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Cystopteris fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi
BRITTLE BLADDERFERN
Life   Plantae   Pteridophyta   Dryopteridaceae   Cystopteris

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

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Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Cystopteris fragilis

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta cystopteridis @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Hyalopsora polypodii @ 041801B (1); BPI (297); 041801A (1)

Melampsorella polypodii @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis ceratophora @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis glabra @ BPI (11)

Uredinopsis polypodii @ BPI (1)
Synchytriaceae  Synchytrium @ BPI (2)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina cystopteridis @ BPI (3)
_  Hyalospora polypodii @ BPI (1)

Thekopsora polypodii @ BPI (4)

Uredo filicum @ BPI (2)

Uredo polypodii @ BPI (31)

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Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 404 Not Found http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/udth/bin/fot1.exe/browse?bid=1&page=429

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Pteridophyta  
 Class Filicopsida  
 Order Polypodiales  
 Family Cystopteridaceae  
 Genus Cystopteris  
  Cystopteris fragilis    (L.) Bernh., 1806 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Aspidium dentatum Aspidium fragile Aspidium fragile fumarioides Aspidium viridulum Athyrium dentatum Athyrium fragile Athyrium fumarioides Cyathea anthriscifolia Cyathea cynapifolia Cyathea fragilis Cyclopteris fragilis details
Citation: Sp. Pl. 1091. 1753. Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. 3: 136. 1804.
Name Code: 205078
  
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Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.
brittle bladderfern

Image of Cystopteris fragilis

General Information
Symbol: CYFR2
Group: Fern
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
GL   N
HI   I?
L48   N
SPM   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Cystopteris thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Mount Adams, Hellroaring Overlook Trail. August 7, 2004. Usage Requirements .

Sheri Hagwood. USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM) . United States, ID, Bureau of Land Management Jarbidge Resource Area. May 10, 2006. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 15. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
CYDI10 Cystopteris dickieana Sim
CYFRD Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. ssp. dickieana (Sim) Hyl.
CYFRA Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. angustata G. Lawson
CYFRW Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. woodsioides Christ
FIFR Filix fragilis (L.) Underw.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Division Pteridophyta – Ferns
Class Filicopsida
Order Polypodiales
Family Dryopteridaceae – Wood Fern family
Genus Cystopteris Bernh. – bladderfern
Species Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. – brittle bladderfern

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
New York common fragile fern Exploitably Vulnerable
Ohio brittle fern Presumed Extirpated

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FACU
Arid West FACU
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
CalPhotos (CYFR2)
Flora of North America (CYFR2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CYDI10)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CYFR2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CYFRA)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CYFRD)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CYFRW)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (FIFR)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (CYFR2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (CYFR2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (CYFR2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (CYFR2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Dryopteridaceae | Cystopteris

9. Cystopteris fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi, Neues J. Bot. 1(2): 27, plate 2, fig. 9. 1805.

Brittle fern, fragile fern, cystoptère fragile

Polypodium fragile Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1091. 1753; Cystopteris dickieana Sim; C . fragilis subsp. dickieana (Sim) Hylander

Stems creeping, not cordlike, internodes short, beset with old petiole bases, hairs absent; scales tan to light brown, lanceolate, radial walls thin, luminae tan. Leaves monomorphic, clustered at stem apex, to 40 cm, nearly all bearing sori. Petiole dark at base, mostly green to straw-colored distally, shorter than or nearly equaling blade, base sparsely scaly. Blade lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 1(--2)-pinnate-pinnatifid, widest at or just below middle, apex acute; rachis and costae lacking gland-tipped hairs or bulblets; axils of pinnae lacking multicellular, gland-tipped hairs. Pinnae usually perpendicular to rachis, not curving toward blade apex, margins serrate to sharply dentate; proximal pinnae pinnatifid to pinnate-pinnatifid, ± equilateral, basiscopic pinnules not enlarged; basal basiscopic pinnules sessile, base truncate to obtuse, distal pinnae deltate to ovate. Veins directed mostly into teeth. Indusia ovate to lanceolate, without gland-tipped hairs. Spores spiny or verrucate, usually 39--60 µm. 2 n = 168, 252.

Sporulating summer--fall. Mostly on cliff faces, also in thin soil over rock; 0--4500 m; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.; worldwide.

Cystopteris fragilis is most often confused with C . tenuis in the east and C . reevesiana in the southwest. Habitat and geography, as well as the morphologic features discussed in the key, usually serve to separate these taxa. For instance, C . fragilis is more likely to be found on cliffs whereas the other species prefer boulders and soil ( C . fragilis occurs at higher elevations and/or latitudes than the other species). These distinctions can be confounded when C . fragilis forms hybrids with sympatric species. Sterile pentaploid plants have been discovered where C . fragilis overlaps with C . laurentiana , tetraploid hybrids are likely where C . fragilis occurs with C . tenuis , and triploids may form where C . fragilis is found with C . reevesiana . Even after segregating relatively distinct elements such as Cystopteris protrusa , C . reevesiana , and C . tenuis , and identifying sterile hybrids, C . fragilis still remains a polymorphic and complex taxon that probably contains a number of natural, cryptic evolutionary units. For example, morphologically distinct hexaploid cytotypes have been reported (C. H. Haufler and M. D. Windham 1991). These occur as isolated and disjunct populations in Ontario, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming. Isozymic profiles of each of these populations indicate that the hexaploids are polyphyletic and should not be accorded species status.

The presence of verrucate spores (as opposed to the normal spiny spores) has been used to circumscribe Cystopteris dickieana . Although genetic analyses have not been undertaken, we think the verrucate spore is probably a recessive feature controlled by one or a few genes. While present at low frequency in much of the range of C . fragilis , verrucate spores are particularly prominent in the Great Plains. Perhaps in this region the genetic combinations specifying verrucate spores have been fixed. Following R. F. Blasdell (1963), C . dickieana is also considered here to be conspecific with C . fragilis because (1) early stages in the development of spiny spores can appear verrucate (A. C. Jermy and L. Harper 1971), (2) the hexaploid cytotypes discussed above always have verrucate spores, regardless of their parentage, (3) individuals with verrucate spores can be found in populations that are otherwise uniformly spiny-spored, and (4) individuals and populations that have verrucate spores are not otherwise (morphologically, ecologically, or genetically) distinct from those that have spiny spores.

Especially in the western portion of its North American range (British Columbia, Washington, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, California), Cystopteris fragilis appears to be developing morphologically and ecologically distinctive variants. Hybrid individuals with aborted spores have been discovered, and plants from these areas increasingly tend to grow on both soil and rock and to have slightly different morphologies on the two substrates. These variants intergrade, however, and are not sufficiently distinct to warrant species status. This polymorphic polyploid is probably actively speciating at the tetraploid level, perhaps through gene silencing (C. R. Werth and M. D. Windham 1991).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cystopteris+fragilis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cystopteris+fragilis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 64
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cystopteris fragilis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Bladder Fern
ID: 8076 3101 4736 0118 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 5208 1611 0575 0093 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 5208 1611 0575 0090 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Bladder Fern
ID: 8120 3181 4014 0068 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 5208 1611 0575 0092 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 5208 1611 0575 0094 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Brittle Fern
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0072 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 5208 1611 0575 0091 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 1105 0588 [detail]
© 2005 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 1105 0589 [detail]
© 2005 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 1105 0590 [detail]
© 2005 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 1105 0591 [detail]
© 2005 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0606 1973 [detail]
© 2006 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0606 1974 [detail]
© 2006 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0606 1975 [detail]
© 2006 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0706 0184 [detail]
© 2006 Steve Matson

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Brittle Bladder-fern
ID: 0000 0000 1006 0754 [detail]
© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Brittle Bladder-fern
ID: 0000 0000 1006 0755 [detail]
© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Brittle Bladder-fern
ID: 0000 0000 1006 0756 [detail]
© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0580 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0582 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
Fragile Fern
ID: 0000 0000 0607 0275 [detail]
© 2007 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 3333 1111 1107 0167 [detail]
© University and Jepson Herbaria

Cystopteris fragilis
Cystopteris fragilis
ID: 3333 1111 1107 0168 [detail]
© University and Jepson Herbaria

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