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Calliopsis andreniformis Smith, 1853
Calliopsis flavipes Smith, 1853; Calliopsis lepidus Cresson, 1878; Panurgus vernalis Provancher, 1882

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Calliopsis
Subgenus: Calliopsis

Calliopsis andreniformis, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Mid-Atlantic Phenology

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Calliopsis andreniformis, female face
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, female face
Calliopsis andreniformis, Female -dorsal body
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Female -dorsal body

Calliopsis andreniformis, Female-forewing
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Female-forewing
Calliopsis andreniformis, Felae -S6
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Felae -S6

Calliopsis andreniformis, Female-scutum pronotal angle
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Female-scutum pronotal angle
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, antenna
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, antenna

Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, dorsal body2
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, dorsal body2
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, face1
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, face1

Calliopsis andreniformis, Male forewing
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male forewing
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, genitalia ventral view
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, genitalia ventral view

Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, T1-3
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, T1-3
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, pronotum collar scutum
Deana M. Crumbling · 9
Calliopsis andreniformis, Male, pronotum collar scutum

Calliopsis andreniformis Female
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Calliopsis andreniformis Female
Calliopsis andreniformis Male
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Calliopsis andreniformis Male
Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 7 mm.; black; face considerably longer than distance between eyes; eyes subparallel; cheeks considerably narrower than eyes; a spot on supraclypeal area, a narrow, median line on clypeus, and lateral facial maculae yellow, the lateral maculae obliquely truncate above at level of antennae; process of labrum somewhat broader than long, apical margin broadly rounded; facial foveae quite distinct, slightly broadened toward lower end, but this abruptly narrowed, terminating slightly above level of antennae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli subequal to distance between them; flagellum becoming pale ferruginous apically, median segments about as broad as long; face shining, punctures between antennae and ocelli close, deep and distinct, rather fine, becoming rather sparse, irregular and obscure on vertex laterally, minute and quite sparse on the shining cheeks, very sparse and obscure below antennae but quite coarse and deep on clypeus; pubescence of head and thorax rather long and copious but not hiding surface, dark on dorsum of thorax and vertex, pale on thorax laterally and beneath, on upper portion of face and cheeks, with a few coarse, erect, dark hairs on clypeus; tubercles and an interrupted marginal line on pronotum yellow; tegulae fuscous; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma brownish; 1st recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell very slightly nearer base than 2nd does to apex; legs dark except for a small, basal, testaceous spot on front and mid tibiae; spurs ferruginous; dorsum of thorax shining, punctures of scutum very fine but deep and distinct, very close and exceedingly fine on scutum anteriorly, becoming slightly more widely separated and coarse posteriorly and on scutellum, pleura less shining, punctures rather coarse but shallow and rather sparse; apical margins of abdominal terga rather narrowly depressed, rather deeply so laterally, more or less hyaline, occupied by rather dense, pale, apical, pubescent fasciae these somewhat interrupted on the more basal segments, discs of the terga with very fine and close punctures, these becoming obscure on the more apical segments, discal pubescence very short, but rather dense, fuscous, longer and more erect on tergum 5 where a quite dense, fuscous, apical fimbria is formed.

MALE—Length 6 mm.; black; length of face subequal to distance between eyes above; eyes slightly convergent below; cheeks much narrower than eyes; labrum, mandibles, scape and entire face below a transverse line slightly above antennae, entirely yellow; process of labrum somewhat broader than long, apical margin broadly rounded; facial foveae narrow and somewhat elongate, quite obscure, terminated at margin of facial maculation; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli subequal to distance between them; flagellum largely yellow, median segments about as broad as long; puncturation of face between antennae and ocelli very close, minute and obscure, becoming very sparse and minute on vertex laterally, and on the shining cheeks where they are somewhat closer, those on maculated areas hardly evident; pubescence of head and thorax rather long and erect, somewhat dense, yellowish in large part; tubercles and an interrupted marginal line on pronotum yellow; tegulae fuscous, with an anterior yellow spot; wings subhyaline, somewhat clouded apically, strongly violaceous, veins and stigma brownish, 1st recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell slightly nearer base than 2nd does to apex; legs, including even coxae and spurs, entirely yellow; dorsum of thorax shining, quite deeply and distinctly but very closely punctate, punctures on scutum anteriorly becoming minute and crowded, pleura somewhat shining, punctures very fine and quite sparse; apical margins of abdominal terga rather broadly depressed, quite deeply so laterally, with thin, whitish, apical, pubescent fasciae, these slightly interrupted on the more basal segments, discs of terga very closely and finely but quite distinctly punctate, punctures becoming more minute, close and obscure on the more apical segments, discal pubescence very short and rather dense, fuscous, not at all hiding surface; sternum 5 produced medially into an elongate, spine-like process which bears a tuft of short setae at tip; apical margin of sternum 6 produced into a pair of elongate, widely separated and compressed spine-like processes which are acute apically; sternum 7 subtriangular medially, with a bibbed process on each side at base; apical portion of sternum 8 broadly dilated, but this portion about twice as long as broad, subparallel laterally, apex very slightly incurved and rather densely pubescent beneath; gonocoxites subtriangular, rather narrowly rounded apically, penis valves very broad, prolonged medially into a sharply pointed tip with a narrow lateral process; gonostyli inevident.

