Discover Life

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Vol. 93, JANUARY 1985, No. 1

Journal of the New York Entomological Society

(ISSN 0028-7199)

Devoted to Entomology in General

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JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Editor: Randall T. Schuh, Department of Entomology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024

Book Review Editor: Quentin D. Wheeler, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853

Publications Committee: Louis Trombetta, St. Johns University, Queens, New York, Chairman; Alfred G. Wheeler, Jr., Pennsylvania State Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg; Joseph M. Cerreta, St. Johns University, Queens, New York.

The New York Entomological Society

Incorporating The Brooklyn Entomological Society

President: Gerard Iwantsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458

Vice President: Henry M. Knizeski, Jr., Department of Biology, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York 1 0 5 2 2

Secretary: Irene E. Matejko, Science Department, The New Lincoln School, New York, New York 10021

Assistant Secretary: Dennis J. Joslyn, Department of Biology, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey 08 102

Treasurer: Louis Sorkin, Department of Entomology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024

Trustees: Class of 1984—Joseph Cerreta, St. Johns University, Queens, New York; Durland Fish, Fordham University, Bronx, New York; Class of 1985—Peter Chabora, Queens College, New York; Charles Porter, Fordham University, Bronx, New York.

Annual dues are $18.00 for established professionals with journal, $10.00 without journal, $10.00 for students with journal, $5.00 without journal. Sustaining memberships are $48.00 per year, institutional memberships are $120.00 per year, and life memberships are $300.00. Subscriptions are $27.00 per year domestic and $30.00 foreign. All payments should be made to the Treasurer. Back issues of the Journal of the New York Entomological Society, the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Entomologica Americana, the Torre-Bueno Glossary of Entomology and other Society publications can be purchased from Lubrecht and Cramer, RD 1, Box 244, Forestburgh, New York 12777.

Meetings of the Society are held on the third Tuesday of each month (except June through September) at 8 p.m. in the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York.

Mailed May 3, 1985

The Journal of the New York Entomological Society (ISSN 0028-7199) is published quarterly (January, April, July, October) for the Society by Allen Press, inc., 1041 New Hampshire, Lawrence, Kansas 66044. Second class postage paid at New Brunswick, New Jersey and at additional mailing office.

Known office of publication: American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024.

Journal of the New York Entomological Society, total copies printed 1,000, paid circulation 673, mail subscription 673, eke distribution by mail 7, total distribution 680, 320 copies leR over each quarter.
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THE COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA) OF AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO

ROBERT D. GORDON

Systematic Entomology Laboratory
IIBIII, Agricultural Research Service USDA,
c/o U.S. National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, D.C. 20560

JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Volume 93, fascicle 1, pages 1-912
Price per copy S40.00
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Plate 1.

Adalia bipunctata (L.) Cycloneda polita Casey
Axion tripustulatum (Degeer)
Paranaemia vittigera (Mannerheim) Hippodamia parenthesis (Say)
Epilachna borealis (F.)
Chilocorus stigma (Say) Coccinella trifasciata perplexa Mulsant

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Plate 2.

Didion punctatum (Melsheimer) Nephaspis bioculatus (Blatchley)
Psyllobora vigintimaculata (Say)
Diomus terminalis (Say) Hyperaspis levrati Mulsant
Brachiacantha uteella Casey
Hyperaspis fastidiosa Casey Cephaloscymnus z. australis Gordon
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THE COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA) OF
AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO

ROBERT D. GORDON

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ............... 3
Historical Resume ......... 6
Methods ....................... 7
Terms ................... 8
Acknowledgments ........... 11
Biological Control and Coccinellidae in North America ... 12
Table 1 ...................................................... 14
Table 2 ...................................... 29
Family Coccinellidae (Systematic Treatment)......... 33
Sticholotidinae .... 34
Microweisini ... 36
Serangiini ...... 58
Cephaloscymnini ... 66
Scymninae ....... 74
Zilini .......... 74
Stethorini ...... 88
Scymnini ....... 99
Selvadiini ...... 347
Hyperaspini ... 352
Cryptognathini ... 599
Chilocorinae .... 602
Chilocorini ... 602
Coccidulinae ... 654
Coccidulini ...... 655
Noviini ......... 662
Exoplectnni ..... 668
Azyini .......... 671
Coccinellinae ..... 678
Coccinellini..... 679
Psylloborini .... 851
Epilachninae ...... 862
Epilachnini ..... 863
Literature Cited ... 874
Index ............ 893
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Abstract.—The 57 genera and 475 species of Coccinellidae occurring in America north of Mexico are treated taxonomically. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and host records are included. Two new tribes, Cephaloscymnini and Selvadiini, are erected for the genera Cephaloscymnus Crotch and Selvadius Casey. New species are described as follows: Brachiacantha barberi; B. rotunda; B. schwarzi; B. soltaui; B. stephani; Exoplectra schaef^Seri; Gnathoweisea Xerox, G. hageni; G. micula; G. texana; Hyperaspidius algodonus, H. andrewsi; H. hardyi; H. nanellus; H. simulates; Hyperaspis caseyi; H. deludens, H. dobzhanskyi; H. imitator, H. ornatella; H. schae^Sferi; H. uteana; Nephus (S.) timberlakei, Zagloba satana; Zilus horni. A chapter on biological control involving the family Coccinellidae includes discussions of the introduced species established in North America, and tables listing all the species that have been introduced whether established or not.
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Thy scaly breast in deeper azure dight,
Thy burnish'd armour deck with glossier jet.

Some superstitions have existed about the Ladybird that don't appear in verse, such as the Ladybird as a cure for measles and colic (Newell, 1845); or as a cure for the toothache when specimens are mashed and put into the hollow tooth. This latter use of the Ladybird comes to us from Jaeger (1859) who states "I tried this application in two instances, and the tooth-ache was immediately relieved; but whether the remedy, or the faith of the patient, acted therapeutically, or the tooth ceased aching of itself, I confess I do not pretend to know."

Ladybird beetles are generally thought of as beneficial insects, predators of plant pests; this is true for the most part, particularly in temperate regions. In tropical regions, however, many are plant feeders, some economically significant. A few plant feeders occur in temperate regions, the Mexican bean beetle being the prime North American example.

