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Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
COMMON BUTTONBUSH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Rubiaceae   Cephalanthus

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

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Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis

Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush

Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis

Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis

Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis

Cephalanthus occidentalis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cephalanthus occidentalis, fruit - as borne on the plant

Cephalanthus occidentalis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cephalanthus occidentalis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
Cephalanthus occidentalis, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Cephalanthus occidentalis, twig - orientation of petioles

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aleyrodidae  Dialeurodes citri @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Discosia maculicola @ BPI (1)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ NCSU_ENT (51)
Apidae  Bombus perplexus @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Arthoniaceae  Arthonia caesia @ GAL (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta cephalanthi @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta @ BPI (1)
Capnodiaceae  Capnodium elongatum @ BPI (1)
Clavicipitaceae  Cordyceps clavulata @ BPI (2)
Coccidae  Parthenolecanium corni @ MEMU_ENT (2)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrypella cephalanthi @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella @ BPI (1)
Dictyopharidae  Rhynchomitra microrhina @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera alni @ 875862A (1); BPI (7)

Microsphaera semitosta @ BPI (8)

Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (1)

Phyllactinia suffulta @ BPI (2)
Halictidae  Agapostemon splendens @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium cephalanthi @ BPI (2)

Scleroderris cephalanthi @ BPI (3)
Hyphodermataceae  Aegerita candida @ BPI (1)
Leptosphaeriaceae  Coniothyrium cephalanthi @ BPI (2)
Lycaenidae  Calycopis cecrops @ I_TQBH (2)
Megachilidae  Megachile albitarsis @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Megachile mendica @ AMNH_BEE (5)

Megachile xylocopoides @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Miridae  Agnocoris pulverulentus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Ceratocapsus pumilus @ MEMU_ENT (2); AMNH_PBI (2)

Ceratocapsus punctulatus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Ceratocapsus quadrispiculus @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Lygus lineolaris @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Neurocolpus nubilus @ MEMU_ENT (59)

Orthotylus ornatus @ MEMU_ENT (7)

Phytocoris erectus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Phytocoris tibialis @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Prepops rubrovittatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora cephalanthi @ BPI (6)

Cercospora perniciosa @ BPI (2)

Ramularia cephalanthi @ BPI (2)

Septoria cephalanthi @ BPI (9)
Mymaridae  Gonatocerus ashmeadi @ UCRC_ENT (2); UCRC_ENT310463B (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)
Pentatomidae  Euschistus servus @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Physciaceae  Hyperphyscia @ GAL (1)
Pleosporaceae  Epicoccum maculatum @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Polyporus glomeratus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus illinoisensis @ BPI (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia seymouriana @ BPI (36)
Reduviidae  Phymata fasciata @ UCR_ENT (2)
Rhopalidae  Arhyssus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Niesthrea @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex lacteus @ BPI (1)

Odontia crustula @ BPI (1)

Odontia lactea @ BPI (1)
Teloschistaceae  Caloplaca cerina @ GAL (2)
Trichogrammatidae  Ufens ceratus @ UCRC_ENT (1); UCRC_ENT310463A (1)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium cephalanthi @ BPI (1)

Aecidium @ BPI (1)
_  Ascochyta cephalanthi @ BPI (1)

Uredo cephalanthi @ BPI (3)

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Following modified from University of Southern Indiana
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.usi.edu/science/biology/TwinSwamps/Cephalanthus_occidentalis.htm

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/coccidentalis3.htm

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Following modified from Missouri Plants
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Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Cephalanthus occidentalis plant

Family - Rubiaceae

Stems - Woody, to 5m tall, multiple or with a single trunk, glabrous.

Leaves - Opposite or whorled, to 15cm long, 7cm broad, typically oblong to broadly elliptic, glabrous or with some tufts of hairs in axils of nerves (veins), petiolate.

Cephalanthus occidentalis leaves

Inflorescence - Globose head of many flowers, (to 3cm in diameter), on single peduncle from leaf axils and terminal.

Flowers - White. Corolla tubular, 4-lobed, +/- 1cm long. Style long protruding from corolla. Stamens 4, included within corolla.

Cephalanthus occidentalis flowers

Flowering - June - August.

