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Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacépède, 1801)
Duskyfin Bigeye; Glass Bigeye; Glasseye; Red Big-eye; Cookeolus boops Forster, 1801; Priacanthus cruentatus Lacépède, 1801; Anthias boops Forster, 1801; Labrus cruentatus Lacépède, 1801; Priacanthus cruentatus; Glasseye Snapper; - glasseye

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Priacanthidae   Heteropriacanthus

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus

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Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus

Main identification features Glasseye snapper, Glasseye

Dorsal rays X,12-13 (usually 13); anal rays III,13-14 (usually 14); pectoral rays 18-19 (usually 18); lateral-line scales 78-96; scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin 9-12; gill rakers on first arch 21-25; head profiles symmetrical (mouth open in center); pelvic fins relatively short, usually less than head length; preopercle with a large flat spine at lower angle of preopercle, rear border without scales but with fine ridges; tail slightly rounded.

Usually pink to red, including fins and iris of eye; tail and soft parts of dorsal and anal fins with elliptical dark specks; can also be overall silvery with red and pink blotches or irregular bars, or silvery pink with yellowish fins.

Size: reaches 51 cm.

Inhabits shallow reefs.

Depth: 5-300 m.

Circumglobal in tropical seas; in the eastern Pacific it ranges from central Baja California and central Mexico to Ecuador and all the offshore islands, to which it is mainly restricted.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 300 m.
Depth Range Min: 5 m.
Diet: bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=30; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-116; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=32; Longitudinal range=38.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 51 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Briggs, J.C., 1960., Fishes of worldwide (circumtropical) distribution., Copeia, 1960:171-180.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Lacepède, B. G. E., 1801., Histoire naturelle des poissons., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 3:1-558.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., The marine fishes of Panama. Part II., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:331-707.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0352fa0f-2564-461b-b6be-b60d3b3eaeda/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0352fa0f-2564-461b-b6be-b60d3b3eaeda/
&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 404 Not Found https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0352fa0f-2564-461b-b6be-b60d3b3eaeda/

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Priacanthidae  
 Genus Heteropriacanthus  
  Heteropriacanthus cruentatus    (Lacepède, 1801) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Cookeolus boops Labrus cruentatus Priacanthus alticlarens Priacanthus argenteus Priacanthus bonariensis Priacanthus boops Priacanthus carolinus Priacanthus cepedianus Priacanthus cruentatus Priacanthus fulgens Priacanthus japonicus details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Body deep, ovate, and laterally compressed. Eye large. Mouth oblique; small teeth on dentaries, vomer, palatines, and premaxillaries. Total gill rakers on first gill arch 21 to 25. Dorsal fin with X spines and 13 or 14 soft rays. Anal fin with III spines and 14 soft rays; pectoral fins with 18 or 19 rays; caudal fin truncate. Scales covering most of head and body but scales lacking on posterior portion of preopercle. Pored lateral-line scales 58 to 62. Body and head pinkish red or blotched with red and silver; iris of eye red; fins reddish, membranes of spinous dorsal fin and margin of caudal fin sometimes dusky; caudal, soft dorsal, and anal fins scattered with dark brown spots. 
Habitat: Inhabits shallow reef areas, particularly in insular areas, where it may be common in both lagoons and seaward areas, commonly at depths of 20 m or less. Secretive by day and foraging at night. Feeds on octupuses, shrimps, stomatopods, crabs, small fishes 
Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and tropically influenced seas. It is found in southern and northern Taiwanese waters, and Siao Liouciou, southwestern Taiwan. 
Utility: Marketed mostly fresh. 
Name Code: 382411
  IUCN Red List:LC      
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Heteropriacanthus+cruentatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Heteropriacanthus+cruentatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 4
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Heteropriacanthus cruentatus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0094 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0095 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0018 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Glasseye Snapper
ID: 0000 0000 0313 3005 [detail]
© 2013 Scott Trageser

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Heteropriacanthus&speciesname=cruentatus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Heteropriacanthus&speciesname=cruentatus
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Heteropriacanthus&speciesname=cruentatus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Heteropriacanthus-cruentatus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède , 1801)

Glasseye Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Heteropriacanthus cruentatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Glasseye) Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Priacanthidae (Bigeyes or catalufas)
Etymology: Heteropriacanthus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, prion = saw + greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Lacepède .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 300 m (Ref. 27000 ), usually 3 - 35 m (Ref. 40849 ).   Subtropical; 33°N - 32°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal in tropical and tropically influenced seas. Western Atlantic: continental waters from off Florida to Flower Garden Reef off Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; Caribbean islands and along the coast of South America to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: eastern and mid Atlantic islands from Madeira to St. Helena; not recorded from African continental waters. Indo-Pacific: South and eastern Africa (excluding the Red Sea) eastward in island habitats through the central Pacific. Eastern Pacific: island habitats from off Baja California to the Galapagos; probably uncommon along coast of Mexico, Central and South America, questionably to Chile.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9990 ); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 ); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 9990 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-13; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 13 - 14. Silvery pink, mottled red or solid red in color; median fins with faint dark dots. Pelvic fins dusky or pale and without distinct spots (Ref. 4328 ). Section of preopercle behind canal striated and without scales (Ref. 26938 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in lagoon and seaward reefs, primarily around islands. Under or near ledges by day (Ref. 9710 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Juvenile pelagic (Ref. 9335 ). Nocturnal (Ref. 5213 ), feeding mainly on octopi, pelagic shrimp, stomatopods, crabs, small fish, and polychaetes. Solitary (Ref. 5213 ). During the day usually occurs singly or in small groups but at dusk it may gather in large numbers (Ref. 37816 ). Known to produce sound. Marketed fresh (Ref. 3800 ). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Starnes, W.C. , 1988. Revision, phylogeny and biogeographic comments on the circumtropical marine percoid fish family Priacanthidae. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43(2):117-203. (Ref. 5403 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 29 January 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23.3 - 29, mean 27.4 (based on 2452 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01002 - 0.03154), b=2.89 (2.74 - 3.04), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.6   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

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