Historically, the beneficial species have been classified as "Coccinellides Aphidiphages" (Chapuis, 1876) (aphid predators), and the plant feeders as "Coccinellides phytophages" (Chapuis, 1876). This designation of beneficial species as aphid predators is accurate only in part. The beneficials actually divide into groups of species, each of which has a preferred group of host species; as examples, species of Chilocorinae prey on scale insects, species of Stethorini on mites, and most species of Coccinellinae are aphid predators. However, in the absence or scarcity of preferred food, many species will feed on other insects such as the immature stages of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera. Members of the genus Coleomegilla (Coccinellinae) are able not only to survive on a variety of foods, but to complete development when restricted to an unusual diet such as mites. Plant pollen also qualifies as an essential food for Coleomegilla, and members of this genus are evidently the most euryphagous of the Coccinellidae. The preferred food of another genus of Coccinellinae, Neoharmonia, is evidently the larvae of a genus of Chrysomelidae. Among the phytophagous Coccinellidae, most are typical leaf feeders, such as Epilachna and Subcoccinella, but the Psylloborini have acquired the unusual habit of feeding exclusively on fungal hyphae and spores.

Ladybirds are thus of considerable interest to naturalists, agriculturists, etc.; therefore a need exists for a comprehensive faunal treatment. The present volume is an attempt to fill that need.

The purpose of this treatment is to provide the means to identify the species of Coccinellidae occurring in America north of Mexico. To this end, keys, illustrations, diagnoses, and synonymies are provided for all taxa known to occur in North America. A brief chapter on Wological control importation efforts is included because of the significance of many species as actual or potential control agents against plant pests.

HISTORICAL RESUME

Along with other animal groups, the classification of the Coccinellidae began with Linnaeus in the mid 1700's. Over the next 100 years it proceeded along the familiar paths of insect classification, attended to by Fabricius, Degeer, Thunberg, Herbst,

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etc. In 1850, Mulsant produced a monograph of the Coccinellidae on a world basis that proved to be the foundation for modern classification and which still is an indispensable tool in any coccinellid specialist's shop. This treatment was so well done that large portions of it remain unaltered by subsequent research. In 1853 and 1866, Mulsant published additional information as supplements to the 1850 volume. The next major figure on the scene was George Robert Crotch, who again treated the world Coccinellidae (1874). He changed Mulsant's classification very little, but added several new genera and many new species. Crotch was followed by Julius Weise, who, although producing no single monumental work, succeeded in refining coccinellid classification in a series of papers from 1878 to 1930. Weise was a careful, observant worker whose contributions were highly significant. He was also the first coccinellid taxonomist to realize that male genitalia could be used to distinguish species, although he did not pursue this to any extent. Korschefsky, a protege of Weise, was an amateur coccinellid taxonomist of considerable ability. When Weise died before writing the Coccinellidae portion of the Junk Catalogue, Korschefsky proceeded to do the work which appeared in 1931 and 1932, and which remains the single most useful taxonomic publication for coccinellid specialists anywhere in the world. One of the most important contributions to coccinellid classification is relatively recent; Sasaji (1968) published the "Phylogeny of the family Coccinellidae (Coleoptera)," a thorough consideration of the relationships of the higher taxa of the family. This publication has served as the basis for subfamily and tribal assignments since 1968, and rightfully so; all morphological characteristics of adults and many larval characteristics have been incorporated in the scheme in a logical fashion. I regard this contribution as a landmark in coccinellid classification, to be compared in significance with Mulsant's classification of 1850.

Casey (1899) treated the Coccinellidae of the United States in their entirety, providing the foundation for taxonomic research in North America. The chief workers in North American Coccinellidae since 1899 are Leng (1903-1920), Dobzhansky (1931-1941), Chapin (1930-1966), Brown and de Ruette (1962), Brown (1962), and Gordon (1970-present). In addition, regional studies of Coccinellidae have been made by Stehr (1930), Minnesota; Wingo (1952), Upper Mississippi Basin; Hatch (1961), Pacific Northwest; J. Chapin (1974), Louisiana; and Belicek (1976), Western Canada and Alaska.

Comprehensive publications on the biology, ecology, nutrition, metabolism, etc., are few. Some sources that contain literature reviews are Hagen (1962), Hodek (1966), and Hodek (1967). Most recently Hodek (1973) has compiled much of this information in a single source. Hodek's book contains a short chapter on the taxonomy and morphology of adults and an excellent chapter on the taxonomy and morphology of the larvae. The bulk of the book is devoted to discussion of such Wological relationships as natural enemies, food sources, variability, and habitat.

METHODS

In keeping with the primary purpose of this publication, to serve as an identification manual, the systematics portion is kept as simple as possible. Thus, taxa above the species level are fully described, but, except for new taxa, species are briefly diagnosed

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rather than described. Illustrations are provided to facilitate identifications, and these should be considered an essential part of the work and used accordingly.

Primary types. An effort has been made to locate and examine type material of all authors included except the older European workers such as Linnaeus, Fabricius, etc. When a species has been described from more than one specimen without designation of a holotype, a lectotype is designated and, where possible, the remaining specimens of the type series are designated as paralectotypes. The major type depositories for North American Coccinellidae are the California Academy of Sciences, Museum of Comparative Zoology, and U.S. National Museum; other institutions in North America that are type repositories are the Canadian National Collection and Purdue University. In several instances the type specimens have not been located and are either known to be lost or are presumed to be. An example of the former is the Say collection; examples of the latter are the Randall types and some of the Crotch and Melsheimer types. When the type specimens are lost, not located, or not examined, the traditional concept of the species has been accepted.

Locality records. Nearly all of the locality records listed in the text were taken from specimens actually examined, published records were accepted only when the source was unquestionably authoritative. Under "Distribution" only the specified locality is given, plus county if stated on the label. Distribution data are given exactly as they appear on the label except that obvious misspellings are corrected. For new species, all information is given exactly as it apppears on the label. Distributions are presented on maps with either symbols, shaded areas, or both. Shading is used when a species is commonly collected; symbols are used when a species is rarely collected or when the distribution pattern needs to be accurately defined. When a state record only is available, "S" with the appropriate symbol appears in that state on the map.

Host data. Host data for members of each genus are listed in the generic discussion. This is not intended to be a complete listing of all published host records; an exhaustive literature search has not been conducted, but all major sources of host information have been consulted, additional records have been discovered in the course of the study, and specimen label data have been included.

TERMS

Most of the morphological terms used are germane to beetles in general, but some are unique to ladybird beetles. To facilitate the use of the keys and descriptions, a

brief glossary follows (see Figs. 1, 2).

accessory gland, thin walled, saclike structure attached in basal 1/2 of spermathecal capsule of female genitalia.

basal lobe, median apical projection of phallobase of male genitalia serving as a guide for sipho.

basal piece, basal portion of phallobase of male genitalia to which the basal lobe, paramere, and trabes attach.

bursa copulatrix, thin walled, saclike structure between infundibulum or sperm duct and abdominal apex.

cornu, apical curved portion of spermathecal capsule of female genitalia.

cryptotetramerous (tarsus), tarsus composed of 4 segments, appearing 3 seg- mented because 3rd segment minute, concealed between lobes of 2nd segment.

