The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999);
Fish of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Body subcylindrical, laterally compressed. Distal end of upper jaw extending backward to vertical through anterior border of pupil. Teeth in jaws small, villiform. Free edge of dentary bone almost flat, with no posterior elevation. Gill rakers 18 to 25 on lower limb of first gill arch. First dorsal fin with IV to VII spines; second dorsal fin with I spine and 8 to 11 soft rays; anal fin with I spine and 12 to 17 soft rays; pectoral fins with 14 to 18 soft rays. Body scales large; 39 to 44 midlateral scales; 5 or 5.5 transverse scales rows along side of body. Predorsal scales 17 to 22; interdorsal scales 6 to 9. Body blue-green and translucent with silvery parts of abdomen and head frequently iridescent; midlateral band wider than 1 scale row along side, silvery and often merging with silvery abdomen on anterior part of body. Fins clear to dusky, pectoral fins frequently with blackish blotch.
Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. The fish disperse over reefs at sunset, keeping about 2 to 4 m apart. Feeding occurs at night and food includes planktonic eggs, crustaceans, foraminiferans, amphipods, ostracods, calenoid c
Distributed in the Indo-Pacific from Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaii, the Samoan and Phoenix islands, north to southern Japan and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland, Australia and New Caledonia. It is common in waters around Taiwan.
Extremely important as forage fish for larger species. Sold fresh, or salted and dried.