Cap 2-12 cm broad, convex, becoming nearly plane, disc sometimes depressed; margin inrolled at first, lobed to undulate; surface dry, smooth to slightly scaly, cream to buff-orange, bruising to orange-brown; flesh thick, pale-buff, brittle, bruising buff-orange; odor and taste mild.
Teeth 0.4-0.6 cm long, brittle, cream-colored, bruising orange-brown, sometimes decurrent.
Stipe 2-7 cm tall, 1-2.5 cm thick, equal to enlarged at the base; attachment central to eccentric; surface dry, smooth, cream to buff-yellow, bruising orange-brown; veil absent.
Scattered to gregarious under conifers, occasionally with hardwoods; in our area common under Bishop pine (
) and Douglas fir (
). Fruiting from mid-winter to early spring.
Edible and excellent, although they can be bitter unless well cooked.
fruits late in the mushroom season, often not until after the New Year. Its pale-buff to buff-orange fruiting body resembles
, but the latter are yellower in color, has ridges, not spines on the lower cap surface and generally grows with hardwoods like
, not conifers.
is a closely related species, smaller in size, the cap having a small, central pit.
Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F.
(1986). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 2: Non-Gilled Fungi. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 412 p.
Coker, W.C. & Beers, A.H.
(1951). The Stipitate Hydnums of the Eastern United States. The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC. 211 p.
Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A.
(2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
Ellis, M.B. & Ellis, J.P.
(1990). Fungi without Gills (Hymenomycetes and Gasteromycetes). Chapman and Hall: London, England. 329 p.
Hall, D. & Stuntz, D.E.
(1971). Pileate Hydnaceae of the Puget Sound Area. I. White-Spored Genera:
. Mycologia 63(6): 1099-1128.
Mass Geesteranus, R.A.
(1971). Hydnaceous Fungi of the Eastern Old World. North Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam, Netherland. 175 p.
Pegler, D.N., Roberts, P.J. & Spooner, B.M.
(1997). British Chanterelles and Tooth Fungi. Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew, England. 114 p.
(1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
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