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#_______________________________________________________
##Fig. 1 . Coccinella novemnotata Herbst—ventral view.
#_______________________________________________________

genital plates, sclerotized plates which are the divided 9th abdominal sternum in the female.

infundibulum, sclerotized, funnel-like structure between sperm duct and bursa copulatrix of female genitalia.

nodules, basal part of spermathecal capsule of female genitalia.

paramere, paired lateral apical projection of phallobase of male genitalia serving to position and hold basal lobe in position during copulation.

phallobase, includes the basal piece, basal lobe, and paramere of male genitalia.

postcoxal line, the line on the 1st abdominal sternum posterior to hind coxa.

ramus, swelling or projection usually between cornu and nodulus of spermathecal capsule of female genitalia.

sipho, sclerotized, curved rod which is inserted through the basal lobe and into the female bursa copulatrix during copulation, corresponds to aedeagus or penis.

spermathecal capsule, part of the female genitalia composed of the cornu, ramus, and nodulus (one or both of the latter may be absent).

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#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 2 . Male and female genitalia and postcoxal lines of Coccinellidae. a, b. Male genitalia. c. Female. dog Postcoxal lines.
#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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sperm duct, tube connecting spermathecal capsule to infundibulum or bursa copulatrix of female genitalia.
trabes, strut posterior to basal piece of male genitalia, connected by muscular attachment to basal piece.
trimerous (tarsus), tarsus composed of 3 segments.

The postcoxal line on the 1st abdominal sternum is a useful character for generic discrimination. This line takes 4 major forms in the Coccinellidae; I refer to these as the Pullus, Scymn us, Diomus, or Nephus types in the text without further explanation. These types are illustrated in Figure 2 , and are characterized as follows: Pullus type-line complete, curved from base medially to base of sternum laterally; Scymnus type-line incomplete, curved from base medially and forward toward base of sternum laterally; Diomus type - line incomplete, extending clown from base, joining apical margin of sternum; and Nephus type - line incomplete extending down from base nearly to apical margin of sternum, extending parallel to apical margin toward lateral margin.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For the loan of specimens of Coccinellidae I am indebted to the curators of the following institutional collections (acronyms are those used in the text): (BMNH) British Museum (Natural History), London, England; (CAS) California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California; (CDA) California Department of Agriculture, Sacramento, California; (CM) Carnegie Museum at Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; (CNC) Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ontario; (DLM) Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (Dejean Collection), Lyon, France; (FS CA) Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida; (H SPA) Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association, Honolulu, Hawaii; (INHS) Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois; (MCZ3 Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambndge, Massachusetts; (NREA) Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Entomologiska Avdelningen, Stockholm, Sweden; (PAS) Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; (PM) Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; (PU) Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; (UCCC) University of Cambridge (Crotch Collection), Cambridge, England; (UCR) University of California, Riverside, California; (UMMZ) University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan; (UMZH) University Museum Helsinki, Finland; (USNM) United States National Museum, Washington, D.C.; (WHN) William H. Nutting, Oakland, California; (ZMC) Zoologisk Museum Copenhagen, Universitets Copenhagen, Denmark.

Assistance in the form of specimens, library materials, advice, encouragement, etc., was rendered by the following individuals (institutional specimens were often involved, but acronyms do not appear in the text): G. E. Ball, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; W. F. Barr, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho; E. C. Becker, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; J. M. Campbell, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; J. B. Chapin, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; J. A. Chemsak, University of California, Berkeley, California; J. T. Doyen, University of California, Berkeley, California; H. Dozier, Clemson, South Carolina; W. A. Foster, University of Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, England; K. So Hagen, University of California, Division of Biological Control, Albany, California; T. J. Henry USDA, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; H. F. Howden, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario; J. D. Lattin, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon; L. LeSage, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario; W. H. Nutting, Oakland, California; R. D. Pope,
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British Museum (Natural History), London, England; J. Smart, University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, England; A. G. Wheeler, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; R. E. Woodruff, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida.

Host arthropod and plant names were verified by the following individuals: E. W. Baker, D. R. Miller, and M. B. Stoetzel, USDA, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland; D. C. Wasshausen, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

The illustrations were prepared by contract illustrators Arthur Cushman, Criglersville, Virginia, Janine Higgins, Paris, Virginia, Britt Griswold, Washington, D.C., and Systematic Entomolo^w illustrators Linda Lawrence and Mary Lou Cooley. The color plates were prepared by George Venable, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

For reviewing the manuscript I am indebted to J. B. Chapin, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Lousiana; K S. Hagen, University of California, Division of Biological Control, Albany, California; R. D. Pope, British Museum (Natural History), London, England; W. Steiner, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; T. J. Henry, D. R. Whitehead, and E. W. Baker, USDA, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; J. R. Coulson, Beneficial Insect Introduction Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND COCCINELLIDAE IN NORTH AMERICA

The history of biological control in North Amenca has been well documented beginning with Essig (1931). In addition to Essig, there have been several comprehensive reports on the subject which should be consulted for detailed information and bibliographies. Chief among these are DeBach (1964), Hagen and Franz (1973), and the articles in Huffaker and Messenger (1976). Clausen (1956b) discusses the status of successfully established beneficial introductions prior to that date. Clausen et al. (1978) present a broad view of the subject on a world wide basis.

The cottonycushion scale, a serious pest of citrus in California, precipitated the first attempts at introducing foreign parasites and predators into North America. In 1888, Albert Koebele was sent to Australia to obtain natural enemies and sent back to California several species of ladybird beetles, among which was the now famous "vedalia" beetle, Rodolia cardinalis. This species proved to be an immediate and spectacular success, and this success precipitated a wave of coccinellid introductions which included 46 species between 1891 and 1892, all brought or sent from Australia by Koebele (Hagen, 1974). Very few of these became established, and the interest in predaceous coccinellids waned in favor of parasitic Hymenoptera and, later, pestic~des. In the 1960's and 1970's coccinellids were again introduced in significant numbers with several useful establishments resulting. Table 1 gives a summary of the species introduced into Canada and the United States, and is an attempt to list all coccinellid species that have been introduced, whether established or not. This attempt has not been completely successful because of ineffective record keeping during much of the last 80 years, but is nearly complete for 1950-1983. Available records show that 179 species have been intentionally imported into North America; 8 species have become established through accidental introductions, 5 of these had been intentionally introduced but did not become established where released. A total of 26 species of foreign Coccinellidae are now definitely or possibly established in North America, 16 of these resulting from intentional releases. Following are summaries of those species of Coccinellidae known to be established in North America as a result of intentional or accidental introductions. Clausen (1956b), and Clausen et al. (1978), and Tables I and 2 should be consulted for additional details.
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Top

Aphidecta obliterate (L.)
***species

Aphidecta obliterate has been imported from Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Norway, and Sweden and released in Canada, the Pacific Northwest, and North Carolina for control of the balsam woolly adelgid. The only release resulting in establishment was from Germany into North Carolina in 1960-1963. It now occurs in the Mt. Mitchell area only.