DISTRIBUTION—Generally distributed over the entire Eastern United States and Southern Canada, ranging west to Texas, Colorado and North Dakota; April to September.

FLOWER RECORDS—This species is a common visitor to a wide range of host plants which include Asclepias, Castanea, Ceanothus, Chrysanthemum, Coreopsis, Erigeron, Oenothera, Oxalis, Pentstemon, Rubus and Trifolium. Roberston (1929) records it from the following additional genera: Ammannia, Amorpha, Aster, Bidens, Blephilia, Cryptotaenia, Desmodium, Dianthera, Eryngium, Gerardia, Geum, Gillenia, Hedeoma, Houstonia, Iysanthes, Lespedeza, Lippia, Lycopus, Lythrum, Malva, Melilotus, Nepeta, Polygala, Polygonum, Portulaca, Potentilla, Prunella, Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Rudbeckia, Spiranthes, Stachys, Strophostyles, Stylosanthes, Verbena and Verbesina.

Extracted from: Shinn, A.F. 1967. A Revision of the Genus Calliopsis and the biology and Ecology of C. andreniformis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). U. Kans. Sci. Bull. 46: 753-936.

The female of andreniformis was considered to resemble females of the genus Andrena, hence its name. Its closest relative is C. teucrii. The male of andreniformis is distinguished readily from that of teucrii by its entirelv yellow scape, whereas that of teucrii is brown. The female of andreniformis is distinguished from teucrii only with difficulty. The anterior slope of metasomal tergum 1 has a satiny sheen on the surface in andreniformis but has a finely lineolate polish in teucrii; the integument of the anterior portion of the dorsum of the scutum is brassy colored in andreniformis, non-metallic in teucrii.

FEMALE. Length, 7.0 mm (type 7.4 mm); forewing length, 4.8 mm (type 5.0 mm); hind wing length, 3.4 mm; clypeal length, 0.54 mm (type 0.51 mm); scutal length, 1.31 mm.

Head. Yellow areas: (1) paraocular area, except lowermost corner, below a line originating about midlevel of antenna! socket and extending diagonally upward to a pcint on the orbit slightly below or slightly above level of upper rim of antenna! socket and below lower margin of facial fovea ( to almost all black); area below level of middle portion of frontoclypeal suture tumid; (2) clypeus with narrow, longitudinal stripe medially (to all black, rarely); (4) supraclypeal area in a semilunar shape (absent, rarely); (5) absent on subantennal plate (to completely yellow). (8) Hair of vertex mixed colorless and brown, of frons fulvous, both longer than long hairs of scutum; of clypeus black. (10) Punctures along ocellocular line 2-3 pwa with smooth interspaces; impunctate area laterally adjacent to pcsterior ocellus finely roughened; punctures of frons adjacent to upper portion of frontal line deep, distinct, less than 1 pwa, interspaces brassy, faintly roughened (30X). (12) Clypeus with punctures of disc approximately equal in size to the average frontal puncture, deep, 3-4 pwa, interspaces finely roughened (to barely discernibly roughened in part) (30X). (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.31:1.21, 1.08 (type 1.33:1.26, 1.05). Facial fovea with indistinct mesa! border, broader medially, narrowed above and below. (14) Galea shiny despite minute pebbling; length intermediate between antennocellar and clypeocellar; galeal gap exceeds length of galea exposed beyond closed mandibles. (15) Head width/head length 2.16: 1.75, 1.23 (type 2.21:1.84, 1.20). (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 1.28 :1.21 :1.26 (type 1.28 :1.26:N.A.). (18) lnterocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.31:0.39:0.31:0.32 (type 0.29:0.39:0.32:0.31). (19) Ocellolabral greater than clypeal width 1.45 :l.36, 1.07. (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.90:0.71, 1.27 (type 0.90: N.A.). (21) Basal labial palpcmere 3.6 (type 3.0) times length of others combined, 40:11 (type 36:12). (22) Flagellar length about 2.3 times length of scape, 1.26:0.54 (type 1.29 :0.57).

