D I S C O V E R    L I F E   
Bee Hunt! Odonata Lepidoptera 
  HomeAll Living ThingsIDnature guidesGlobal mapperAlbumsLabelsSearch
  AboutNewsEventsResearchEducationProjectsStudy sitesHelp

Betula populifolia Marsh.
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

Betula populifolia, Grey Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 9
Betula populifolia, Grey Birch

Click on map for details about points.

IDnature guides

80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on image to enlarge.
Betula populifolia, Grey Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Betula populifolia, Grey Birch

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Calaphis betulaecolens @ NCSU_ENT (4)

Calaphis leonardi @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Longistigma caryae @ AMNH_PBI (16)
Bulgariaceae  Bulgaria inquinans @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Erythridula cornipes @ III (1)

Erythridula insigna @ III (1)

Erythridula praecisa @ III (2)
Cicadidae  Magicicada cassinii @ AMNH_ENT (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora arida @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium cremoricolor @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (2)

Cladosporium scribnerianum @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype discoidea @ BPI (1)

Diatrype stigma @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella betulina @ BPI (5)

Diatrypella discoidea @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (4)

Libertella betulina @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (8)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (2)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma applanatum @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Scleroderris betulina @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete cinnamomea @ BPI (2)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (3)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterium pulicare @ BPI (1)
Lygaeidae  Antillocoris minutus @ AMNH_IZC (2)
Melanconidaceae  Melanconium betulinum @ BPI (4)

Melanconium stilbostoma @ BPI (1)

Melanconium subviridis @ BPI (1)

Pseudovalsa lanciformis @ BPI (4)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (3)

Phlebia strigosozonata @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Ceratocapsus modestus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris betulae @ NCSU (3)

Neolygus betulae @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Orthotylus cruciatus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Phytocoris neglectus @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Psallus betuleti @ AMNH_IZC (25); NCSU_ENT (12)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria betulae @ BPI (2)

Septoria betulicola @ BPI (2)
Nectriaceae  Nectria ditissima @ BPI (1)

Nectria galligena @ BPI (4)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora affinis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora peckii @ BPI (1)

Peniophora praetermissa @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Erythricium laetum @ BPI (2)

Phanerochaete laevis @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes applanatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (7)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (3)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (2)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (4)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (2)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus betulinus @ BPI (32)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus radiatus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (4)

Polyporus zonatus @ BPI (1)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (3)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (2)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsoridium betulinum @ BPI (82); 876036C (1)
Reduviidae  Phymata @ AMNH_PBI (7)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (3)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex deformans @ BPI (1)

Irpex lacteus @ BPI (2)

Steccherinum ochraceum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum complicatum @ BPI (8)

Stereum hirsutum @ BPI (5)

Stereum ochraceoflavum @ BPI (1)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (2)

Stereum rameale @ BPI (5)

Stereum rugosum @ BPI (1)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina flava @ BPI (9); 875954B (1); 875954A (1)

Taphrina @ BPI (2)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium citrinum @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia anomala @ BPI (1)

Solenia ochracea @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora horrida @ BPI (2)
Venturiaceae  Venturia disticha @ BPI (1)

Venturia ditricha @ 612563A (1); 612563B (1); BPI (3)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (3)

Daldinia vernicosa @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon @ BPI (1)

Sphaeria flavovirens @ BPI (1)
_  Botryodiplodia valsoides @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus fumosus @ BPI (3)

Hypochnus fuscus @ BPI (2)

Otthia ambiens @ BPI (1)

Rhinotrichum curtisii @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (3)

go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following served from University of Richmond Biology
Top | See original context

Following served from University of Richmond Biology
Top | See original context

Following served from University of Richmond Biology
Top | See original context

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/bpopulifolia.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   Top | See original

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEPO ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEPO
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEPO ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEPO
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEPO ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEPO
Link: Skip repetitive navigation links
USDA and NRCS Identifier NRCS Logo
USDA.gov Web Site PLANTS photo banner
PLANTS Home  about PLANTS  PLANTS Team  Partners of PLANTS  What  National Plant Data Team Web Site  Help using PLANTS  Contact PLANTS
 Search the PLANTS Web site
 Name Search

 State Search
 Advanced Search
 Search Help
 Alternative Crops
 Cover Crops
 Culturally Significant
 Distribution Update
 Fact Sheets & Plant Guides
 Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants
 Threatened & Endangered
 Wetland Indicator Status
PLANTS Image Gallery
 50,000+ Plant Images
Download PLANTS data
 Complete PLANTS Checklist
 State PLANTS Checklist
 Advanced Search Download
 Symbols for Unknown Plants
 NRCS State GSAT Lists
 NRCS State Plants Lists
Related tools
 Crop Nutrient Tool
 Ecological Site Information System
 PLANTS Identification Keys
 Plant Materials Web Site
 Plant Materials Publications
 USDA Plant Hardiness Map
You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Betula populifolia Marshall
gray birch

Image of Betula populifolia

General Information
Symbol: BEPO
Group: Dicot
Family: Betulaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Betula thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, CA, Berkeley, University of California Berkeley Botanical Garden. March 24, 2004. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, DC, Washington. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, VA. Usage Requirements .

