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Quercus macrocarpa Michx.
BUR OAK
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Fagaceae   Quercus

Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - general

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Quercus macrocarpa, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, bark - of a large tree
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - view up trunk

Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - whole upper surface

Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - unspecified
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - unspecified

Quercus macrocarpa, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, fruit - as borne on the plant
Quercus macrocarpa, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, twig - orientation of petioles

Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - male
Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - female
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, inflorescence - whole - female

Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - general
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Quercus macrocarpa, whole tree or vine - view up trunk

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma glandicola @ BPI (1)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia kansensis @ BPI (7)
Aphididae  Myzocallis ( @ AMNH_PBI (12); CSUC_TCN (8); NCSU (5); CSCA_TCN (2)

Neosymydobius albasiphus @ CSUC_TCN (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Fusicoccum quercus @ BPI (2)

Phyllosticta livida @ BPI (6)

Phyllosticta phomiformis @ BPI (4)

Phyllosticta quercus @ BPI (2)
Chionosphaeraceae  Chionosphaera apobasidialis @ BPI (1)
Chlamydomonadaceae  Sphaerella spleniata @ BPI (2)
Cicadellidae  Alebra aurea @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Chlorotettix ( @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Empoasca fabae @ III (1)

Erasmoneura vulnerata @ III (1)

Eratoneura acantha @ III (1)

Eratoneura accola @ III (1)

Eratoneura adunca @ III (1)

Eratoneura affinis @ III (4)

Eratoneura ardens @ III (1)

Eratoneura basilaris @ III (4)

Eratoneura bigemina @ III (6)

Eratoneura brevipes @ III (8)

Eratoneura campora @ III (3)

Eratoneura carmini @ III (57)

Eratoneura curta @ III (1); NCSU (1)

Eratoneura curvata @ III (21)

Eratoneura externa @ III (2)

Eratoneura fergersoni @ III (3)

Eratoneura forfex @ III (2)

Eratoneura gemina @ III (2)

Eratoneura gilesi @ III (3)

Eratoneura guicei @ III (22); NCSU (1); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura haysensis @ III (19); NCSU (1); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura hymac @ III (3)

Eratoneura imbricariae @ III (1)

Eratoneura impar @ III (4)

Eratoneura inepta @ III (2)

Eratoneura ligata @ III (10)

Eratoneura lucyae @ III (2); NCSU (1)

Eratoneura macra @ III (1)

Eratoneura maculata @ III (1)

Eratoneura maga @ III (1)

Eratoneura manus @ III (2)

Eratoneura millsi @ III (4)

Eratoneura minor @ III (1)

Eratoneura mirifica @ III (2)

Eratoneura osborni @ III (2)

Eratoneura parva @ III (3)

Eratoneura patris @ III (1)

Eratoneura penesica @ III (2)

Eratoneura prolixa @ III (15)

Eratoneura propria @ III (4)

Eratoneura restricta @ III (1)

Eratoneura richardsi @ III (1)

Eratoneura solita @ III (3)

Eratoneura stannardi @ NCSU (1)

Eratoneura stephensoni @ III (1)

Eratoneura tammina @ III (1)

Eratoneura tantilla @ III (8)

Eratoneura teres @ III (2)

Erythridula clavata @ III (1)

Erythridula cornipes @ III (1)

Erythridula fulvocephala @ III (1)

Erythridula kanza @ III (3)

Erythridula minuta @ III (2)

Erythridula noeva @ III (2)

Erythridula obliqua @ III (3)

Erythridula parvispicata @ III (1)

Erythridula tenuispica @ III (1)

Erythridula tridens @ III (1)

Erythridula unicuspidis @ III (1)

Erythroneura delicata @ III (1)

Erythroneura rubra @ III (1)

Erythroneura vitis @ III (2)

Paraphlepsius irroratus @ UKYL_TCN (1)

Paraphlepsius @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Typhlocyba @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Coccodiniaceae  Coccodinium bartschii @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium litschaueri @ BPI (1)

Corticium oakesii @ BPI (1)

Corticium subinvisibile @ BPI (1)
Cronartiaceae  Cronartium asclepiadeum @ BPI (1)