Mesosoma. (23) Light areas yellow; medial interruption of pronotal stripe about 2.5 times mow. (24) Scutal and scutellar hairs of two kinds, longer ones brown ( to fulvous). Hair of metanotum fulvous. (25) Scutal disc with punctures fine, about 2 pwa, interspaces shiny, becoming exceedingly fine and crowded to less than 1 pwa anteriad, interspaces finely roughened and faintly (to strongly) brassy colored. (26) Dorsal enclosure of propodeum relatively dull with fine, irregularly longitudinal ridges, median pcrtion not distinctly bordered posteriorly, length not much exceeding length of lateral area. (27) Legs with light color the same as on face. (28) Spur with about 25 fine, short teeth; spur length half length of middle basitarsus, 0.51: 0.80 (type 0.51 :0.75). (30)Tegula dark brown. Humeral plate dark brown.(32) Marginal cell 6-9 subequal to and 3-4 less than 9-wt, 1:00:0.80:1.04 (type 1.05 :N .A. :1.02).

Metasoma. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures of median area extremely fine, about 2 pwa, interspaces shiny ( or with a silken sheen). Declivity of tergum 1 with a fine, silken sheen.

MALE. Length, 6.0 mm ( type 6.2 mm); fore wing length, 5.0 mm ( type 4.6 mm); hindwing length, 2.86 mm; clypeal length, 0.44 mm (type 0.53 mm); scutal length, 0.95 mm.

Head. Yellow areas: (1) paraocular area below an ascending diagonal line from upper outer edge of antenna! rim tangent to ( or indented by) lower end of facial fovea, ending on orbit slightly above level of end of facial fovea; (2) clypeus; (4) supraclypeal area extending well above level of upper antenna! rims (0.2-0.5 mow); (5) subantennal plate and adjacent antenna! rim; (6) mandible, basal two-thirds; (7) scape (sometimes with small, brown, trianguliform area on inner upper corner). (8) Hair of vertex, frons, and clypeus fulvous ( clypeus sometimes with a few apically light brown hairs to many completely light brown hairs), of gena white. (10) Punctures along ocellocular line minute, about 3 pwa (to 1 pwa), interspaces shiny; impunctate area adjacent to lateral border of posterior ocellus finely roughened; lower, dark portion of frons heavily roughened. (11) Frontal line with lower, yellow, carinate portion ending at midlevel of antenna! sockets. (12) Clypeus strongly protuberant with medial portion between clear clypeal dots raised somewhat conically ( sometimes raised as an indistinct, short longitudinal ridge). (13) Orbital convergence ratio 1.12:0.87, 1.29. (14) Galea dull, completely pebbled, length as in female; galeal gap subequal to length of galea exposed beyond closed mandibles. (15) Head width/head length as 1.85:1.53, 1.21 (type 2.16:N.A.). (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 1.11:0.87: 1.38 (type 1.21:1.04:N.A.). (18) Interocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.26 :0.34 :0.17 :0.26 ( type 0.29 :0.39 :0.24 :0.24). (19) Ocellolabral greater than clypeal width, 1:22:1.14, 1.07 (type 1.43:N.A.). (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.77:0.58, 1.33 (type 0.90:N.A.). (21) Basal labial palpomere 1.5-1.8 times length of others combined. (22) Flagella, length 3.0-3.4 times length of scape, 1.38 :0.43.