Top

Azya orbigera orbigera Mulsant
***species

There are no records of attempts made to introduce A. orbigera into Florida. However, it is now definitely established in the Miami, Florida, area (1975 to date); providing yet another example of an apparent accidental introduction.Woodruff and Sailer (1977) reviewed the history of the genus regarding biocontrol efforts in Florida.

Top

Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.)
***species

Attempts to establish Chilocorus bipustulatus in California were made in 1905, 1915, and 1927 from Israel and Italy for control of the black scale, citrus scale, California red scale, etc. These attempts failed, but in 1951, C. bipustulatus was imported from Israel and released for control of the olive scale, this time with successful establishment. At present this species occurs in Fresno, Merced, and Madera counties, California, but the establishment may be tenuous.

Top

Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri
***species

Introduced into the United States from Japan and China a number of times since 1895 (as Chilocorus similis or kuwanae). Establishment resulted from an introduction made in 1924-1925. White peach scale, California red scale, and San Jose scale were the primary target hosts. At present C. kuwanae is known to occur in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, California.

Top

Coccinella septempunctata L.
***species

Attempts to establish C. septempunctata in the United States began in 1956 and continued through 1971. Material was obtained from France, India, Italy, Norway, and Sweden and released in several of the northeastern states, with an accompanying rearing program that produced material sent to several other states as far west as Arizona. All of these attempts apparently failed; however, specimens were collected in Bergen County, New Jersey, in 1973 and 1974. The species is now known to be established in several eastern states, but the origin of the New Jersey establishment is unknown. Subsequent laboratory rearing and shipments of specimens have resulted in establishment of C. septempunctata in Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maine, New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. Coccinella septempunctata was released in New Brunswick in 1959-1960 without ensuing establishment; however, it is now established in Quebec due either to an accidental introduction or spread northward from Maine (Larochelle, 1979). New Jersey stock was also released in California, but apparently did not become established there (K Hagen, pers. comm.).

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JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY Vol. 93(1)

Top

Coccinella undecimpunctata L.
***species

First discovered in 1912 in Massachusetts, C. undeczmpunctczta has been subsequently reported from the northeastern United States and southern Canada, in the vicinity of the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, and as far north as Newfoundland; also from southern British Columbia. In 1965 it was discovered in the Seattle area of Washington. The native distribution is Eurasian; the North American populations are apparently the result of accidental introductions and subsequent spread.

Top

Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall
***species

The introductions were made in 1936 and 1938 from Puerto Rico and Trinidad into south Florida (Miami) for use against the coconut scale. The species was recovered in 1940 and again in 1963. It is not certain whether it is actually established or not, but if so, then the population is evidently very low and cannot be considered as having any significant impact on pest populations at the present time. All available records are from the Miami area.

Top

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant
***species

The introductions took place in 1891-1892 and 1930 from Australia into Califomia, primarily for control of the citrus mealybug; but C. montrouzieri is also a predator of mealybugs of the genus Pseudococcus and will attack related genera such as Phenacoccus and Ferrisia as well as the coccid genus Pulvinaria. Insectary reared material from California was released in Florida where the species became established, but attempts failed in Virginia in 1940-1941. A similar attempt also failed in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1908. C. montrouzieri is presently established in California and in central and southern Florida.

Top

Diomus pumilio Weise
***species

This Australian species has become established in California along the coast from the San Francisco Bay area to San Diego, apparently as a result of releases made in 1975 and 1978, although it was first imported and released in 1892. Attempts have been made to established it in eastern Canada (1958), North Carolina (1959), and Washington (1959-1960), all without success.

Top

Epilachna varivestis Mulsant
***species

The Mexican bean beetle is a native of Mexico that probably migrated north as a result of bean cultivation by Indians. It was first recorded in 1850 from the United States (New Mexico) and later the beetle was discovered at Birmingham, Alabama, in 1918. This latter introduction may have been a result of shipments of hay from the west. It now occurs from Quebec south to Florida, west to Idaho and to the Mexican border.

Top

Exochomus flavzpes (Thunberg)
***species

Several attempts have been made to establish E. flavipes in California over the years, but only an introduction from South Africa in 1978 succeeded, although

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1985 NORTH AMERICAN COCCINELLIDAE 31

tenuously. The beetle was introduced for control of Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi (Vallot) and Pulvinaria delottoi Gill, 2 species of scales on ice plant. E. flavipes now occurs in the San Francisco Bay area.

Top

Exochomus metallicus (Korschefsky)
***species

This species is now established in Ventura County, California, from material introduced from Eritrea, Ethiopia, in 1954 for control of the citricola and black scales. Clausen et al. (1978) state that it is presently found in infestations of the citrus mealybug on host plants other than citrus.

Top

Exochomus quadripustulatus (L.)
***species

First introduced into Massachusetts from Europe in 1905-1906 for control of various lecaniine coccids; it was also imported into California from Italy in 1915, and 1927-1928. No establishment resulted from three Massachusetts releases, but it is now established in California where it feeds on several species of scale insects.

Top

Halmus chalybeus (Boisduval)
***species

This species was introduced into California as Orcus chalybeus from Australia in 1892 by Koebele and has been established in coastal southern California since. It was released on the black scale and will develop on both lecaniine and diaspine coccids. At present it is found mostly in infestations of the California red scale.

Top

Harmonia dimidiata (F.)
***species

The initial introduction as Leis dimidiata was from south China into California in 1924. It was released in 1925 for aphid control, but did not become established. A shipment sent to Florida from California in 1925 was released in 1926 with establishment resulting. In 1959 it was introduced into Oregon from India for control of the balsam woolly adelgid but did not become established. At present H. dimidiata occurs only in Florida.

Top

Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentota Mulsant
***species

This species was introduced into California from South Africa in 1978 for control of scales on ice plant. It presently occurs in the San Francisco Bay area but "has only a tenuous foothold" (Tassan et al., 1982).

Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus (Mulsant)
***species

This species was introduced into California from South Africa in 1921 for control of various mealybug species. It was released in 1922 and became established. At present it occurs only in coastal and southern California.

