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Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi, 1846)
PERUVIAN GRUNT
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Haemulidae   Anisotremus

Anisotremus scapularis
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Anisotremus scapularis

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Anisotremus scapularis
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Anisotremus scapularis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • dark grey; ll: silver
  • dorsal fin and a: front rays longest - greater than triangular fin
Dorsal rays XII,14-17; anal rays III,12-13; body depth 2.1- 2.5 in standard length; scale rows of back ascending obliquely; lips thick; caudal fin straight or slightly concave; anterior rays of dorsal and anal fin much taller than posterior rays, giving these fins a somewhat triangular outline.

Dark charcoal grey to brownish on upper half, white below; a silvery-white streak along lateral line (rapidly fades after death).

Size: grows to 40 cm.

Habitat: forms large schools on rocky reefs.

Depth: 5-30 m.

Galapagos Islands, Malpelo, southern Colombia to Chile.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 5 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic worms; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=5; Southern limit=-23; Western limit=-93; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=28; Longitudinal range=23.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 40 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Continent + Island (s); Peruvian province, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Hooker, Y., 1998., Fauna asociada a las aguas cálidas presentes en la Bahía de Pucusana durante El Niño 1997-98, Junio a Julio de 1997., Instituto del Mar del Peru, Informe., 85:3-20.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • McCosker , J.E. , Merlen , G. , Long , D.J. , Gilmore , R.G. and Villon, C., 1997., Deepslope fishes collected during the 1995 eruption of isla Fernandina, Galapagos., Charles Darwin Foundation, Noticias de Galápagos., 58:22-26.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Tschudi, J. J. von., 1846., Ichthyologie. Pp. ii-xxx + 1-35, Pls. 1-6. In: Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana., Scheitlin & Zollikofer:1-693.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi , 1846)

Peruvian grunt Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Anisotremus scapularis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Anisotremus scapularis (Peruvian grunt) Anisotremus scapularis
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Haemulidae (Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Anisotremus: Greek, anisos = unequal + Greek, trema, -atos = hole (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 5227 ), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 5227 ).   Tropical; 1°N - 24°S, 92°W - 70°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: De Manta, Ecuador to Antofagasta, Chile.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482 ); max. published weight: 896.00 g (Ref. 53696 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Forms schools in open water above rocky, boulder strewn reefs and slopes and hard substrate with good water movement (Ref. 5227 ). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and floating organic matter (Ref. 28023 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Thomson, D.A. , 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 25 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.2 - 23.9, mean 20.5 (based on 98 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00720 - 0.02306), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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