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Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron &. Lesueur, 1822)
TIGER SHARK
Galeocerdo arcticus Faber, 1829; Galeocerdo cuvieri Péron and Lesueur, 1822; Galeocerdo rayneri MacDonald and Barrow, 1868; Squalus arcticus Faber, 1829; Squalus cuvier Péron and Lesueur, 1822

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Galeocerdo

Galeocerdo cuvier
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Galeocerdo cuvier

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Overview
Main identification features Head, and body stout but becoming very slender towards tail; a low keel along each side of the narrow tail base; snout very short, blunt and slightly rounded, its length before mouth 3.7-4.8 % of total length; long grooves over top of mouth; spiracle a narrow slit behind eye; ridge on back between dorsal fins; origin of dorsal fin over posterior corner of pectoral fin; first dorsal fin not very large (height 7.5-9.3% of total length) tip pointed; origin of second dorsal fin distinctly in front of anal fin origin.

Adults grey with vertical bars on upper half of sides (sometimes faint or absent); young with large dark spots, some coalescing to form bars.

Size: attains 740 cm; size at birth 50-75 cm.

Habitat: coastal pelagic, often in turbid areas, and estuaries, but also on reefs; retires to deeper water during the day, and feeds on shallow reefs at night.

Depth: 0-350 m.

Circumtropical; throughout our region.
Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 350 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: sharks/rays; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Water column; Estuary; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom; Reef (rock &/or coral).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 740 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Brackish.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column; Bottom;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Elasmobranchii from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(1):1-13.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Lesueur, C. A., 1822., Description of a Squalus, of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New-Jersey., J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2:343-352.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/c2379c79-125e-417d-9392-f5d93b26b223 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/c2379c79-125e-417d-9392-f5d93b26b223
&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to biodiversity.org.au:443 https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/c2379c79-125e-417d-9392-f5d93b26b223

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Galeocerdo  
  Galeocerdo cuvier    (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharias fasciatus Carcharias hemprichii Galeocerda cuvier Galeocerdo arcticus Galeocerdo cuvieri Galeocerdo fasciatus Galeocerdo obtusus Galeocerdo rayneri Galeocerdo tigrinus Galeus cepedianus Galeus maculatus details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A big-headed, very short and blunt-snouted, large-monthed requiem skark. Head broad and flat. Eyes fairly large, without posterior notches. Teeth similar in upper and lower jaws, of characteristic cockscomb shape, with heavy, bent, oblique cusps, strong distal cusplets and prominent serrations but no blades. Cusps of lower teeth not prominently protruding when mouth is closed. 18-26/18-25 rows of teeth. Interdorsal ridge present. Caudal peduncle with low but prominent dermal keels. Upper precaudal pit transverse and crescentic. First dorsal origin above pectoral insertions or inner margins, its midbase closer to pectoral bases than to pelvics, and free rear tip well in front of pelvic fins. Second dorsal origin slightly anterior to anal origin. Pectoral length from origin to free rear tip about 3/5-2/3 of their anterior margins. Anal fin about as large as 2nd dorsal fin. Colour grey with a unique colour pattern of black spots and vertical bars on dorsal surface of body, bold in young but fading out in adults. 
Habitat: A common,wide-ranging coastal-pelagic tropical and warm-temperate shark, with a wide tolerance for different marine habitats. The tiger shark is an active, strong-swimming shark, ordinarily seen cruising slowly with a sinuous motion that has been describe 
Distribution: Western Atlantic including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean islands. Eastern North Atlantic including Iceland, UK, Morocco, Canary Islands, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana. Indo-West Pacific from south Africa north to the Red Sea and east to Pakista 
Utility: The tiger shark is commonly caught in coastal and offshore fisheries with longline, hook-and-line, and fixed bottom. It flesh id utilized fresh, fresh frozen, dried salted and smoked for human consumption, hide used for leather, fins for shark fin soup. 
Name Code: 383081
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Galeocerdo+cuvier&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Galeocerdo+cuvier&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 8
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Galeocerdo cuvier%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Galeocerdo cuvier
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0034 0020 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1192 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1193 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1194 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1195 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1196 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1197 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