Top

Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.)
***species

In 1968 a population of this palearctic species was discovered in the vicinity of Montreal, Quebec, where it is apparently well established but still localized. Attempts to establish this species in the United States from 1971 to 1982 were unsuccessful.

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JOURNAL OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIALITY Vol. 93(1)

Top

Rhyzobius forestieri (Mulsant)
***species

This species has been misidentified as Rhyzobius ventralis Erichson, but Pope (1981) corrected the long standing error. The true R. ventralis was among material sent from Australia to California by Koebele in 1889, but did not become established. In 1892, another shipment thought to be "R. ventralis" was sent to California by Koebele, this time the releases became established the same year. This second shipment was composed of R. forestieri (Pope, 1951), a predator of the black scale on various plants. The beetle is presently known only from California.

Top

Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell)
***species

Rhyzobius lophanthae (formerly Lindorus lophanthae) was first introduced from Australia and established in 1892 for use against the black scale in California. It preys on various species of Coccidae, but especially on diaspines. The present distribution throughout most of the southern United States may be a result of introductions from California stock or subsequent unrecorded releases. Cressman (1933) recorded R. Iophanthae from New Orleans, Louisiana, as an effective predator of Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), however, he gave no indication of introduction as being the population source. This species was also imported from South Africa in 1959 and released in Texas, but it may already have been established there.

Top

Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant)
***species

The vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, is the most famous introduced beneficial insect in history. Koebele sent it from Australia to California in 1888-1889 for use against the cottonycushion scale. It immediately became established and achieved a startling success that led to the wholesale introduction of many other ladybird beetles from Australia in ensuing years. At present it is established in California, south Texas, Louisiana, and Florida.

Scymnus (Pullus) impexus Mulsant
***species

Scymnus impexus has been introduced into Canada and the United States from Germany several times for control of the balsam woolly adelgid. It was released in New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia each year between 1951 and 1960, and persisted in small numbers through 1959. Early releases in British Columbia apparently were unsuccessful, but success was achieved from releases in 1960 and 1961 in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. In North Carolina this beetle may have become marginally established from releases in the early 1 960's, but at present this cannot be documented.

Scymnus (Pullus) suturalis Thunberg
***species

The first specimens reported from the United States were collected in Pennsylvania in 1972, but misidentified as Scymnus (Pullus) coni^Serarum Crotch (Gordon, 1976b). Subsequently the true identify was discovered (Gordon, 1982). The species is widely distributed in Pennsylvania with additional records from New York, Michigan, and Connecticut. The probable origin of this species is northern Europe possibly arriving

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with imported nursery stock. S. (P.) suturalis was released in Michigan in 1961,
but whether the present Michigan populations result from that release cannot be documented.

Top

Stethorus punctillum Weise
***species

Stethorus punctillum, a European species of this mite-feeding genus,
was fast reported in 1950 from Ontario and Massachusetts.
It is now known to occur in eastern North America from Massachusetts west to Wisconsin.
In the west it occurs in western Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.

Top

Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (L.)
***species

This is one of 2 nonpredaceous (phytophagous) foreign coccinellids established in North America.
In the Old World S. 24-punctata is a serious pest of alfalfa. In North America it apparently will not feed on alfalfa;
instead it feeds primarily on bouncing bet, Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae).
The initial discovery of this species was made in 1973, in Bergen Co., New Jersey.
A subsequent survey in the eastern states showed that the beetle was much more widespread
and must have been established long before 1973. It is now known from 7 states:
Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

The following tables list all known introductions of foreign Coccinellidae.
Table 1 deals with those intentionally imported, whether released or not,
and Table 2 lists those species accidentally introduced and established.
The species are listed under the currently accepted name or combination,
with the name it was introduced under in parentheses. The dates of importation
and release are given if known with the areas of release listed in the next column.
The literature citations are those from which the information presented for each species was gleaned.
The tables were compiled from various literature sources beginning with Essig (1931).
The major sources utilized for the period from 1931 to date were the California Biological Control Reports;
Clausen (1956b); Canadian Insect Pest Review; Clausen et al. (1978). In addition,
I am indebted to the following individuals for information and assistance:
K Hagen, University of California, Berkeley, Division of Biological Control, Albany;
R. Dysart and P. Schaefer, USDA Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory, Newark, Delaware;
J. Hall, Division of Biological Control, University of California, Riverside;
J. Coulson, USDA, Beneficial Insect Introduction Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland;
R. Fye, USDA Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Yakima, Washington;
J. Kelleher, Pesticide Information Liaison Section, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa;
R. Woodruff, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida.

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT

Family Coccinellidae

Coccinellidae Latreille, 1807, p 70—Westwood, 1839, p. 395—Crotch, 1874b, p. 53—Weise, 1885a, p. 3—Casey, 1899, p. 71—Mader, 1926, p. 1—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 3—Wingo, 1952, p. 16—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 12—Belicek, 1976, p. 288.

Form usually oval to round, convex, sometimes elongate oval and weakly convex.

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Antenna usually 11-segmented, often reduced to 10, 9, 8, or 7 segments, more or less clubbed.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus triangular (securiforrn), or parallel sided, or conical.
Elytron not truncate, not striate.
Prosternal process distinctly separating transverse front coxae.
Mesepimeron reaching middle coxal cavity.
Abdomen with 5 or 6 visible sterna, 7th rarely visible.
First sternum of abdomen nearly always with postcoxal line.
Tarsus usually cryptotetramerous, often trimerous, rarely truly tetramerous.
Tibial spurs present or absent.
Tarsal claw simple or toothed.
Male genitalia with sclerotized sipho (aedeagus), trilobed phallobase.

The cryptotetramerous tarsi and presence of postcoxal lines on the first abdominal sternum will usually
enable a coccinellid to be recognized as such. In those species which lack postcoxal lines,
the maxillary palpi are strongly securiform and the tarsi are cryptotetramerous.
The curved, sclerotized aedeagus (the sipho) is a certain character for family recognition.

