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Atherinomorus stipes (Muller and Troschel, 1848)
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Atherinidae   Atherinomorus

Atherinomorus stipes
© Copyright John Rangall, 2006 · 0
Atherinomorus stipes

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Main identification features Eye large (~twice snout length); head wide (63% of head length) and relatively deep, with bony knob on top, upper profile straight; mouth oblique, top jaw not extendible; top of upper jaw straight, extending beyond front edge of eye; teeth small, simple, in narrow bands on jaws, lower lip with small, outward pointing teeth; projection at rear of lower jaw small; 1st dorsal fin IV-VI spines, entirely before anal origin; 2nd dorsal origin after anal origin, I,8-10; anal I,11-13, anus well before anal fin; scales with ruffled rear margins; 37-42 scales on lateral line; sheath of scales on bases of dorsal, anal and pectoral fins.

Color: Greenish on back with silver stripe (~width of pupil) overlying a black one along mid-flank, stripe narrow at front (width <2 pectoral fin base); two series of black dots along sides of tail; tail tips often black in large fish.

Size: 10 cm.

Habitat: shallow waters over reefs and nearby soft bottoms.

Depth: 0-10 m?.

A west Atlantic species introduced to Colombia.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 10 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: zooplankton; pelagic fish larvae; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=4; Southern limit=2; Western limit=-79; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=2; Longitudinal range=1.
Egg Type: Benthic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: West Atlantic Introducee; TEP non-endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Water column; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 10 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Continent only; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de MÚxico., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Schomburgk, R. H., 1848., The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions. London., Hist. Barbados, :1-722.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Atherinomorus stipes (M├╝ller & Troschel , 1848)

Hardhead silverside Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Atherinomorus stipes   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Atherinomorus stipes (Hardhead silverside) Atherinomorus stipes
Picture by Modder, T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes (Silversides) > Atherinidae (Silversides) > Atherinomorinae
Etymology: Atherinomorus: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane + Greek, moros = silly, stupid (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: M├╝ller & Troschel .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated.   Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), Bahamas, and Yucatan, Mexico to Brazil. Southeast Pacific: known only from Tumaco, Colombia (Ref. 9273 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251 ); common length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10 - 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-10; Anal soft rays : 9 - 13. Head wider than body (Ref. 26938 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over soft bottoms as well as in coral reefs (Ref. 5217 ). Often in large schools (Ref. 5521 ). Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 5217 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Dyer, Brian S. | Collaborators

Lavenberg, R.J. and M. Chernoff , 1995. Atherinidae. Pejerreyes. p. 889-901. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9273 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 01 July 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 26.3 - 28.2, mean 27.5 (based on 695 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00397 - 0.01261), b=3.12 (2.96 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Casal, Christine Marie V. Fish Forum
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