Bluford W. Muir. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, PA. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 608. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .




Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Fagales
Family Betulaceae – Birch family
Genus Betula L. – birch
Species Betula populifolia Marshall – gray birch

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Illinois gray birch Endangered
Indiana gray birch Extirpated

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FAC
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FAC
Midwest FAC
Northcentral & Northeast FAC

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (BEPO)
Flora of North America (BEPO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEPO)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (BEPO)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (BEPO)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (BEPO)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (BEPO)
Related Websites
Arboles Ornamentales (En Espanol) (BEPO)
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (BEPO)
Canada-Arbor Day (BEPO)
FL-Florida Coop Extension Electronic Data Information Source (BEPO)
IL-Selecting Trees For Your Home (BEPO)
IL-UI Plants (BEPO)
MO-Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder (BEPO)
NY-Cornell University Horticulture (BEPO)
OH-Department of Natural Resources (BEPO)
OR-Oregon State University Horticulture: Landscape Plants (BEPO)
Tree Species of the World's Boreal Forests (BEPO)
UK-Plants For A Future (BEPO)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (BEPO)
WI-Wisconsin Botanical Information System (BEPO)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover

 PLANTS Home | USDA.gov | NRCS | Site Map | Policies and Links
Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement

Following modified from Flora of North America
   Top | See original

Link to Flora of North America home
All Floras       Advanced Search
FNA Vol. 3 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

12. Betula populifolia Marshall, Arbust. Amer. 19. 1785.

Gray birch, white birch, fire birch, bouleau à feuilles de peuplier, bouleau gris

Betula alba Linnaeus subsp. populifolia (Marshall) Regel; B . alba var. populifolia (Marshall) Spach

Trees , broadly pyramidal, to 10 m; trunks usually several. Bark when young dark reddish brown, in maturity becoming grayish white, smooth, close; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Twigs without taste and odor of wintergreen, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, dotted with small, inconspicuous, resinous glands. Leaf blade broadly ovate to deltate or rhombic with 5--18 pairs of lateral veins, 3--10 × 3--8 cm, base truncate to cuneate, marginally coarsely, irregularly, or sometimes obscurely doubly serrate, apex abruptly long-acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent, often covered with minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect to nearly pendulous, nearly cylindric, 1--2.5(--3) × 0.8--1 cm, shattering with fruits in early fall; scales adaxially densely pubescent, lobes diverging distal to middle, central lobe cuneate, acute, much shorter than lateral lobes, lateral lobes divergent, broad, irregularly angular. Samaras with wings much broader than body, broadest near middle, often extended beyond body both apically and basally. 2 n = 28.

Flowering late spring. Rocky or sandy open woods, moist to dryish slopes, old fields, and waste places; 100--600 m; N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Del., Ill., Ind., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Vt., Va.

Betula populifolia is an important successional tree on burned, cleared, or abandoned land in the Northeast. It is closely related to Betula pendula Roth of Europe, B . neoalaskana of the Northwest, and several Asian taxa. This species is easily distinguished from the paper birch, with which it is often sympatric, by the long tapering apices of its leaves, its nonpeeling bark, and the characteristic expanded, black triangular patches on the trunks below the branches.

The Iroquois used Betula populifolia medicinally to treat bleeding piles, and the Micmac, to treat infected cuts and as an emetic (D. E. Moerman 1986).

The blue birches ( Betula × caerulea Blanchard) have been variously considered to represent a true species or a hybrid between B . papyrifera Marshall and B . populifolia Marshall (T. C. Brayshaw 1966) or B . papyrifera and the big blue birch B . caerulea-grandis (M. L. Fernald 1922). Both B . × caerulea and B . caerulea-grandis have been shown in more recent experimental studies to be of hybrid origin between B . cordifolia Regel and B . populifolia (A. G. Guerriero et al. 1970; W. F. Grant and B. K. Thompson 1975; P. E. DeHond and C. S. Campbell 1989). Individuals of these hybrids combine characteristics of the parents, the infructescence scales and leaves somewhat resembling those of B . populifolia , and the habit and exfoliating reddish bark that of B . cordifolia .


Catling, P. M. and K. W. Spicer. 1988. The separation of Betula populifolia and Betula pendula and their status in Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18: 1017--1026.

Updated: 2020-07-07 23:21:20 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation