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- Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
|http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/64072498-f9f8-4b88-9021-a7a07220be22 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/64072498-f9f8-4b88-9021-a7a07220be22|
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/64072498-f9f8-4b88-9021-a7a07220be22 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/669cf0c8-64ae-4a18-a2d7-a813939d84af;jsessionid=E9820E188CCEE62AB676FBE4726E0DB7
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/669cf0c8-64ae-4a18-a2d7-a813939d84af;jsessionid=E9820E188CCEE62AB676FBE4726E0DB7 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/669cf0c8-64ae-4a18-a2d7-a813939d84af;jsessionid=E9820E188CCEE62AB676FBE4726E0DB7
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Following modified from FishBase
|http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Amblyraja&speciesname=hyperborea ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Amblyraja&speciesname=hyperborea|
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Amblyraja&speciesname=hyperborea ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Amblyraja-hyperborea.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)
Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) >
(Skates and rays) >
Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 92 - 2925 m (Ref.
), usually 300 - 1500 m (Ref.
). Polar; -1°C - 4°C (Ref.
); 82°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E
Arctic: basins and continental slopes; from eastern Canada at Jones Sound, Smith Sound, and Baffin Bay to the Greenland, Norwegian, Barents, Kara and Laptev Seas; Chukchi and Beaufort Seas from the Chukchi Borderland to Banks Island, Canada. Probably have a much wider distribution, including the Southern Hemisphere.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 94 - ? cm
Max length : 112 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
Grey-brown with large dark blotches (Ref.
). Tail very short (Ref.
). Mid-dorsal row of stout thorns which extend from nuchal region to first dorsal fin. Thorns close posterior to the pelvic girdle larger than along the tail (Ref.
). Upper surface dark mouse gray, dark blue gray or dark brown with small rounded spots. Lower surface white and sooty in variable patterns (Ref.
Found on the lower continental slope (Ref.
), probably most common on deep slopes and at abyssal depths (Ref.
). Benthic (Ref.
); meso- to bathybenthic, on muddy substrate (Ref.
). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals (Ref.
). Prefer polar temperatures from hatching to maturity and eggs are incubated successfully and regularly in water as cold as 0°C (Ref.
). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref.
). Egg capsule measures 81-125 mm long and 50-80 mm wide (Ref.
). Hatching size at 16-18 cm TL (Ref.
) (15 cm long in Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref.
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn
, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
Least Concern (LC)
; Date assessed:
16 August 2015
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
; publication :
Sea Around Us
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Check for Aquarium maintenance
Check for Species Fact Sheets
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Websites from users
Catalog of Fishes
| IGFA World Record |
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
| Reef Life Survey |
Tree of Life
) | World Records Freshwater Fishing |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 0.3 - 8.8, mean 3.3 (based on 3242 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00271 - 0.01168), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Agustin, Liza Q.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
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