Habitat - Moist to wet ground, occasionally cultivated.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This is a very common shrub in swamps and wet woods. It is toxic if eaten.
Steyermark lists two varieties for this state. Variety occidentalis (pictured above) has glabrous leaves and stems. Variety pubescens has pubescent branches and leaves which are pubescent on the lower surface.

Photographs taken near Hwy. H, Shannon County, MO., 7-18-03.


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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Buttonbush
Rubiaceae — Madder family
Native
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Lums Pond State Park
July 2002 Cephalanthus occidentalis
White Clay Creek State Park -- Thompson Station Road
July 2002 Cephalanthus occidentalis
White Clay Creek State Park -- Pump House Road
June 2011

Search Google Delaware USDA

Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CEOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CEOC2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CEOC2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CEOC2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CEOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CEOC2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
common buttonbush

Image of Cephalanthus occidentalis

General Information
Symbol: CEOC2
Group: Dicot
Family: Rubiaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Tree
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Characteristics
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Cephalanthus thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species . Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

©James H. Miller. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

©Ted Bodner. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

©Ted Bodner. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

©James H. Miller. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

©Elaine Haug. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany . United States, VA, Alexandria, Dyke Marsh. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, LA. Usage Requirements .

©Nelson DeBarros. United States. Usage Requirements .

©Jim Stasz. United States, NJ. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 3: 255. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
CEOCC2 Cephalanthus occidentalis L. var. californicus Benth.
CEOCP2 Cephalanthus occidentalis L. var. pubescens Raf.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Asteridae
Order Rubiales
Family Rubiaceae – Madder family
Genus Cephalanthus L. – buttonbush
Species Cephalanthus occidentalis L. – common buttonbush

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West OBL
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain OBL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Great Plains OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast OBL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (CEOC2)
CalPhotos (CEOC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CEOC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CEOCC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (CEOCP2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (CEOC2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (CEOC2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (CEOC2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (CEOC2)
Native Plants Network (CEOC2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (CEOC2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (CEOC2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (CEOC2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (CEOC2)
Related Websites
AZ-Southwest Environmental Information Network (CEOC2)
CT-Connecticut Botanical Society (CEOC2)
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (CEOC2)
FL-University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service (CEOC2)
MO-Grow Native (CEOC2)
MO-Missouri Plants (CEOC2)
NC-North Carolina State University Plant Fact Sheet (CEOC2)
OK-Oklahoma Biological Survey (CEOC2)
TX-Image Archive of Central Texas Plants (CEOC2)
VA-VTree ID (CEOC2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Minor Minor Minor
Miller Minor Moderate Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin
Miller Moderate

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.
Miller, J.H., and K.V. Miller. 1999. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses . Southern Weed Science Society.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cephalanthus+occidentalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cephalanthus+occidentalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 73
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cephalanthus occidentalis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0024 3291 4863 0122 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 5205 1622 2824 0089 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 8076 3101 0667 0034 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 5205 1622 2824 0088 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 8120 3181 4954 0019 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 5205 1622 2824 0087 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 8120 3181 4563 0024 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 8253 3202 3492 0043 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 1335 3153 0213 0062 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0024 3291 4863 0121 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
ID: 0000 0000 0705 1016 [detail]
© 2005 George W. Hartwell

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
ID: 0000 0000 0705 1017 [detail]
© 2005 George W. Hartwell

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
California Button Willow
ID: 0000 0000 1006 0113 [detail]
© 2006 Erin McDermott

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 0000 0607 1056 [detail]
© 2007 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 0000 0607 1057 [detail]
© 2007 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 0000 0607 1058 [detail]
© 2007 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
California Button Willow
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0464 [detail]
© 2007 Dee E. Warenycia

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0656 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0657 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0658 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0659 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0660 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0661 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Buttonbush
ID: 0000 1111 2222 0662 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cephalanthus+occidentalis+var.+californicus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cephalanthus+occidentalis+var.+californicus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 1
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cephalanthus occidentalis var. californicus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cephalanthus occidentalis var. californicus
Cephalanthus occidentalis var. californicus
California Button Willow
ID: 0000 0000 1210 1569 [detail]
© 2010 Zoya Akulova

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2018-12-18 23:10:39 gmt
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