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Hygrocybe conica (Scop. ) P. Kumm.
Life   Fungi   Basidiomycota   Tricholomataceae   Hygrocybe

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Hygrocybe conica, Conic Waxcap
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 9
Hygrocybe conica, Conic Waxcap

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Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica
Hygrocybe conica var conica
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Hygrocybe conica var conica

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Sphagnaceae  Sphagnum sp @ BPI (1)
_  soil @ BPI (1)

unknown @ BPI (1)

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California Fungi—Hygrocybe conica Hygrocybe conica
(Photo: © Terry Goyan)

Hygrocybe conica (Schaeff.: Fries) Kumm.
Führ. Pilzk. 111. 1871.

Photo: Just beginning to blacken.

Common Name: witch's hat

Synonym: Hygrophorus conicus

  • Pileus

    Cap 2-9 cm broad, conic to occasionally convex, sharply umbonate, margin sometimes upturned at maturity; surface smooth to innately streaked, subviscid when moist, color variable: red, orange, yellow, to yellowish-green, bruising black and/or blackening in age; flesh thin, colored like the cap, blackening in age.

  • Lamellae

    Gills adnexed to nearly free, close, thick, waxy, pallid at first, becoming yellowish-olive to yellow, bruising black.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 5-10 cm tall, 0.5-1.0 cm thick, fragile, equal, moist to subviscid, twisted-striate, white at the base, yellow to orange above, blackening when bruised or in age; veil absent.

  • Spores

    Spores 9-13 x 5.0-6.5 µm, smooth, elliptical, nonamyloid; spore print white.

  • Habitat

    Solitary to scattered under conifers; in our area common under Monterey cypress and redwood; fruiting from late fall to mid-winter.

  • Edibility

    Questionable. Not substantial enough to justify collecting for the table.

  • Comments

    This member of the waxy cap group is recognized by its distinctly conic cap, yellow to scarlet fruiting body, all parts of which bruise or blacken in age. Occasionally one will encounter all black, still relatively fresh specimens in the field. The white spores, waxy gills and flesh serve to separate this fungus from unrelated red-colored mushrooms. Hygrocybe singeri is very similar, but has a distinctly viscid stipe. Another blackening species is Hygrocybe nigrescens , which is distinquished from H. conica by a typically redder and less conic shaped cap and an oak woodland habitat. Hygrocybe acutoconica is also similar but does not bruise black.

    There is a complex of yellow-orange black staining Hygrcybes in California. Many will need new names and more data/research is needed to clarify the species. The true Hygrocybe conica of Europe probably does not occure in California.

  • References

    Bas, C., Kyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E. & Vellinga, E.C. (1990). Flora Agaricina Neerlandica -- Critical monographs on the families of agarics and boleti occuring in the Netherlands. Volume 2. Pluteaceae, Tricholomataceae. A. A. Balkema: Rotterdam, Netherlands. 137 p.
    Bird, C.J. & Grund, D.W.
    (1979). Nova Scotian Species of Hygrophorus . The Nova Scotia Museum: Nova Scotia. 131 p.
    Boertmann, D. (1996). The Genus Hygrocybe (Fungi of Northern Europe, Vol. 1). Danish Mycological Society: Copenhagen, Denmark. 184 p.
    Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F . (1991). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 3: Boletes and Agarics (1st Part). Strobilomycetaceae, Boletaceae, Paxillaceae, Gomphidiaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Polyporaceae (lamellate). Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 361 p
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A. (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Hesler, L.R. & Smith, A.H. (1963). North American Species of Hygrophorus . University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, TN. 416 p.
    Largent, D.L. (1985). The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 5. Hygrophoraceae. Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 208 p.
    Smith, A.H. (1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
    Young, A.M. (2005). Fungi of Australia: Hygrophoraceae. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Australia. 179 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos Main Photo

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

The Fungi of California
Copyright © 1996-2020 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens
A MykoWeb Page

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Fungi  
 Phylum Basidiomycota  
 Class Basidiomycetes  
 Order Agaricales  
 Family Tricholomataceae  
 Genus Hygrocybe  
  Hygrocybe conica    (Scop. ex Fr.) Karst. 
Provider: Chou, Wen-Neng 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Godfrinia conica Hygrocybe chloroides Hygrocybe cinereifolia Hygrocybe olivaceonigra Hygrocybe tristis Hygrophorus conicus chloroides Hygrophorus conicus olivaceoniger   details
Citation: Liou, S.C.: Taiwanh Mushrooms 2(2) 24, 1978
Name Code: 143378
  
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