|California Fungi—Coprinopsis stercorea
(Photo: © Fred Stevens)
(Fries) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo
Taxon 50(1): 231. 2001.
Cap 4.0-10.0 mm broad at maturity, at first ellipsoid to ovoid, then obtuse-conic, expanding to plane, the margin becoming recurved and torn; surface white to pale-grey, striate-plicate to near the disc, mealy-granulose, hairy toward the margin, in age the hairs inconspicuous; context thin, membranous, weakly deliquescent; odor unpleasant; taste untried.
Gills adnexed, subdistant, narrow, pallid in youth, eventually blackish; lamellulae in up to two series.
Stipe 1.0-3.5 cm long, 0.5-1.0 mm thick, more or less equal, hollow, fragile; surface watery-white to pale-grey, when young covered with whitish hairs, soon sparse, except at the base; partial veil absent.
Spores 6.5-8.0 x 3.0-3.5 µm, smooth, moderately thick-walled, cylindrical-elliptical in face-view, similar in profile but slightly inequilateral, hilar appendage inconspicuous, germ pore central; medium-brown mounted in KOH; spores blackish in deposit.
Scattered to clustered on herbivore dung, especially that of horses and cows; fruiting throughout the mushroom season; common.
is one of several small
) that occur on horse and cow dung. It is most easily recognized in youth when the unexpanded cap is covered with a universal veil of sugar-like or mealy granules and marginal hairs. An unpleasant, often fleeting odor, is also characteristic. With maturity, most of the cap hairs disappear which can cause confusion with
, two species that also have granulose caps.
differs in possessing a pale-yellow cap disc and thin annulus.
is best identified by a study of the spores and veil. The veil of
consists of globose, thin-walled, finely-warted cells interspersed with narrow, branched hyphae, the spores cylindrical-elliptical in face-view. In contrast the veil cells of
are globose, thin-walled, smooth, the spores pentagonal to heart-shaped in face-view. Other common dung-inhabiting
, similar in size to
but with a veil of cottony, wispy fibrils, (not granulose);
, a larger species, the expanded cap up to 4.0 cm broad, also with a veil of cottony fibrils, and
, diminutive like
, with a veil-less cap, the surface instead ornamented with cystidia, these sometimes visible with a strong hand lens.
Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F.
(1995). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 4: Agarics (2nd Part). Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 368 p.
Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A.
(2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
(2004). Fungi Fimicoli Italici. Associazione Micologica Bresadola: Trento, Italy. 1104 p.
Keirle, M.R., Hemmes, D.E. & Desjardin, D.E.
(2004). Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands. 8. Agaricaceae:
. Fungal Diversity 15: 33-124.
Knudsen, H. & Vesterholt, J.
ed. (2008). Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. 965 p.
Noordeloos, M.E., Kuyper, T.W. & Vellinga, E.C.
(2005). Flora Agaricina Neerlandica — Critical monographs on the families of agarics and boleti occurring in the Netherlands. Volume 6. Coprinaceae & Bolbitiaceae. Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, FL. 227 p.
Orton, P.D. & Watling, R.
(1979). British Fungus Flora: Agarics and Boleti. Vol 2. Coprinaceae:
. Royal Botanic Garden: Edinburgh, Scotland. 149 p.
Other Descriptions and Photos
Jordan: p. 236 (D & CP) [as
(D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)
The Fungi of California
Copyright © 2005-2019 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens