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Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw.
CUT-LEAVED BITTER-CRESS
Cardamine laciniata; Cutleaf toothwort; Cardamine laciniata (Muhl ex Willd) Alph Wood; Dentaria concatenata Michx; Dentaria laciniata Muhl ex Willd

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Brassicaceae   Cardamine

Cardamine concatenata, Cut-leaved Toothwort
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Cardamine concatenata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

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Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf Toothwort
© Copyright Cody Parmer 2010 · 6
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf Toothwort
Cardamine concatenata, Toothwort
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata, Toothwort

Cardamine concatenata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata
Cardamine concatenata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata

Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort

Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata, Cutleaf toothwort

Cardamine concatenata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cardamine concatenata
Cardamine concatenata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 4
Cardamine concatenata

Cardamine concatenata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 4
Cardamine concatenata
Cardamine concatenata, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cardamine concatenata, whole plant - in flower - general view

Cardamine concatenata, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cardamine concatenata, fruit - as borne on the plant
Cardamine concatenata, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cardamine concatenata, whole plant - in flower - general view
Overview
The leaves of Cardamine concatenata are in whorls of 3 around the center of the stem, that is, all three leaves connect to the same area of the stem, in the center. The leaves are deeply lobed, and often the lobes are deep enough that the leaves appear to have 3 or 5 leaflets. The leaf margins are toothed. There may be more than one stem. At flowering, the basal leaves are not usually present. The flowers are in a cluster at the top of each stem. They are white or pale pink or pale purple with 4 petals that are rounded at the ends. There are 6 stamens and one pistil.

Geographic distribution
This species has been reported on the Seven Sinkholes Trail.

References
Horn, Dennis and Tavia Cathcart. Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley, and the Southern Appalachians: The Official Field Guide of the Tennessee Native Plant Society. Lone Pine Publishing, 2005.

Supported by

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena arabis @ AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (37)

Andrena barbara @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Andrena carlini @ AMNH_BEE (6); CUIC_ENT (23)

Andrena dunningi @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena forbesii @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena hippotes @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena imitatrix @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena nasonii @ CUIC_ENT (41)

Andrena rugosa @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Andrena vicina @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Apidae  Xylocopa virginica @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Halictidae  Lasioglossum foxii @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum hitchensi @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum quebecense @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Lasioglossum zephyrum @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Megachilidae  Osmia lignaria @ CUIC_ENT (3)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw. ( Dentaria laciniata ) Cutleaf Toothwort
Brassicaceae — Mustard family
Native
Cardamine concatenata
Brandywine Creek State Park
April 2002 Cardamine concatenata
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
April 2004 Cardamine concatenata
White Clay Creek State Park -- Pump House Road
April 2011 Cardamine concatenata
White Clay Creek State Park -- Possum Hill
April 2013 Cardamine concatenata
Woodlawn Trustees Preserve
April 2013 Cardamine concatenata
White Clay Creek State Park -- Judge Morris Estate
June 2014 Cardamine concatenata
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
April 2018


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Seedpods opening, captured at 1200 frames per second. The events shown were each 1/20 - 1/10 second.



Guide to Cardamine of Delaware

Search Google Delaware USDA

Photos copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 7 Page 224, 466, 470 , 477 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Brassicaceae | Cardamine

9. Cardamine concatenata (Michaux) O. Schwarz, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 46: 188. 1939.

Dentaria concatenata Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 30. 1803; Cardamine laciniata (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Alph. Wood var. integra O. E. Schulz; C. laciniata var. lasiocarpa O. E. Schulz; D. laciniata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow; D. laciniata var. alterna Farwell; D. laciniata var. coalescens Fernald; D. laciniata var. integra (O. E. Schulz) Fernald; D. laciniata var. latifolia Farwell; D. laciniata var. opposita Farwell

Perennials; usually sparsely pubescent, sometimes glabrous. Rhizomes (tuberiform, fragile), moniliform, segments fusiform, 2-10(-20) mm diam. (fleshy). Stems erect, unbranched, (1-)2-4(-5.5) dm, glabrous or pubescent distally. Rhizomal leaves 3-foliolate, (7-) 10-20(-30) cm, leaflets sessile; petiole (4-)7-18(-25) cm; lateral leaflets similar to terminal, blade sometimes smaller; terminal leaflet blade oblong, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or linear, 2.5-6 cm, base cuneate, margins coarsely dentate to incised, laciniate, or 3-lobed (lobes usually toothed to incised, rarely entire, surfaces puberulent or not, trichomes 0.2-0.3 mm). Cauline leaves (2 or) 3, 3-foliolate (usually whorled or opposite, rarely alternate, similar in morphology to rhizomal leaves), petiolate, leaflets petiolulate or subsessile; petiole (1-)1.5-6(-7.5) cm, base not auriculate; lateral leaflets sessile, blade similar to terminal, sometimes smaller; terminal leaflet subsessile or petiolulate (to 3 cm), blade lanceolate, linear, or oblanceolate, (3-)4-10(-12) cm × (3-)5-20 (-25) mm, margins usually coarsely dentate to incised, rarely subentire (margins minutely puberulent). Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels ascending to divaricate, (6-) 10-27(-33) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, (4-)5-8 × 2-4 mm, lateral pair slightly saccate basally; petals white to pale pink, oblanceolate, (8-)10-20 × (3-)4-7(-9) mm, (short-clawed, apex rounded); filaments: median pairs 8-12 mm, lateral pair 6-8 mm; anthers oblong-linear, 1.5-2.5 mm. Fruits linear-lanceolate, (2-)2.5-3.8(-4.8) cm × 1.5-3 mm; (valves glabrous or sparsely pubescent); ovules 10-14 per ovary; style (2-)5-9(-12) mm. Seeds brown, oblong, 1.6-3 × 1.8-2 mm. 2 n = 128-256.

Flowering Feb-May. Wooded bottoms and bluffs, rich woods, limestone cliffs and outcrops, rocky banks, mesic forests, moist areas with leaf litter, floodplain woods; 0-1000 m; Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Updated: 2021-01-19 02:53:30 gmt
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