KEY TO SUBFAMILIES OF COCCINELLIDAE NORTH OF MEXICO

1. Clypeus expanded laterally, shelflike, partially dividing eye (Fig. 3 a); dorsal surface not pubescent .... Chilocorinae (p. 602)
- Clypeus not expanded laterally, or if so, briefly and not shelflike; dorsal surface pubescent or not .... 2
2(1). Mandible multidenticulate epically (Fig. 3 c); antenna 11-segmented, inserted dorsally (Fig. 3 b); dorsal surface pubescent;
plant leaf feeders .........Epilachninae (p. 862)
- Mandible rarely multidenticulate epically, if so, then length less than 3.0 mm; antenna 11-segmented or not, insertion variable; dorsal surface pubescent or not; not plant leaf feeders .... 3
3(2). Apical segment of maxillary palpus conical or elongate oval (Fig. 3 d); mentum narrowly articulated with submentum; length less than 3.0 mm; middle coxal cavities broadly separated by articulation of meso- and metasterna .... Sticholotidinae (p. 34)
- Apical segment of maxillary palpus divergent apically (securiform) or nearly parallel sided, rarely slightly convergent epically; mentum not narrowly articulated with submentum; length often more than 2.0 mm; middle coxal cavities narrowly separated except broadly separated in Scymninae .... 4
4(3). Antenna short, 2/3 or less as long as head width; apical segment of maxillary palpus usually parallel sided or barrel shaped (Fig. 3 d, e), rarely securiform; middle coxal cavities broadly separated .... Scymninae (p. 74)
- Antenna long, usually more than 2/3 as long as head width, apical segment of maxillary palpus securiform (Fig. 3 f); middle coxal cavities narrowly separated .... 5
5(4). Dorsal surface pubescent .... Coccidulinae (p. 654) Dorsal surface glabrous .... Coccinellinae (p. 678)

Subfamily Sticholotidinae

Sticholotidinae Gordon, 1977, p. 186 (emendation).
Sticholotinae Weise, 1901,p.430—Sasaji, 1967,p.2—Sasaji, 1968,p. 19—J.Chapin, 1974, p. 13.

Small to medium-sized Coccinellidae; form hemispherical or elliptical.
Functional wings present or absent. Dorsally pubescent or not.
Head with apical segment of maxillary palpus more or less tapered, conical, barrel shaped or elongate oval; mentum
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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 3 . a. Head of Chilocorus sp. b. Head of Epilachna sp. c. Epilachna mandible. d. Microweisea maxillary palpus.
## e. Hyperaspis maxillary palpus. f. Coccinella maxillary palpus. g. Coccidula antenna.
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

and submentum narrowly joined.
Antenna usually inserted dorsally, with 7 to 11 segments, club with 1 to 5 segments.
Pronotum sometimes with line or ridge separating anterior angle from disc.
Anterior coxal cavities open behind.
Middle coxal cavities broadly separated.
Metendosternum with very broadly separated anterior tendons.
Abdomen with 5 or 6 visible sterna; male 9th sternum flat.
Tarsus trimerous or cryptotetramerous.
Female genital plate elongate, triangular.

The subfamily is principally characterized by the form of the terminal segment of the maxillary
palpus which is not securiform or distinctly broadened apically as is typical of the rest of the Coccinellidae.
The form of the maxillary palpus is an excellent distinguishing character for members of the
Serangiini, Microweisini, and Cephaloscymnini, but some members of tribes not occurring north of Mexico
have that segment more or less enlarged, approaching the typical coccinellid type.
Members of this subfamily are found throughout the tropical regions of the world with some genera and species
occurring also in temperate regions. The New World members of Sticholotidinae were treated by Gordon ( 1977);
see that paper for detailed discussion of taxonomy, phylogeny and zoogeography.
The Cephaloscymnini, new tribe, was not recognized as belonging in this subfamily when that paper (1977) was prepared,
and therefore they were not included. The detailed study of the morphology of the genus Cephaloscymnus
required for this study showed that Cephaloscymnus and

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related genera must be transferred to Sticholotidinae and a new tribe erected for them.
With this addition the tribes representing the subfamily north of Mexico are Serangiini, Microweisini, and Cephaloscymnini.

KEY TO TRIBES OF STICHOLOTIDINAE

1. Antennal club composed of a single knife-shaped or elongate-oval segment (Fig. 25 b); femur broad, flat, fitting into depressions on ventral surface; prosternum greatly expanded to conceal mouthparts (Fig. 25 a) .... Serangiini
- Antennal club composed of more than a single segment or if only one, then segment not knife-shaped; femur not broad or flat, ventral surface without depressions for legs; prosternum not greatly expanded, not concealing mouthparts .... 2
2(1). Dorsal surface pubescent; head large, exposed, directed centrally; eye large, narrow, elongate (Fig. 30 a) .... Cephaloscymini
- Dorsal surface apparently glabrous; head small, at least slightly concealed under pronoturn, usually directed forward; eye small, round or oval (Fig. 4 a) .... Microweisini

Tribe Microweisini

Microweisini Leng, 1920, p. 213—Wingo, 1952, p. 19—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 14— Sasaji, 1968, p. 20—Gordon, 1977, p. 200.
Pharini Casey, 1899, p. 110—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 209—Pope, 1962, p. 267 (in part) (type-genus preoccupied).

Sticholotidinae with dorsal surface usually not pubescent; if so, then hairs of uniform length; size minute.
Head capsule with prolonged Irons and clypeus emarginate around antennal insertion (Fig. 4 a);
eye small, facets ranging from extremely coarse to fine.
Mandible without apical or basal teeth.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus slender, tapered at apex (Fig. 4 b).
Antenna 7 to 10-segmented.
Pronotum with oblique anterolateral line inside anterolateral angle (Fig. 4 c) (except Gnathoweisea schwarzi).
Intercoxal process of prosternum broad, with anterior lobe (Fig. 4 d).
Leg simple, tibia unmodified. Tarsus cryptotetramerous or trimerous.
Functional wing present.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna;
basal sternum with divided postcoxal line (Fig. 4 g).
Male genitalia asymmetrical, phallobase with unpaired, basal apodeme (Fig. 8 a).
Female spermathecal capsule bulbous (Fig. 8 d).

This tribe is represented by 8 genera that occur from southern Canada to Chile and Argentina
and is apparently restricted to the Western Hemisphere. Microweisini is a closely knit group of genera
agreeing quite well in all essential characteristics. The small size, characteristic habitus,
the almost universal presence of an anterolateral line on the pronotum, divided postcoxal line
and broad T-shaped intercoxal process of the prosternum serve to diagnose this tribe.
See Gordon (1977) for a discussion of all Western Hemisphere genera.

KEY TO GENERA OF MICROWEISINI

1. Head entirely concealed beneath pronotum (Fig. 20 d) .... Nipus Casey
- Head part ably or not at all concealed .... 2
2(1). Head deeply inserted in prothorax, extremely elongate, slender (Fig. 15 a) .... Gnathoweisea Gordon
- Head not deeply inserted in prothorax, not elongate (Fig. 4 a) .... 3

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 4 . Microweisea sp. a. Head. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Pronotum. d. Posternum. e. Antenna. f. Leg. g. Postcoxal line.
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3(2). Antenna with 3-segmented club (Fig. 4 e) .... Microweisea Cockerell
- Antenna with 2-segmented club (Fig. 12 a) .... Coccidophilus Brethes

Genus Microweisea Cockerell

Microweisea Cockerell, 1903, p. 38 (new name for Epismilia Cockerell, 1900)— Wingo, 1952, p. 19—Pope, 1962, p. 637—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 15—Belicek, 1976, p. 296—Gordon, 1970d, p. 207—Gordon, 1977, p. 204. Type-species; Smilia felschei Weise, by monotypy.
Smilia Weise, 1891, p. 288 (not Germar, 1833)—Horn, 1895, p. 82—Blatchley, 1910, p. 524.
Epismilia Cockerell, 1900, p. 606 (not Fromental, 1861) (new name for Smilia Weise).
Pseudoweisea Schwarz, 1904, p. 118 (name made available by accident).

