|California Fungi—Hygrocybe punicea
(Photo: © Taylor F. Lockwood)
Führ. Pilzk. 112. 1871.
Scarlet Waxy Cap
Cap 4-12 cm broad, conical to convex when young, broadly convex to plane in age; margin incurved to decurved; surface glabrous, shiny, viscid to lubricous; color bright red to deep red, fading, usually in splotches to reddish-orange to orange; flesh thin, waxy; taste and odor indistinctive.
Gills adnexed to narrowly sinuate, subdistant to distant, waxy; color dark reddish orange to orangish yellow to peachy to yellow; margin smooth to eroded.
Stipe 3-14 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, equal or narrowed at base; surface dry, typically strongly longitudinally striate; color yellow or red fading to orange or yellow, base white or occasionally yellow.
Spores 8-11 x 5-6 µm, smooth, nonamyloid, elliptical to narrowly elliptical. Spore print white.
Solitary to scattered to gregarious in humus beneath coast redwood (
) and hardwoods during winter.
Possibly edible, but least some people are adversely affected by it.
is one of our most beautiful and conspicuous waxy caps. It is most likely to be confused with
, which is smaller, has a dry to subviscid cap, and a red stipe with yellow base that lacks the longitudinal striations.
(1986). Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA. 959 p.
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(1990). Flora Agaricina Neerlandica -- Critical monographs on the families of agarics and boleti occuring in the Netherlands. Volume 2. Pluteaceae, Tricholomataceae. A. A. Balkema: Rotterdam, Netherlands. 137 p.
Bird, C.J. & Grund, D.W.
(1979). Nova Scotian Species of
. The Nova Scotia Museum: Nova Scotia. 131 p.
(1996). The Genus
(Fungi of Northern Europe, Vol. 1). Danish Mycological Society: Copenhagen, Denmark. 184 p.
(2010). The Genus
(2nd revised edition). Danish Mycological Society: Copenhagen, Denmark. 200 p.
Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F
. (1991). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 3: Boletes and Agarics (1st Part). Strobilomycetaceae, Boletaceae, Paxillaceae, Gomphidiaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Polyporaceae (lamellate). Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 361 p.
Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A.
(2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
Hesler, L.R. & Smith, A.H.
(1963). North American Species of
. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, TN. 416 p.
(1985). The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 5. Hygrophoraceae. Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 208 p.
Siegel, N. & Schwarz, C.
(2016). Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast. Ten Speed Press: Berkeley, CA. 601 p.
Other Descriptions and Photos
(D & CP)
(D & CP)
Arora (1986): p. 114 (D), plate 21 (CP)
Arora (1991): p. 45 (D & CP)
Jordan: p. 138 (D & CP)
(D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)
The Fungi of California
Copyright © 1996-2020 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens