Holotype ZMUC P.2329224, east of New Zealand [44°40'S, 173°39'E].
Extra Distribution Information
East of Flinders Island (40º09´S) to off south TAS (44º16´S); temperate, southern circumglobal.
that conversion of the original AFD map of states, drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones to IBRA and IMCRA regions may have produced errors. The new maps will be reviewed and corrected as updates occur.
The maps may not indicate the entire distribution. See further details below.
Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), West Tasmania Transition (9)
Original AFD Distribution Data
Tasmania: S oceanic, SE oceanic
History of changes
that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Circumglobal between the Subtropical Convergence and Antarctic Polar Front.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); 9.6 cm SL (female); max. published weight: 12.10 g (Ref.
); max. published weight: 12.10 g; max. reported age: 6 years (Ref.
Oceanic and mesopelagic, found in the upper 100 m south of 50°S, but below 550 m in the region of Subtropical Convergence (Ref.
). Migrates from 80 to 140 m to the surface at about 18h00 with ascent rate of 0.5 m per minute; the descent rate is 1.8 m per minute. Forms the main component of the Deep Scattering Layer in the Pacific sector. Feeds on copepods, hyperiids and euphausiids, but also takes ostracods and gastropods. Eaten by squid and to an insignificant degree, by fishes (Channichthyidae,
sp.) and birds (Procellariidae).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): -1.3 - 2.4, mean 0.7 (based on 31 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.55; tmax=5.5).
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Luna, Susan M.
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- 20 July 2016
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