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Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)
BLUE SKATE
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Rajidae   Dipturus


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Dipturus&speciesname=batis ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Dipturus-batis.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Dipturus-batis.html ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Dipturus-batis.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Dipturus batis (Linnaeus , 1758)

Blue skate Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Dipturus batis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Dipturus batis (Blue skate) Dipturus batis
Male picture by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Issue
Junior synonym Raia intermedia Parnell, 1837 (= Dipturus intermedius ) is considered valid in CofF ver. January 2018 following Last et al., 2016 (Ref. 114953 ). Its synonymy under the current species will be removed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 4426 ), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 4426 ).   Subtropical; 69°N - 12°N, 30°W - 42°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Iceland, the Faroes to Senegal, including western Mediterranean and western part of the Baltic. Extirpated by trawling from much of its former range (Ref. 27438 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 160.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 285 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3261 ); max. published weight: 97.1 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Snout very long and pointed; length before eyes 2,5-4,0 times distance between them; disc broadly rhombic with acute outer corners; upper surface and underside smooth in young, partly prickly in larger specimens; no thorns on disc, a row of 12-18 thorns along tail; 40-56 tooth rows; upper surface olive-grey or brown with a variable pattern of light spots, underside ashy-grey to blue-grey (Ref. 3167 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Benthic species in shelf and slope waters with a wide tolerance for depth and temperature (Ref. 4426 ). Found in coastal waters mainly within the 200 m range (Ref. 3167 ). Feeds on all kinds of bottom animals, including other skates (Ref. 114953 ), large individuals prefer fish (Ref. 3167 ). Oviparous. Males reaches maturity at ca. 115 cm TL, females at 123 cm TL; birth size at ca. 21 cm TL (Ref. 114953 ). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205 ). Mate in spring and the egg capsules are laid during the summer. Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205 ). Egg capsules are 10.6-24.5 cm long and 5.0-14.5 cm wide (Ref. 41250 ). About 40 eggs per individual are laid annually (Ref. 41250 ). Flesh is marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449 ). Egg-cases laid in spring and summer, very large (Ref. 3167 ). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205 ). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn , 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Critically Endangered (CR)  (A2bcd+4bcd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

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Special reports

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 7.1 - 15, mean 9.8 (based on 243 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00174 - 0.00576), b=3.21 (3.05 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.06; tm=11; tmax=51). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Abucay, Luisa Fish Forum
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