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Betula occidentalis Hook.
WATER BIRCH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

Betula occidentalis, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, whole tree or vine - general

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Betula occidentalis, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Betula occidentalis, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Betula occidentalis, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, leaf - whole upper surface
Betula occidentalis, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface

Betula occidentalis, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, twig - orientation of petioles
Betula occidentalis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula occidentalis, bark - of a small tree or small branch

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Calaphis coloradensis @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Calaphis @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Callipterinella calliptera @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Euceraphis gillettei @ CSUC_TCN (7); NCSU_ENT (6)

Symydobius intermedius @ CSUC_TCN (1); NCSU (4)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta betulae @ BPI (5)
Cicadellidae  Eratoneura carmini @ III (1)

Erythridula eluta @ III (1)
Coccinellidae  Adalia bipunctata @ I_LB (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora byssoidea @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium arachnoideum @ BPI (1)

Corticium centrifugum @ BPI (1)

Corticium lividocoeruleum @ BPI (1)

Corticium @ BPI (1)
Corynidae  Coryne sarcoides @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginosum @ BPI (1)

Cylindrosporium utahense @ BPI (1)

Durandiella seriata @ BPI (1)

Gloeosporium betulicola @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Diaspidiotus juglansregiae @ CSCA_TCN (2); UCR_ENT (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype stigma @ BPI (4)

Diatrypella betulina @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella decorata @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (1)

Eutypella angulosa @ BPI (2)
Didymosphaeriaceae  Didymosphaeria aphysa @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (6)

Phyllactinia guttata @ BPI (4)

Phyllactinia suffulta @ BPI (1)
Exidiaceae  Exidia candida @ BPI (6)

Exidia glandulosa @ BPI (1)

Exidia recisa @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (1)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (23)
Geastraceae  Sphaerobolus stellatus @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Gnomonia campylostyla @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum fuscoatrum @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (1)

Polystictus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Polystictus sartwellii @ BPI (1)

Polystictus zonatus @ BPI (1)
Leotiaceae  Pezoloma griseum @ BPI (1)
Lygaeidae  Kleidocerys resedae @ AMNH_IZC (3)
Melanconidaceae  Melanconium bicolor @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius niveus @ BPI (1)

Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (4)

Phlebia cinnabarina @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Orthotylus ute @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Euryachora betulina @ BPI (2)

Septoria betulae-odoratae @ 747262B (1); 747262A (1)

Septoria betulicola @ BPI (4)
Nectriaceae  Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora lilacina @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete sordida @ BPI (1)
Phyllachoraceae  Phyllachora betulina @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus septicus @ BPI (2)

Pleurotus serotinus @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes applanatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes everhartii @ BPI (1)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (15)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (10)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (3)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (2)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (3)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (2)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (1)

Panus rudis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (10)

Polyporus arcticus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus arcularius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus betulinus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (14)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (1)

Polyporus elegans @ BPI (2)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (11)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (6)

Polyporus rutilans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus sartwellii @ BPI (1)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (1)

Polyporus subchartaceus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus velutinus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (8)

Polyporus zonalis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus zonatus @ BPI (6)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (11)

Poria punctata @ BPI (3)

Poria subacida @ BPI (1)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (1)

Trametes stereoides @ BPI (1)

Trametes suaveolens @ BPI (1)

Trametes subrosea @ BPI (1)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsoridium betulinum @ BPI (7)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex lacteus @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum chailletii @ BPI (1)

Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (7)

Stereum hirsutum @ BPI (2)

Stereum murrayi @ BPI (3)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (7)

Stereum rugosiusculum @ BPI (2)

Stereum tuberculosum @ BPI (3)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina boycei @ BPI (1)
Tremellaceae  Tremella lutescens @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium citrinum @ BPI (1)

Trogia alni @ BPI (3)

Trogia crispa @ BPI (1)
Tulasnellaceae  Tulasnella eichleriana @ BPI (1)

Tulasnella @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora betulae-occidentale @ BPI (1)

Cytospora truncata @ BPI (1)

Radulum epimyces @ BPI (1)

Radulum orbiculare @ BPI (2)

Radulum quercinum @ BPI (1)

Radulum subcostatum @ BPI (1)

Radulum subulatum @ BPI (2)

Valsa auerswaldii @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (2)

Daldinia occidentalis @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (8)
_  Asterosporium betulinum @ BPI (2)

Coniothecium betulinum @ BPI (2)

Cryptosporium neesii @ BPI (2)

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Following served from Canadian Biodiversity
   
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Following modified from Ehleringer
   
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.ehleringer.net/Biology_5460/veg/topics/Betulaoccidentalis/Betulaoccidentalis3.html

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/Syllabus2/boccidentalis.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEOC2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEOC2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEOC2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEOC2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEOC2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Betula occidentalis Hook.
water birch

Image of Betula occidentalis

General Information
Symbol: BEOC2
Group: Dicot
Family: Betulaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Tree
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
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Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Betula thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Ray M. Filloon. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, WA. 1936. Usage Requirements .