Cronartium californicum @ BPI (4)

Cronartium cerebrum @ BPI (26)

Cronartium conigenum @ BPI (4)

Cronartium fusiforme @ BPI (23)

Cronartium meineckii @ BPI (5)

Cronartium quercuum @ BPI (5)

Cronartium strobilinum @ BPI (22)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium epiphyllum @ BPI (3)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium canadense @ BPI (2)

Gloeosporium martinii @ BPI (1)

Marssonina martinii @ BPI (15)

Marssonina quercina @ BPI (4)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe taleola @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype americana @ BPI (1)

Diatrype platystoma @ BPI (1)

Eutypa aspera @ BPI (1)

Eutypa lata @ BPI (2)
Elsinoaceae  Sphaceloma @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera alni @ BPI (9)

Microsphaera quercina @ BPI (6)

Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (4)

Phyllactinia suffulta @ BPI (1)

Sphaerotheca lanestris @ BPI (4)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Gnomonia setacea @ BPI (2)

Gnomonia veneta @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete curtisii @ BPI (6)

Hymenochaete rubiginosa @ BPI (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora quercifolia @ BPI (1)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterographium kansense @ BPI (7)
Kermesidae  Nanokermes pubescens @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Membracidae  Atymna helena @ UDCC_NRI (16)

Atymna querci @ UDCC_NRI (3)

Cyrtolobus dixianus @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Cyrtolobus fenestratus @ UDCC_NRI (1)

Cyrtolobus fuliginosus @ UDCC_NRI (1)

Cyrtolobus fuscipennis @ UDCC_NRI (2)

Cyrtolobus griseus @ UDCC_NRI (22); AMNH_ENT (6)

Cyrtolobus inermis @ UDCC_NRI (1)

Cyrtolobus maculifrontis @ UDCC_TCN (6); UDCC_NRI (17)

Cyrtolobus pallidifrontis @ UDCC_NRI (2)

Cyrtolobus pulchellus @ UDCC_NRI (3)

Cyrtolobus tuberosus @ UDCC_TCN (1); UDCC_NRI (1)

Heliria molaris @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Ophiderma definita @ UDCC_NRI (1)

Telamona monticola @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Telamona spreta @ UDCC_TCN (3)

Telamona tiliae @ UDCC_TCN (1)

Telamona westcotti @ UDCC_TCN (4)

Xantholobus muticus @ UDCC_TCN (10)
Meruliaceae  Merulius corium @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Americodema nigrolineatum @ AMNH_PBI (21)

Blepharidopterus provancheri @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Ceratocapsus modestus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Ceratocapsus pilosulus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Lopidea @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Noctuocoris fumidus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Paraproba capitata @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phytocoris brooksi @ AMNH_PBI (10)

Pilophorus vicarius @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Reuteria querci @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Schaffneria davisi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Trigonotylus caelestialium @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella spleniata @ 609693B (1); BPI (5); 609693A (1)

Septoria quercicola @ BPI (1)
Nidulariaceae  Crucibulum vulgare @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes everhartii @ BPI (1)

Fomes fraxinophilus @ BPI (2)

Fomes gilvus @ BPI (1)

Fomes ohiensis @ BPI (3)

Polyporus dryophilus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus obtusus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (1)

Polyporus @ BPI (1)

Poria callosa @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (2)

Pycnoporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (1)
Rhynchostomataceae  Rhynchostoma sphaerincola @ BPI (1)
Sarcosomataceae  Strumella coryneoidea @ BPI (7)

Urnula craterium @ BPI (2)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex cinnamomeus @ BPI (1)

Irpex flavus @ BPI (1)

Irpex ravenelii @ BPI (2)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus griseocanus @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus oakesii @ BPI (2)

Stereum frustulatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum gausapatum @ BPI (4)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina caerulescens @ BPI (7)
Teichosporaceae  Teichospora obducens @ BPI (2)
Tingidae  Corythucha ciliata @ MEMU_ENT (2)
Tremellaceae  Tremella subanomala @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium fructigenum @ BPI (1)
Tubeufiaceae  Helicosporium lumbricoides @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Valsa lata @ BPI (1)