Mesosoma. (23) Yellow areas: large patch between middle coxal cavities truncate anteriorly 1 mow or more posterior to front coxae; smaller area between hind coxal cavities contiguous anteriorly with mesosternal patch; medial interruption of pronotal stripe about 2 mow. (24) Scutal and scutellar long and short hairs fulvous ( white in faded specimens). Scutellar hair pad dark brown, barely extending to mesa! end of yellow of scutellar crest. Metanotal hair pad dark brown, mesa! margins separated by about 3 mow. (25) Scutal disc with punctures fine, 1 pwa or less, interspaces finely roughened but relatively shiny (30X), becoming very fine and crowded anteriorly. (26)Dorsal enclosure of propodeum with fine, reticulate ridges medially, and distinct, fine roughening laterally. (27) Foreleg yellow (sometimes with base of coxa brown, apicutarsus testaceous); mediotarsomeres somewhat dorsoventrally flattened, widths about 0.75 times lengths. (28) Middle leg yellow ( often with base of coxa brown, femur with basal brown spot, apicotarsus testaceous); mediotarsomeres cylindrical, widths about half of length. (29) Hind leg yellow ( often with variable amounts of brown on base of coxa, inner surface of trochanter, base of femur especially inner or posterior surface; posteroventral surface of basitarsus and entire apicotarsus testaceous), mediotarsi similar to front mediotarsi but larger. (30) Tegula brown with anterior yellow spot (to all brown). Humeral plate brown (to testaceous). (32) Marginal cell 6-9 greater than, and 3-4 considerably less than 9-wt, 0.80:0.66: 0.77.

Metasoma. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures of median area very minute, smaller than on scutum, 1-2 pwa, interspaces shiny.

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype female of andreniformis, '\lo. 17.a.1798, and holotype male of f/avipes, No. 17.a.1799, both from East Florida and both collected by E. Doubleday in 1838, are in the British Museum (Natural History). The type of C. lepidus, from Georgia, collected by Morrison, is in the Aca~• emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The type of vernalis is presumably in the Provincial Museum, Quebec, Canada. The above descriptions are primarily based upon specimens from northern Georgia with comparative measurements for the female type of andreniformis and the male type of flavipes.

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype female of andreniformis, '\lo. 17.a.1798, and holotype male of f/avipes, No. 17.a.1799, both from East Florida and both collected by E. Doubleday in 1838, are in the British Museum (Natural History). The type of C. lepidus, from Georgia, collected by Morrison, is in the Aca~• emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The type of vernalis is presumably in the Provincial Museum, Quebec, Canada. The above descriptions are primarily based upon specimens from northern Georgia with comparative measurements for the female type of andreniformis and the male type of flavipes.

D1sTRIBUTION. This is the most widespread species-in the United States. It occurs in the entire eastern United States and southeastern Canada and the Maritime Provinces. With the exception of a mating pair of specimens from t~e southwestern corner of Utah, all records are from east of the Rocky Mountains and its western boundary is the Rocky Mountain Front Range from Montana to Colorado, southeast to central Oklahoma, south to East Texas and the Texas Gulf coast.

It has been collected from early April to late September in the southern states, but mostly in June and July. In the northern states it has been taken from early June to early October, but mostly in July. Doubtless, further collecting will find it with an extreme as late in the southern states as in the northern ones.

The highest altitude at which it is recorded is about 5700 feet at the foot of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains at Boulder, Colorado.

Ecologically, it occurs in bare, clayey soil (loam, clay loam, silt. loam) where small-flowered leguminous plants, especially of the clover group, thrive during its active season. It is likely to be found on almost any school campus.playground, or sports field within its range. For this reason I suggest the common name, the Campus Bee,


GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. The most striking variation in the males is in the coloration of middle and hind trochanters and femora. Males from east of the Mississippi exhibit a higher incidence and greater amount of dark color on these parts. The amount of yellow increases to a maximum with a specimen from near Parowan, Utah. The most obviously variable feature in the females is the amount of yellow on the face. It parallels the situation in the male legs. No males exhibit all brown middle or hind femora, and no females exhibit all black faces. Some females from North Carolina and Vermont, however, have the yellow reduced to a mere spot on the paraocular area and a line or dot on the disc of the clypeus. Clypeal hairs of both male and female show a similar trend although they are subject to considerable fading after preservation.

