Disc very broad, its length 1.67 in its width. Snout short, 2.4 in head, forms pointed lobe at low level in front. Eyes not visible from above. 2.2snout. Spiracles large, deep, open laterally. Nostrils confluent with mouth, free hind edge of valve fringed. Teeth with broad median row and 3 narrow lateral rows each side. Gill openings small, subequal. One dorsal fin, small, origin nearly opposite ends of ventral bases. Ventrals about twice as long as wide, outer angle rounded, hind margin a broad curve from the outer angle to the end of the base. Pectorals subfalciform. Tail long, slender, whiplike; no caudal spine. Speclmen in formalin black brown, with five or six narrow bands of lighter, bluish. Whitish below.
Occurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to at least 70 m depth. May enter brackish water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, snails, and bony fishes. Ovoviviparous. With litters of up to 4 young. Size at birth about 17 cm WD.
India, Ceylon, Burma, Pinang Singapore, East Indies, Philippines, Cochin China, Japan, Australia, Victoria, Taiwan.
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Philippines, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Possibly in the Red Sea and eastern and southern Africa. e Indo-West Pacific from the Persian/Arabian Gulf westwards to Indonesia, and north to Taiwan, China and southern Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 39 - 42 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref.
This small species of
(reaching to about 72.0 cm DW) is distinguished by the following set of characters: dorsal surface is greyish brown with a series of usually 8 (sometimes 7) transverse pale bluish bands (which are sometimes faint), no dark spots or blotches; ventral surface is whitish, pectoral fins is dusky distally; tail is rather long (1.4-1.8 times DW); without stinging spine; short and narrow head; fleshy rostral lobe, relatively broad, short, with a rounded apex; teeth usually in 7 rows in each jaw, with a broad median row flanked by 3 smaller rows on each side; dorsal-fin origin level with pelvic-fin insertions; radials of pectoral-fin 84-88 (excluding concealed propterygial radials anterior of eyes); total vertebral centra (including synarcual) 83-93; males have 16-19 pelvic radials (excluding clasper); females have 20 or 21 pelvic radials (Ref.
Occurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to at least 70 m depth (Ref.
); over soft substrates to at least 115 m (Ref.
). May enter brackish water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, snails, and bony fishes (Ref.
). Ovoviviparous (Ref.
). With litters of up to 4 young. Size at birth about 17 cm WD (Ref.
). Caught frequently, but in lower numbers, by bottom trawl and inshore gillnet fisheries in some areas. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its small size (Ref.58048).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref.
). Gives birth to ~4 pups; born at ~17 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 23.8 - 28.3, mean 27.3 (based on 618 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00119 - 0.01213), b=3.08 (2.82 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4).
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
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