Valsa macrocarpa @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia vernicosa @ BPI (1)

Daldinia @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon mediterraneum @ BPI (2)
_  Actinopelte dryina @ BPI (3)

Ambrosiella brunnea @ BPI (1)

Ascomycetella @ BPI (3)

Catenuloxyphium semiovatum @ BPI (1)

Ceratophorum uncinatum @ BPI (4)

Sporidesmium toruloides @ BPI (1)

Sporidesmium versisporum @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (1)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Fagaceae | Quercus

47. Quercus macrocarpa Michaux, plates 2, 3. 1801.

Bur oak, burr oak, mossy-cup oak, chêne à gros fruits

Quercus macrocarpa var. depressa (Nuttall) Engelmann; Q . mandanensis Rydberg

Trees , deciduous, to 30(-50) m. Bark dark gray, scaly or flat-ridged. Twigs grayish or reddish, 2-4 mm diam., often forming extensive flat, radiating, corky wings, finely pubescent. Buds 2-5(-6) mm, glabrous. Leaves: petiole (6-)15-25(-30) mm. Leaf blade obovate to narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, often fiddle-shaped, (50-)70-150(-310) × (40-)50-130(-160) mm, base rounded to cuneate, margins moderately to deeply lobed, toothed, deepest sinuses near midleaf (at least in proximal 2/3), sinuses reaching nearly to midrib, longer lobes grading into shallow lobes or merely simple teeth distally, shallower, compound lobes proximally, secondary veins arched, divergent, 4-5(-10) on each side, apex broadly rounded or ovate; surfaces abaxially light green or whitish, with minute appressed-stellate hairs forming dense, rarely sparse, tomentum, erect felty hairs absent, adaxially dark green or dull gray, sparsely puberulent to glabrate. Acorns 1-3 on stout peduncle (0-)6-20(-25) mm; cup hemispheric or turbinate, (8-)15-50 mm deep × (10-)20-60 mm wide, enclosing 1/2-7/8 nut or more, scales closely appressed, laterally connate, broadly triangular, keeled, tuberculate, finely grayish tomentose, those near margins often with soft awns to 5-10 mm or more, forming fringe around nut; nut light brown or grayish, ovoid-ellipsoid or oblong, (15-)25-50 × (10-)20-40 mm, finely puberulent or floccose. Cotyledons distinct. 2 n = 24.

Flowering in spring. Bottomlands, riparian slopes, poorly drained areas, prairies, usually on limestone or calcareous clays (in nw part of range on dry slopes and ridges, prairies); 0-1000 m; Man., N.B., Sask., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Quercus macrocarpa is one of our most cold-tolerant oak species; it also endures a wide variety of other harsh conditions including poor dry soils and wet, poorly drained, and inundated locations. Putative hybrids with Q . bicolor are common in the northeastern part of its range, where the two species often occur together in wet, poorly drained habitats. The effect of this contact may be partially responsible for morphologic differences across the range of Q . macrocarpa . The large acorns are best developed in the southern part of the range, and a clinal decrease in acorn size and extent of the mossy fringe on the acorn cup seems to occur as one travels from south to north. In the northwest part of its range, Q . macrocarpa varies clinally to smaller, shrubbier forms on bluffs and hillsides, with smaller, less fringed cups, that are the basis of Q . macrocarpa var. depressa (Nuttall) Engelmann and Q . mandanensis Rydberg. These scrubby forms may merit formal recognition after more thorough study; they are treated here as clinal variants of the species. Quercus macrocarpa forms putative hybrids also with Q . alba in the savannah-type regions of the midwest. Putative hybrids with Q . gambelii occur out of the range of Q . macrocarpa .

Quercus macrocarpa is the only oak species native to Montana (in the southeast corner). Wood of Q . macrocarpa is similar to that of Q . alba and produces one of the best and most durable oak lumbers.

Native Americans used Quercus macrocarpa medicinally to treat heart troubles, cramps, diarrhea, Italian itch, and broken bones, to expel pinworms, and as an astringent (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Updated: 2020-10-21 14:12:57 gmt
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