max: 800 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero , A. and Franke, R., 1995., Nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacifico Colombiano), II. Rayas y Descripcion de una Nueva Especie., Bibl. J. J. Triana, 11:9-21.
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walbaum, J. J., 1792., Petri Artedi Sueci Genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae, pars iii., Artedi Piscium, (Pt. 3):1-723.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/a0a0a1b0-ea9c-4b88-886c-bb6fb5eb6e6a/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/a0a0a1b0-ea9c-4b88-886c-bb6fb5eb6e6a/
&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 404 Not Found https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/a0a0a1b0-ea9c-4b88-886c-bb6fb5eb6e6a/

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Myliobatiformes  
 Family Myliobatidae  
 Genus Manta  
  Manta birostris    (Walbaum, 1792) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Brachioptilon hamiltoni Cephaloptera stelligera Cephalopterus manta Cephalopterus vampyrus Ceratoptera alfredi Ceratoptera ehrenbergi Ceratoptera ehrenbergii Ceratoptera johnii Manta americana Manta brevirostris Manta ehrenbergii details
Citation: 1. 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 2. Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p.
Character: Disc nearly twice as wide as long. Head broad, flat, truncate. Snout very broad. Rostral fins fins distinct from the pectorals, directed forward. Pectorals falciform, anterior margin convex, posterior concave. Eyes lateral. Mouth width 3 in disc length. Teeth minute rasp-like, on the lower jaw only, occupying the entire width of the jaw. Gill openings transverse. One dorsal fin,its origin a little forward of the bases of the pectorals. Ventrals small. Posterior margin rounded, not reaching to the ends of the pectorals. Tail longer than disc length. Specimen in formalin dark brown on the back. Under surface whitish. 
Habitat: Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths. Occurs singly or in loose aggregations. Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small a 
Distribution: Red Sea, Natal, South Africa, India, Malay Peninsula, East Indies, New South Wales, Melanesia, Polynesia, Hawaii, Taiwan. China. 
Name Code: 383165
      IUCN Red List:VU  A2abd+3bd+4abd      Marine     
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Manta+birostris&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Manta+birostris&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 3
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Manta birostris%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Manta birostris
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0008 0057 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Manta birostris
Manta birostris
Giant Pacific Manta Ray
ID: 0000 0000 1106 0333 [detail]
© 2006 Richard Lang

Manta birostris
Manta birostris
Giant Pacific Manta Ray
ID: 0000 0000 1106 0332 [detail]
© 2006 Richard Lang

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Manta&speciesname=birostris ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Manta-birostris.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Manta-birostris.html ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Manta-birostris.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Mobula birostris (Walbaum , 1792)

Giant manta Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Mobula birostris (Giant manta) Mobula birostris
Picture by Marshall, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Mobulinae
  More on author: Walbaum .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 120 m (Ref. 58302 ).   Subtropical; 42°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55255 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate: in the Northern Hemisphere, as far north as southern California and Rhode Island on the United States west and east coasts, Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Japan, the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the Azores Islands; in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as Peru, Uruguay, South Africa and New Zealand. In some locations, including Mozambique, it is sympatric with Manta alfredi .

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 400.0 , range 380 - 460 cm
Max length : 910 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048 ); common length : 450 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 3176 ); max. published weight: 3.0 t (Ref. 5377 ); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 31742 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

A giant ray having an extremely broad head with long head fins, and a terminal mouth; upper surface of disc covered with denticles, and tail usually without a spine (Ref. 5578 ). Blackish above, sometimes with white shoulder patches; white below, with grey edging on disc (Ref. 5578 ). Tail whiplike but short (Ref. 7251 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water (Ref. 12951 ). Reported along productive coastlines with regular upwelling, oceanic island groups and offshore pinnacles and seamounts (Ref. 82755 ). Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths (Ref. 9911 ). Pelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Occurs singly or in loose aggregations (Ref. 12951 ). Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small and moderate-sized fishes as well (Ref. 9911 ). Leaps out the water mainly in spring and autumn, possibly as part of mating behavior (Ref. 31742 ). Easily approached (Ref. 9911 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6902 ). Commonly caught by tuna gillnet and harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (very high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Liver yields oil and skin used as abrasive (Ref. 6902 ). World's largest ray (Ref. 37816 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ). Bears up to 2 young (Ref. 5578 ); born at 122-127 cm WD (Ref.58048). A female of 550 cm width and weighing 1050 kg was collected in the Galapagos in June and was carrying a well-developed embryo of 12.7 kg (Ref. 28023 ). Size at partuition might be from 1.1 to 1.3 m and from 9.1 to 1.14 kg (Ref. 31742 ). Yano et al (1999) (Ref. 35892 ) describe the mating behavior of manta rays based on observations off Ogasawara Islands, Japan, in the following sequence: 1) 'chasing', the male rapidly follows behind the tail of the female and attacks her several times; 2) 'nipping', the male nips the tip of the pectoral fin of the female and then moves to the ventral surface of the female; 3) 'copulating', the male inserts a clasper into the cloacaof the female and copulates abdomen-to-abdomen, up to 123 seconds; 4) 'post-copulating'; 5) 'separating'. (Ref. 49562 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens , 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2abd+3bd+4abd); Date assessed: 01 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Appendix I & II: Endangered migratory species conserved through agreements

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 9911 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 22.8 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 3220 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.50 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=6; tmax>20; Fec=1). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

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