Microweisini with form elongate, oval; dorsum glabrous.
Head slightly prolonged

***Actually page 39, missing page 38! JC

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 5 . Microweisea suturalis. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (7936).

Distribution.
Figure 9 . CALIFORNIA: Long Beach; Los Angeles Co.

Microweisea minuta (Casey)
Fig. 6 a-c; Map, Fig. 7

Smilia minuta Casey, 1899, p. 135.
Epismilia minuta: Cockerell, 1900, p. 606.
Microweisea minuta: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Gordon, 1970d, p. 211.
Pentilia caseyi Korschefsky, 1931, p. 223 (unnecessary replacement name for minuta Casey).

Diagnosis.
Length 0.85 to 0.88 mm, width 0.55 to 0.60 mm.
Color piceous, ventral surface dark brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 6 a-c.
The small size will usually distinguish this species; see remarks under M. misella.
The type of M. minuta is a unique male in the Casey collection which must be considered the holotype.

Type locality.
Austin, Texas, on the Colorado River above Columbus.

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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 6 . Microweisea minuta. a. b. c.
#_____________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (35241)

Distribution.
Figure 7 . TEXAS: Austin; Brownsville; San Diego, Sinton.

Microweisea misella (LeConte)
Fig. 8 a-d; Map, Fig. 9

Pentilia misella LeConte, 1878a, p. 400—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 224.
Smilia misella: Horn, 1895, p. 82—Casey, 1899, p. 135—Blatchley, 1910, p. 524.
Epismilia misella: Cockerell, 1900, p. 606.
Microweisea misella: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Wingo, 1952, p. 19—Gordon, 1970d, p. 211—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 15—Belicek, 1976, p. 297.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.98 to 1.45 mm, width 0.70 to 1.05 mm.
Color entirely piceous.
Male genitalia as in Figure 8 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 8 d.

Discussion.
This is the most widely distributed member of the genus, having been recorded from most areas of the United States
and part of southern Canada. This species and M. minuta are similar in appearance, but M. misella has distinct
pronotal punctures that are lacking in M. minuta, and nearly all specimens of M. misella are obviously larger
than the largest specimens of M. minuta. The male genitalia afford a certain means of separating these 2 species.
There are 8 specimens in the LeConte collection that I consider types, the first of these, a male labeled "D.C./Type 6702

***Same as page039 ? JC
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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 6 . Microweisea minuta. a. b. c.
#_____________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (35241)

Distribution.
Figure 7 . TEXAS: Austin; Brownsville; San Diego, Sinton.

Microweisea misella (LeConte)
Fig. 8 a-d; Map, Fig. 9

Pentilia misella LeConte, 1878a, p. 400\224Korschefsky, 1931, p. 224.
Smilia misella: Horn, 1895, p. 82\224Casey, 1899, p. 135\224Blatchley, 1910, p. 524.
Epismilia misella: Cockerell, 1900, p. 606.
Microweisea misella: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38\224Leng, 1920, p. 213\224Wingo, 1952, p. 19\224Gordon, 1970d, p. 211\224J. Chapin, 1974, p. 15
\224Belicek, 1976, p. 297.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.98 to 1.45 mm, width 0.70 to 1.05 mm.
Color entirely piceous.
Male genitalia as in Figure 8 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 8 d.

Discussion.
This is the most widely distributed member of the genus, having been recorded from most areas of the United States
and part of southern Canada. This species and M. minuta are similar in appearance, but M. misella has distinct
pronotal punctures that are lacking in M. minuta, and nearly all specimens of M. misella are obviously larger
than the largest specimens of M. minuta. The male genitalia afford a certain means of separating these 2 species.
There are 8 specimens in the LeConte collection that I consider types, the first of these, a male labeled "D.C./Type 6702

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#__________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 7 . Distribution. M. minuta (dot); M. coccidivora (shaded); M. ovalis (star).
#__________________________________________________________________________________

(red paper)/pentilia misella Zim.", I designate and label the lectotype.
The remaining 7 specimens are designated as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Washington, D.C. (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 8 . Microweisea misella. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 9 . Southeastern Canada to Florida and east Texas, west to British Columbia and northern California.

Top

Microweisea coccidivora (Ashmead)
Fig. 10 a-d; Map, Fig. 7

Hyperaspidius coccidivora Ashmead, 1880, p. 10.
Smilia coccidivora: Horn, 1895, p. 82—Casey, 1899, p. 135.
Epismilia coccidivora: Cockerell, 1900, p. 606.
Microweisea coccidivora: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Gordon, 1970d, p. 212.
Pentilia coccidivora: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 223.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.80 to 1.0 mm, width 0.60 to 0.70 mm.
Color yellowish red;
elytral base and apex dark brown, transverse median area yellowish brown (Fig. 10 d), ventral surface and leg yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 10 a-b.

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#________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 9 . Distribution. Microweisea misella (shaded); M. suturalis (dot).
#________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
This is the only described species of the genus possessing a distinctive dorsal color pattern
which allows it to be easily recognized.

Type locality.
Orlando, Florida (neotype designated by Gordon, 1970d).

Type depository.
USNM (70409). Distribution. Figure 7 . Florida; Georgia; South Carolina

Top

Microweisea ovalis (LeConte)
Fig. 11 a-d; Map, Fig. 7

Pentilia ovalis LeConte, 1878a, p. 400—Korschefsky, 1932, p. 225.
Smilia ovalis: Horn, 1895, p. 82.
Epismilia ovalis: Cockerell, 1900, p. 66.
Microweisea ovalis: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Gordon, 1970d, p. 213.
Smilia felschei Weise, 1891, p. 288—Horn, 1895, p. 82.
Microweisea felschei: Leng, 1920, p. 13.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.95 to 1.05 mm, width 0.50 to 0.63 mm.
Form extremely elongate (Fig. lid).
Color brown; elytral suture piceous, anterior pronotal angle, venter, and leg yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 11 a-c.