Galeocerdo cuvier
Galeocerdo cuvier
Tiger Shark
ID: 0000 0000 0906 1198 [detail]
© 2006 Paddy Ryan

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Galeocerdo&speciesname=cuvier ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Galeocerdo&speciesname=cuvier
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Galeocerdo&speciesname=cuvier ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Galeocerdo-cuvier.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur , 1822)

Tiger shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Galeocerdo cuvier   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Galeocerdo cuvier (Tiger shark) Galeocerdo cuvier
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Galeocerdo: Greek, galeos = a shark + latin, cerdus = the hard hairs of pigs (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Péron & Lesueur .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 96339 ), usually 0 - 140 m (Ref. 26938 ).   Subtropical; 62°N - 44°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland to Angola. Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ), Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii and Tahiti, north to southern Japan, south to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru, including the Revillagigedo, Cocos, and Galapagos islands. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 210 - 350 cm
Max length : 750 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58784 ); common length : 500 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683 ); max. published weight: 807.4 kg (Ref. 4699 ); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 4827 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. This species is a huge, vertical tiger-striped shark with a very short or broad, bluntly rounded snout (its length much less than width of mouth), long upper labial furrows (about as long as snout, reaching front of eyes), a big mouth with large, saw-edged, cockscomb-shaped teeth (coarsely serrated with outer edges deeply notched and tips directed obliquely outward); spiracles small, slit-like, but easily visible, caudal keels low. Colour of back dark grey or greyish brown with vertical dark grey to black bars and rectangular spots often forming bars on sides and fins, but fading with growth (Ref. 5578 , 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually found near surface to depths of 140 m (Ref. 26938 ); in Tahiti from 0-350m (Ref. 89972 ) . Occurs on or adjacent to continental and insular shelves, frequenting river estuaries, off wharves and jetties in harbors, and in coral atolls and lagoons (Ref. 244 ). Bottom-associated, sometimes pelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Also off oceanic islands far from other islands and continental land masses (Ref. 244 ). Makes excursions in the open ocean, but is not a truly oceanic species (Ref. 244 ). Nocturnal feeder on other sharks, rays, bony fishes, marine mammals, tortoises, seabirds, sea snakes, squids, gastropods, crustaceans, detritus (Ref. 9997 ), also including toxic or armored fish species such as Lactoria cornuta or Diodon hystrix , porpoises, whales, sea turtles, cephalopods, domestic animals and humans (Ref. 37816 ). It also feeds on carrion and garbage, including cans, pieces of metal and burlap bags (Ref. 26938 ). Second only to Carcharodon carcharias in recorded attacks on humans with at least 27 documented attacks sourced to it . One specimen, reportedly taken off Indo-China, weighed 3,110 kg and measured 740 cm (Ref. 9987 ). May be kept in an aquaria, but does not last for more than a few months (Ref. 244 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Up to 80 young of 51 to 104 cm are born per litter (Ref. 1602 ). Valued for its meat, fins, hide and liver oil (Ref. 9997 ) and also for its jaws and cartilage (Ref. 58048 ). Often used for fishmeal (Ref. 9997 ). Utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987 ). Species from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea has a max size of 750 cm TL (Ref. 47613 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4805 , 6871 ) with 10-82 in a litter (Ref. 26346 ). Mating takes place even before gravid females have given birth (Ref. 244 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Gestation period: 13-16 months. Size at birth between 51 (Ref. 244 ) and 104 (Ref. 9997 ) cm TL; born at about 51-76 cm TL (Ref. 58048 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 15.8 - 28.9, mean 26.4 (based on 6872 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00246 - 0.00587), b=3.15 (3.03 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=4-11; tmax=50; K=0.18-0.6; Fec=10). Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.12 - 0.63, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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