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . West Region, Sacramento. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Manem State Park. October 13, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, OR, Manem State Park. October 13, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Sun Lakes State Park. June 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Sun Lakes State Park. June 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Sun Lakes State Park. June 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

John D. Guthrie. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, OR. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 610. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
BEBE3 Betula beeniana A. Nelson
BEFO2 Betula fontinalis Sarg.
BEOCI Betula occidentalis Hook. var. inopina (Jeps.) C.L. Hitchc.
BEPAO Betula papyrifera Marshall ssp. occidentalis (Hook.) Hultén
BEPAO2 Betula papyrifera Marshall var. occidentalis (Hook.) Sarg.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Fagales
Family Betulaceae – Birch family
Genus Betula L. – birch
Species Betula occidentalis Hook. – water birch

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FAC
Arid West FACW
Great Plains FACW
Midwest FACW
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (BEOC2)
CalPhotos (BEOC2)
Flora of North America (BEOC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEBE3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEFO2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEOC2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEOCI)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEPAO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEPAO2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (BEOC2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (BEOC2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (BEOC2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (BEOC2)
Related Websites
CO-Southwest Colorado Wildflowers (BEOC2)
Canada-British Columbia Tree Book (BEOC2)
Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia (BEOC2)
Forestry Images (BEOC2)
Forestry Images (BEOC2)
MI-Ornamental Plants (Michigan State University Extension) (BEOC2)
NY-New York Botanical Garden Specimens (BEOC2)
OR-Landscape Plants (OSU Horticulture) (BEOC2)
Tree Species of the World's Boreal Forests (BEOC2)
UK-Plants For A Future (BEOC2)
UT-Trees and Forests (BEOC2)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (BEOC2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

11. Betula occidentalis Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 155. 1838.

Water birch, river birch

Betula fontinalis Sargent; B . fontinalis var. inopina (Jepson) Jepson; B . microphylla Bunge var. fontinalis (Sargent) M. E. Jones; B . occidentalis var. fecunda (Britton) Fernald; B . occidentalis var. inopina (Jepson) C. L. Hitchcock; B . papyrifera Marshall var. occidentalis (Hooker) Sargent; B . papyrifera subsp. occidentalis (Hooker) Hultén

Shrubs , spreading, to 10 m. Bark dark reddish brown to bronze, smooth, close, not readily exfoliating; lenticels pale, horizontally expanded. Twigs without the odor or taste of wintergreen, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, covered with conspicuous, reddish, resinous glands. Leaf blade broadly ovate to rhombic-ovate with 2--6 pairs of lateral veins, 2--5.8 × 1--4.5 cm, base truncate to rounded or cuneate, margins sharply and coarsely serrate or irregularly doubly serrate, teeth mostly long and sharp, basal portion untoothed, apex acute to occasionally short-acuminate; surfaces abaxially sparsely to moderately pubescent, covered with minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect to nearly pendulous, cylindric, 2--3(--3.9) × 0.8--1.5 cm, shattering with fruits in fall; scales glabrous, ciliate, lobes diverging at middle, central lobe narrower and longer than ascending lateral lobes. Samaras with wings broader than body, broadest near summit, extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 28.

Flowering late spring. Montane stream banks, slopes, and ridges, also in moist open woods, at edges of marshes, along lakeshores, and in wet swales; 100--3000 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., N.Dak., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

Betula occidentalis is a common, streamside, shrubby birch throughout much of the Rocky Mountains, extending eastward to northwestern Ontario. It has been widely known by the later name B . fontinalis because of questions concerning the legitimacy of Hooker's epithet (J. R. Dugle 1966). Recent changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (W. Greuter et al. 1994) have clarified the situation, however, and the consensus now is that the earlier name is correct. E. Hultén (1968) believed that the species in Alaska that has been called B . occidentalis consists of an extensive hybrid swarm between B . neoalaskana (as B . resinifera ) and B . glandulosa . The studies of J. R. Dugle (1966) do not support a hybrid origin of B . occidentalis in other parts of its range. Additional study will be needed to resolve this problem, both in Alaska and southward.

Betula × utahensis Britton (= B . occidentalis Hooker × B . papyrifera Marshall) is a common hybrid marked by intermediate characteristics.

Betula papyrifera Marshall var. subcordata (Rydberg) Sargent, formerly recognized in several state, provincial, and regional floras, consists of introgressants of B . occidentalis into B . papyrifera (J. R. Dugle 1966).

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+occidentalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+occidentalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 62
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Betula occidentalis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 7335 3182 4656 0001 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 0024 3291 2007 0069 [detail]
Jo-Ann Ordano
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 8076 3101 3987 0034 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 7335 3182 4656 0002 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0035 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 7335 3182 4656 0003 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 7335 3182 4414 0100 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0902 0034 [detail]
© 2002 Timothy D. Ives

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0162 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 1338 3152 3388 0048 [detail]
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan
© 2008 California Academy of Sciences

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 1351 3151 4305 0118 [detail]
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan
© 2006 California Academy of Sciences

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Water Birch
ID: 1351 3151 4305 0119 [detail]
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan
© 2006 California Academy of Sciences

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
ID: 0000 0000 0616 1659 [detail]
© 2016 Julie Kierstead Nelson

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
water birch
ID: 0000 0000 0808 1795 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
water birch
ID: 0000 0000 0808 1796 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
water birch
ID: 0000 0000 0808 1797 [detail]
© 2008 Steve Matson

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0615 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0616 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0617 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0618 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0619 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0620 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 0621 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Betula occidentalis
Betula occidentalis
Western Water Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0110 1049 [detail]
© 2010 Lee Dittmann

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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