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Betula populifolia Marsh.
GRAY BIRCH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

Betula populifolia, Grey Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 9
Betula populifolia, Grey Birch

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Betula populifolia, Grey Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Betula populifolia, Grey Birch

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Calaphis betulaecolens @ NCSU_ENT (4)

Calaphis leonardi @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Longistigma caryae @ AMNH_PBI (16)
Bulgariaceae  Bulgaria inquinans @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Erythridula cornipes @ III (1)

Erythridula insigna @ III (1)

Erythridula praecisa @ III (2)
Cicadidae  Magicicada cassinii @ AMNH_ENT (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora arida @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium cremoricolor @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (2)

Cladosporium scribnerianum @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype discoidea @ BPI (1)

Diatrype stigma @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella betulina @ BPI (5)

Diatrypella discoidea @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (4)

Libertella betulina @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (8)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (2)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma applanatum @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Scleroderris betulina @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete cinnamomea @ BPI (2)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (3)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterium pulicare @ BPI (1)
Lygaeidae  Antillocoris minutus @ AMNH_IZC (2)
Melanconidaceae  Melanconium betulinum @ BPI (4)

Melanconium stilbostoma @ BPI (1)

Melanconium subviridis @ BPI (1)

Pseudovalsa lanciformis @ BPI (4)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (3)

Phlebia strigosozonata @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Ceratocapsus modestus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris betulae @ NCSU (3)

Neolygus betulae @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Orthotylus cruciatus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Phytocoris neglectus @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Psallus betuleti @ NCSU_ENT (12); AMNH_IZC (25)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria betulae @ BPI (2)

Septoria betulicola @ BPI (2)
Nectriaceae  Nectria ditissima @ BPI (1)

Nectria galligena @ BPI (4)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora affinis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora peckii @ BPI (1)

Peniophora praetermissa @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Erythricium laetum @ BPI (2)

Phanerochaete laevis @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes applanatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (7)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (3)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (2)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (4)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (2)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus betulinus @ BPI (32)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus radiatus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (4)

Polyporus zonatus @ BPI (1)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (3)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (2)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsoridium betulinum @ BPI (82); 876036C (1)
Reduviidae  Phymata @ AMNH_PBI (7)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (3)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex deformans @ BPI (1)

Irpex lacteus @ BPI (2)

Steccherinum ochraceum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum complicatum @ BPI (8)

Stereum hirsutum @ BPI (5)

Stereum ochraceoflavum @ BPI (1)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (2)

Stereum rameale @ BPI (5)

Stereum rugosum @ BPI (1)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina flava @ 875954B (1); BPI (9); 875954A (1)

Taphrina @ BPI (2)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium citrinum @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia anomala @ BPI (1)

Solenia ochracea @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora horrida @ BPI (2)
Venturiaceae  Venturia disticha @ BPI (1)

Venturia ditricha @ 612563B (1); 612563A (1); BPI (3)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (3)

Daldinia vernicosa @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon @ BPI (1)

Sphaeria flavovirens @ BPI (1)
_  Botryodiplodia valsoides @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus fumosus @ BPI (3)

Hypochnus fuscus @ BPI (2)

Otthia ambiens @ BPI (1)

Rhinotrichum curtisii @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (3)

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Following served from University of Richmond Biology
   
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Following served from University of Richmond Biology
   
Top | See original context

Following served from University of Richmond Biology
   
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Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
   
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

12. Betula populifolia Marshall, Arbust. Amer. 19. 1785.

Gray birch, white birch, fire birch, bouleau à feuilles de peuplier, bouleau gris

Betula alba Linnaeus subsp. populifolia (Marshall) Regel; B . alba var. populifolia (Marshall) Spach

Trees , broadly pyramidal, to 10 m; trunks usually several. Bark when young dark reddish brown, in maturity becoming grayish white, smooth, close; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Twigs without taste and odor of wintergreen, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, dotted with small, inconspicuous, resinous glands. Leaf blade broadly ovate to deltate or rhombic with 5--18 pairs of lateral veins, 3--10 × 3--8 cm, base truncate to cuneate, marginally coarsely, irregularly, or sometimes obscurely doubly serrate, apex abruptly long-acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent, often covered with minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect to nearly pendulous, nearly cylindric, 1--2.5(--3) × 0.8--1 cm, shattering with fruits in early fall; scales adaxially densely pubescent, lobes diverging distal to middle, central lobe cuneate, acute, much shorter than lateral lobes, lateral lobes divergent, broad, irregularly angular. Samaras with wings much broader than body, broadest near middle, often extended beyond body both apically and basally. 2 n = 28.

Flowering late spring. Rocky or sandy open woods, moist to dryish slopes, old fields, and waste places; 100--600 m; N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Vt., Va.

Betula populifolia is an important successional tree on burned, cleared, or abandoned land in the Northeast. It is closely related to Betula pendula Roth of Europe, B . neoalaskana of the Northwest, and several Asian taxa. This species is easily distinguished from the paper birch, with which it is often sympatric, by the long tapering apices of its leaves, its nonpeeling bark, and the characteristic expanded, black triangular patches on the trunks below the branches.

The Iroquois used Betula populifolia medicinally to treat bleeding piles, and the Micmac, to treat infected cuts and as an emetic (D. E. Moerman 1986).

The blue birches ( Betula × caerulea Blanchard) have been variously considered to represent a true species or a hybrid between B . papyrifera Marshall and B . populifolia Marshall (T. C. Brayshaw 1966) or B . papyrifera and the big blue birch B . caerulea-grandis (M. L. Fernald 1922). Both B . × caerulea and B . caerulea-grandis have been shown in more recent experimental studies to be of hybrid origin between B . cordifolia Regel and B . populifolia (A. G. Guerriero et al. 1970; W. F. Grant and B. K. Thompson 1975; P. E. DeHond and C. S. Campbell 1989). Individuals of these hybrids combine characteristics of the parents, the infructescence scales and leaves somewhat resembling those of B . populifolia , and the habit and exfoliating reddish bark that of B . cordifolia .

SELECTED REFERENCES

Catling, P. M. and K. W. Spicer. 1988. The separation of Betula populifolia and Betula pendula and their status in Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18: 1017--1026.

Updated: 2021-01-18 11:30:06 gmt
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