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Leucobryum glaucum (Hedwig) ngstrm
Dicranum glaucum

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Leucobryum glaucum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Leucobryum glaucum

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Leucobryum glaucum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Leucobryum glaucum

Leucobryum glaucum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Leucobryum glaucum

Leucobryum glaucum, Cushion Moss
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 1
Leucobryum glaucum, Cushion Moss
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Following modified from Image, Leucobryum glaucum, Illinois Wild Flower
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Pincushion Moss
Leucobryum glaucum
White Moss family (Leucobryaceae)
Description: This perennial evergreen moss has an acrocarpous growth habit, forming dense cushions of plants from " (12 mm.) to 2' (60 cm.) across or more. These cushions have a low dome shape and they are " (12 mm.) to 5" (12.5 cm.) tall or more. The glaucous foliage of this moss varies in color from pale grayish green to medium green. The stems are 1-12 cm. long, pale green (turning brown with age), glaucous, and terete; sometimes they fork dichotomously. The leaves occur in overlapping pseudowhorls along these stems, although they turn brown and wither away below. The leaves are ascending and they clasp the stems at their bases. Individual leaves are 4-9 mm. long, lanceolate in shape, and entire (toothless) along their margins; they curve upward along both sides of their broad midribs, becoming curled and semi-tubular in shape along the outer two-thirds of their length. Along the lower one-third of their length, the leaves are wider and they have more conspicuous translucent margins. In contrast to the single-celled depth of the leaves for most mosses, the leaves of this moss are several cells thick (typically 4-6 cells deep). The outer cells (both above and below) are translucent-white, containing air bubbles when they are dry and water when they are moist. The middle cells are green because they contain chlorophyll. Leaf cells are square-shaped to rectangular-shaped (mostly the latter). Because this moss is dioecious, male reproductive organs and female reproductive organs are located on separate plants. The male plants often occur above the female plants in a dwarfed form. On uncommon occasions, fertile female plants produce solitary sporophytes. Each sporophyte consists of a spore-bearing capsule on a slender stalk (seta). The setae of this moss are typically 8-18 mm. long, reddish, and more or less erect. The capsule bodies have a curved ellipsoid-cylindrical shape, tapering at their bases; they are 1.5–2 mm. in length and red to reddish brown at maturity. These capsule bodies have lids (opercula) that are 1.5–2 mm. in length and long-beaked in shape. Smooth membranous hoods cover both the capsule bodies and their lids, although the hoods later break apart and fall to the ground. After the lids fall off the capsule bodies, a ring of 16 teeth is revealed.



The tiny spores are released to the wind; this typically occurs during autumn or early winter. Individual spores are 13-18 micrometers across, globoid in shape, and either smooth or finely warty. Fibrous rhizoids are produced at the base of each plant in order to anchor it to the underlying substrate. This moss is capable of reproducing asexually when its dry leaves are broken off as a result of disturbance. With the return of moisture, such leaves are capable of forming their own fibrous rhizoids, starting the development of new clonal plants. When a cushion of this moss is overturned from some kind of disturbance, the leaves lying against the ground are able to develop new fibrous rhizoids to anchor the entire cushion to the ground.

Cultivation: The preference is medium shade to partial sun, moist to dry-mesic conditions, and an acidic soil containing humus, clay, sand, gravel, or rocky material. This moss is able to tolerate drier conditions than most mosses. At favorable sites, it can be long-lived for a moss, forming sizable cushions of plants.

Range & Habitat: The native Pincushion Moss ( Leucobryum glaucum ) is occasional in Illinois, occurring in most areas of the state, although it has not been reported from its NW and SW sections (see Distribution Map ). This moss is widely distributed in eastern North America and Europe. In Illinois, habitats include the ground of rocky woodlands, shaded hillsides, wooded bluffs and ridges, well-rotted pine logs in sandy savannas, sandstone cliffs and ledges, sandstone walls along streams, cemetery grounds, lightly shaded ground in city parks, areas adjacent to large buildings, and clay banks along roadsides. Pincushion Moss is often found in upland habitats where oak trees are dominant, and it has a tendency to co-occur with such mosses as Dicranum scoparium (Windswept Broom Moss) and Polytrichastrum ohioense (Ohio Haircap Moss). While this moss usually occurs in high quality natural areas, it is occasionally seen in disturbed habitats.



Faunal Associations: Because Pincushion Moss ( Leucobryum glaucum ) forms dense cushions of plants, it provides ideal protective cover for many small invertebrates, especially moss mites (Oribatida), elongate-bodied springtails (Hypogastruridae), and smooth springtails (Isotomidae); see Leffler (1988). Some of these insects specialize in feeding on this and other mosses. However, Pincushion Moss contains one or more toxic substances that deter its consumption by some polyphagous insects, such as the larvae of the moth, Trichoplusia ni (Cabbage Looper). For this reason, it may be useful in the creation of a new insecticide (Haines & Renwick, 2009). Various vertebrate animals sometimes overturn cushions of this moss and move them around during their search for food; this includes birds (especially crows), chipmunks, and tree squirrels. This moss is adapted to such disruption because it is able to develop rhizoids from its leaves, enabling it to re-anchor itself to the ground or start new clonal plants (Glime, 2017). Another vertebrate animal, Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander), has been found hiding in cushions of this moss (Glime & Boelema, 2017).

Photographic Location: A rocky upland woodland above a sandstone ravine at the Portland Arch Nature Preserve in west-central Indiana, and along the slope of a sandstone ravine at the same park.

Comments: This is a very attractive moss that forms dense cushions of plants of variable size. Large cushions of plants, in particular, have an impressive and somewhat exotic appearance. Pincushion Moss ( Leucobryum glaucum ) is the most common species of its genus in Illinois. It can be confused with another species, White Moss ( Leucobryum albidum ), which has a similar appearance. This latter moss can be distinguished by the smaller size of its colonies (typically 2" across or less) and the smaller size of its leaves (typically 3-5 mm. long). The broad bases of its leaves extend to about one-half of their length, while the broad bases of the leaves of Pincushion Moss extend to be what one-third of their length. The leaves of White Moss are less thick (typically 3 cells deep) than those of Pincushion Moss (4-6 cells deep), making the latter moss more resistant to dessication.

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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LEGL19 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LEGL19
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LEGL19 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LEGL19
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LEGL19 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LEGL19
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Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Ångstr.
leucobryum moss

Image of Leucobryum glaucum

General Information
Symbol: LEGL19
Group: Moss
Family: Leucobryaceae
Duration:  
Growth Habit : Nonvascular
Native Status : NA   N
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

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©Michael Lüth. Provided by Michael Lüth . Lüth, M. 2004. Pictures of bryophytes from Europe [CD-ROM] . Published by the author. Usage Requirements .

©Michael Lüth. Provided by Michael Lüth . Lüth, M. 2004. Pictures of bryophytes from Europe [CD-ROM] . Published by the author. Usage Requirements .

©Michael Lüth. Provided by Michael Lüth . Lüth, M. 2004. Pictures of bryophytes from Europe [CD-ROM] . Published by the author. Usage Requirements .

©Michael Lüth. Provided by Michael Lüth . Lüth, M. 2004. Pictures of bryophytes from Europe [CD-ROM] . Published by the author. Usage Requirements .

©Michael Lüth. Provided by Michael Lüth . Lüth, M. 2004. Pictures of bryophytes from Europe [CD-ROM] . Published by the author. Usage Requirements .

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Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Division Bryophyta – Mosses
Subdivision Musci
Class Bryopsida – True mosses
Subclass Bryidae
Order Dicranales
Family Leucobryaceae
Genus Leucobryum Hampe – leucobryum moss
Species Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Ångstr. – leucobryum moss

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

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Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

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Integrated Taxonomic Information System (LEGL19)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 27 Page 30, 438 , 441, 442 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 27 | Leucobryaceae | Leucobryum

2. Leucobryum glaucum (Hedwig) Ångström in E. M. Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 1: 94. 1845.

Dicranum glaucum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 135. 1801

Plants in tall, compact cushions or turfs. Stems 1-12.5 cm (rarely shorter). Leaves 3-9 mm, limb concave to subtululose, erect or erect-spreading, sometimes falcate-secund, apex acute or apiculate, usually ± serrulate at the tip, spreading from oblong-obovate sheath, 1-2(-3) times the length of sheath; costa in transverse section near base showing lateral, thicker regions composed mostly of 2-3(-4) layers of enlarged leucocysts on both sides of the central layer of chlorocysts and a central, thinner region composed of 1 layer of smaller leucocysts adaxial to and 2 layers abaxial to the chlorocysts (or vice versa), occasionally with only 1 layer of leucocysts on both sides of the chlorocysts; lamina narrow, 5-11 cells wide. Specialized asexual reproduction by clusters of small caducous leaf-like gemmae at stem tip and by leaves with rhizoids at apex. Seta 8-18 mm, reddish. Capsule strongly inclined and curved when dry and empty, usually strumose, 1.5-2 mm, red to reddish brown; operculum 1.5-2 mm; peristome teeth dark red. Spores nearly smooth to minutely papillose, 13-18 µm.

Capsules mature Aug-Dec. Humus, soil, rotting logs and stumps, tree bases, and rock ledges, forests, bogs, and swamps; low to high elevations (0-1800 m); Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Eurasia; Atlantic Islands (Canary Islands, Madeira).

The collection from Alberta ( Drummond's Musci Americani 89 , TENN) is probably incorrectly labeled as to locality.

Large, tall cushions distinguish Leucobryum glaucum and under favorable circumstances some cushions may exceed 1 m in diameter. The separation of smaller, shorter plants from L. albidum is difficult. The use of the number of layers of leucocysts on both sides of the chlorocysts is highly variable and not a reliable distinguishing feature. The ratio of length of the sheath to the length of the limb provides the most consistent way to separate L. glaucum from L. albidum . Sporophytes are infrequently observed. Of 1933 collectons examined, 308 (16 percent) had sporophytes. Most of the plants with sporophytes were from collections located north of the Ohio River. Leucobryum antillarum Bescherelle var. antillarum has been reported from the Coastal Plain of the United States based upon plants that had only 1 layer of leucocysts on both sides of the chlorocysts across a wide section of the median portion of the leaf as seen in transverse section near the base. However, this character is quite variable and not even consistent in L. antillarum (H. A. Crum and L. E. Anderson 1981, vol. 2). Also, plants from the coastal plain do not show the prorate cells on the lateral wings of the lamina that are present in the type material of L. antillarum .

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Leucobryum+glaucum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Leucobryum+glaucum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 11
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Leucobryum glaucum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0383 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0381 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0382 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0384 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0385 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0386 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0388 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0389 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0390 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0392 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Leucobryum glaucum
Leucobryum glaucum
Pincushion Moss
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0394 [detail]
© 2018 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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