Bionomics This is fully discussed in the section on biology and ecology of C. andreniformis. FLOWER RECORDS. Achillea, Ailanthus altissima, Ammania coccinea, Amorpha canescens, Anaphalis margaritacea, Asclepias, Aster ericoides villosus, Bidens aristosa, Boltonia asteroides, Brassica, Castanea pumila, Ceanothus americanus, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Chrysopsis, Cleome, Convolvulus arvensis, C. sepium, Coreopsis palmata, C. tripteris, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Cucumis, Desmodium marilandicum, D. paniculatum, Dianthera americana, Epilobium, Erigeron, Eryngium yuccifolium, Gerardia tenuifolia, Geum album, Gillenia stipulacea, Hedeoma pulegioides, Hedyotis nigricans, H. purpurea, Helenium, Hypericum perforatum, Lindernia dubia riparia (Raf.) (=llsyanthes riparia), Lespedeza capitata, L. procumbens, L. repens, L. reticulata, Ligustrum, Lippia lanceolata, Lycopus sinuatus, Lythrum alatum, Medicago sativa, Malva neglecta, M. rotundifolia, Melilotus alba, M. otficinalis, Nepeta cataria, Oenothera laciniata, Oxalis dillenii, 0. stricta, Penstemon, Petalostemon candidum, Polygala sanguinea, Polygonum buxiforme, P. convolvulus, P. pennsylvanicum, Portulaca, Potentilla monspeliensis, P. recta, Prune/la vulgaris, Prunus, Psoralea onobrychis, P. tenuif/ora, P. tenuif/ora floribunda, Pycnanthemum flexuosum, P. pilosum, P. virginianum, P. lanceolatum, Raphanus sativus, Rhus glabra, Rosa (wild), Rubus, Rudbeckia triloba, Serinea oppositifolia, Sisymbrium repardum, Solanum carolinense, Solidago canadensis, Spiranthes gracilis, Stachys palustris, Stellaria,Strophostyles paucif/ora, Stylosanthes bi flora, Symphoricarpos, Tamarisk, Tritolium hybridum, T. pratense, T. repens, Verbena bracteata, V. bracteosa, V. hftstata, V. stricta, V. urticifolia, Verbesina helianthoides, Veronica spicata, Vicia.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
A. newhart  623 @ JRYB__SHEN (14)
Adoxaceae  Viburnum dentatum @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Apiaceae  Daucus carota @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ B_AW (3)

Anaphalis margaritacea @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Coreopsis verticillata @ UCRC_ENT (15)

Ericameria @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Erigeron @ RUAC_ENT (1)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (4)

Leucanthemum superbum @ B_AW (2)

Leucanthemum @ UCRC_ENT (5)

Sericocarpus asteroides @ UCRC_ENT (1)
C. smith  672 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus arvensis @ MLSB__N16- (1)
Fabaceae  Baptisia tinctoria @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lespedeza repens @ UCRC_ENT (2)

Medicago sativa @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Melilotus officinalis @ AMNH_BEE (17); UCRC_ENT (1); CUIC_ENT (80)

Petalostemon @ AMNH_BEE (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Tephrosia virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (13)

Trifolium repens @ MLSB__N16- (2); UCRC_ENT (19)

Trifolium @ UCRC_ENT (9)

Vicia sp @ CUIC_ENT (1)
G. cangialosi  915 @ JRYB__SHEN (6)
J. rykken  1029 @ JRYB__SHEN (5)
K. kingsley  1062 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

1064 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Lamiaceae  Salvia officinalis @ BBSL (1)

Thymus serpyllum @ CUIC_ENT (5)
P. clifton  672 @ JRYB__SHEN (6)
Paeoniaceae  Paeonia sp @ BBSL (1)
Polygonaceae  Fagopyrum esculentum @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Fallopia convolvulus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Polygonum sp @ BBSL (1)
R. minor  808 @ JRYB__SHEN (4)
Rhamnaceae  Ceanothus americanus @ UCRC_ENT (11)

Ceanothus @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Rosaceae  Potentilla recta @ CUIC_ENT (37)

Rubus sp @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Rubiaceae  Hedyotis nigricans @ BBSL__MEM (1)
Tamaricaceae  Tamarix @ AMNH_BEE (1)
_  Bee @ LAR (38)

apple @ NLA (1)

blueberry @ NLA (11)

caneberry @ NLA (95)

cucurbit @ NLA (55)

meadow @ NLA (1)

strawberry @ NLA (1)

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Updated: 2020-03-31 20:32:34 gmt
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