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Gymnopilus junonius (Fr. ) P. D. Orton
Life   Fungi   Basidiomycota   Cortinariaceae   Gymnopilus

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

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Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gymnopilus junonius

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California Fungi—Gymnopilus junonius Gymnopilus junonius © Michael Wood -- Click to Enlarge
(Photo: © Michael Wood)

Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P. D. Orton
Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 43(2): 176. 1960.

Common Name: none

Synonym: Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) A.H. Smith

  • Pileus

    Cap 7-20 cm broad, convex with incurved margin, nearly plane in age; surface dry, yellowish-orange to orange with fine brown scales; flesh thick, yellow, turning red in KOH; odor mild to pungent, taste bitter.

  • Lamellae

    Gills close, adnate, notched, to slightly decurrent; yellow, becoming orange.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 7-21 cm long, 1-4 cm thick, yellow-orange, lighter than the cap, streaked with brown fibrils, equal, club-shaped, or ventricose, usually narrowed at the base; partial veil membranous, yellowish, forming a usually persistent superior ring.

  • Spores

    Spores 7.5-10 x 4.5-6 µm, roughened, elliptical. Spore print rusty-orange.

  • Habitat

    Fruiting from early fall to mid-winter in clusters on stumps and logs of both hardwoods and conifers.

  • Edibility

    Inedible, very bitter.

  • Comments

    Gymnopilus junonius is quite distinctive as its yellowish-orange clustered fruitings are often massive with dinner plate-sized mushroom caps. The combination of a clustered habit on wood, orange cap, well developed ring, bitter taste and rusty spores make it easy to identify.

    Gymnopilus ventricosus may also occur locally, but the material we have studied generally appears closer to Gymnopilus junonius .

  • References

    Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F . (2000). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 5: Agarics (3rd Part). Cortinariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 338 p.
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A. (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Hesler, L.R. (1969). North American Species of Gymnopilus . Hafner Publishing Company: New York, NY. 117 p.
    Lindsey, J.P. & Gilbertson, R.L. (1978). Basidiomycetes that Decay Aspen in North America. J. Cramer: Vaduz. 406 p.
    Orton, P.D. (1960). New check list of British agarics and boleti: Part III. Notes on genera and species in the list. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 43(2): 159-384.
    Smith, A.H. (1949). Mushrooms in their Natural Habitats. Sawyer's Inc: Portland, OR. 626 p.
    Watling, R., Gregory, N.M. & Orton, P.D. (1993). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti. Vol 7. Cortinariaceae p.p.: Galerina , Gymnopilus , Leucocortinarius , Phaeocollybia , Phaeogalera , Phaeolepiota , Phaeomarasmius , Pleuroflammula , Rozites & Stagnicola . Royal Botanic Garden: Edinburgh, Scotland. 131 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos Main Photo
    • Ammirati et al. : p. 191 (D), fig. 93 (I), fig. 106 (CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Arora (1986): p. 410 (D), p. 411 (P), plate 99 (CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Arora (1991): p. 138 (D & CP)
    • Benjamin: plate 12 (CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Jordan: p. 279 (D & CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Lincoff: p. 623 (D), plate 214 (CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • McKenny et al. : p. 129 (D & CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Miller: sp. 227 (D & CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Phillips: p. 172 (D), p. 173 (CP)
    • Smith & Weber: sp. 187 (D & CP) [as G. spectabilis ]
    • Smith & Weber: sp. 188 (D & CP)

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

The Fungi of California
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Gymnopilus junonius
Gymnopilus junonius
Laughing Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1216 2148 [detail]
© 2016 Anthony Southwood

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