Discussion.
The elongate form and pale pronotum distinguish M. ovalis from M. suturalis which it most nearly resembles.
LeConte had more than one type specimen, but only one remains in his collection.
This male labeled "Haulover, Fla, II-10/977/ Type 6699^tred paper)/Pentilia ovalis Lee."
is designated and labeled the lectotype.

Type specimen(s) of S. felschei have not been examined.
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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 10 . Microweisea coccidivora. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

Type locality.
Of ovalis, Haulover, Florida (lectotype here designated); offelschei, Florida.

Type depository.
Of ovalis, MCZ; offelschei, probably MNHUB (not examined).

Distribution.
Figure 7 . FLORIDA: Baldwin; Biscayne; Citrus City; Haulover, St. Lucie; Tallahassee; Tampa. GEORGIA: Sapelo Island.

Genus Coccidophilus Brethes

Coccidophilus Brethes, 1905, p. 76—Costa Lima, 1941, p. 409—Pope, 1 962,p. 628— Gordon, 1970d, p. 213—Gordon, 1977, p. 203. Type-species; Coccidophilus citricola Brethes, by monotype and original designation.
Cryptoweisea Gordon, 1970d, p. 213—Gordon, 1977, p. 215. Type-species; Pentilia marginata LeConte, by original designation.

Diagnosis.
Microweisini with form elongate, oval;
dorsum apparently glabrous.
Head slightly prolonged anterior to antennal insertion;
eyes separated by 4 times the width of an eye;
frons often with 2 interocular depressions.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus elongate, conical (Fig. 12 b).
Antenna with 7-segmented scape and 2segmented club (Fig. 12 a).
Prosternum with small anterior lobe (Fig. 12 c).
Tarsus trimerous.
Male genitalia asymmetrical, paramere reduced (Fig. 12 e).
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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 11 . Microweisea ovalis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Discussion.
There are 4 described species in this genus and 2 of these occur north of Mexico.
It is difficult to separate Coccidophilus from Microweisea without counting the antennal club segments,
but species of Coccidophilus often have 2 depressions on the frons between the eyes.
These depressions are quite apparent in C. marginata, but feeble and difficult to detect in C. atronitens.
Members of Coccidophilus are scale predators with available host records as follows:
Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Aspidiotus sp.;
Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); Pseudaulacaspis pentagons (Targioni-Tozzetti); Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.).
The North American species of Coccidophilus were taxonomically treated by Gordon (1970d)
under the generic name of Cryptoweisea.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Coccidophilus

1. Punctures on elytron coarse, dense, separated by the diameter of a puncture or less; form slender, elongate (Fig. 14 d); northern and eastern U.S. and southeastern Canada .... marginata (LeConte)
- Punctures on elytron fine, separated by 2 or 3 times the diameter of puncture; form oval (Fig. 12 d); western United States .... atronitens (Casey)
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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 12 . Coccidophilus sp. a. Antenna. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Prosternum. d-h. Coccidophilus atronitens.
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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#______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 13 . Distribution. Coccidophilus atronitens (shaded); C. marginata (dot).
#______________________________________________________________________________

Top

Coccidophilus atronitens (Casey)
Fig. 12 d-h; Map, Fig. 13

Smilia atronitens Casey, 1899, p. 135.
Epismilia atronitens Cockerell, 1900, p. 606.
Microweisea atronitens: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213.
Pentilia atronitens: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 223.
Cryptoweisea atronitens: Gordon, 1970d, p. 215.
Coccidophilus atronitens: Gordon, 1977, p. 187.
Smilia reversa Fall, 1901, p. 231.
Microweisea reversa: Leng, 1920, p. 213.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.10 to 1.20 mm, width 0.90 to 0.9S mm.
Form oval (Fig. 12 d).
Color dark brown; epipleuron and leg yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 12 e-g.
Female genitalia as in figure 12h.

Discussion.
This species is smoother, more polished in appearance than C. marginata,
and the dorsal punctation is very fine rather than coarse as in C. marginata.
The 2 species are strongly allopatric. There are 6 types of S. atronitens in the Casey collection,
all from the same locality. The first of these, a female, is here designated and labeled the lectotype,
the remainder are designated and labeled as paralectotypes.

Type specimens of S. reversa are in the Fall collection in the MCZ.

Type locality.
Of atronitens Siskiyou Co., California (lectotype here designated);
of reversa, Lake Tahoe, San Bernardino Mts., California (lectotype not designated).

Type depository.
Of atronitens USNM (35240);
of reversa, MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 13 . Colorado and Arizona to Oregon and California.
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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 14 . Coccidophilus marginata. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

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Coccidophilus marginata (LeConte)
Fig. 14 a-d; Map, Fig. 13

Pentilia marginata LeConte, 1878a, p. 400—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 224.
Smilia marginata: Horn, 1895, p. 82—Casey, 1899, p. 135.
Epismilia marginata: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38.
Microweisea marginata: Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Wingo, 1952, p. 27—Belicek, 1976, p. 297.
Cryptoweisea marginata: Gordon, 1970d, p. 215. Coccidophilus marginata: Gordon, 1977, p. 203.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.20 to 1.25 mm, width 0.70 to 1.00 mm.
Form elongate (Fig. 14 d). Color light brown; epipleuron yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 14 a-b.

Discussion.
The 2 interocular depressions on the frogs are usually pronounced in

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this species, feeble or absent in C. atronitens; and C. marginata is much more coarsely punctured
dorsally than C. atronitens (see remarks under C. atronitens). LeConte apparently had one type specimen
which must be considered the holotype. This male in his collection is labeled
"Marquette, Mich., 29-6/Type 6701(red paper)/Pentilia marginata LeC."

Type locality.
Marquette, Michigan.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 13 . MAINE: Mt. Katahdin. MICHIGAN: Marquette. NEW JERSEY: Anglesea; Burlington Co. NEW YORK: Ithaca; Mt. Whiteface. PENNSYLVANIA: Blair Co., Duncansville, Indiana Co., Shelocta; Philadelphia.

Genus Gnathoweisea Gordon

Gnathoweisea Gordon, 1970a, p. 47—Gordon, 1977, p. 204. Type-species; Smilia planiceps Casey, by original designation.

Microweisini with form elongate, oval, pronotum partially covering head;
dorsum nearly glabrous, short, sparse pubescence present.
Head elongate anterior to antennas insertion, lateral border margined (Fig. 15 a);
eyes separated by 6 times the width of an eye, very coarsely faceted.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus elongate, slender, conical.
Antenna with 6-segmented scape, 3-segmented club (Fig. 15 b).
Prosternum with or without anterior lobe.
Postcoxal line as in Figure 15 d.
Tarsus trimerous.
Male genitalia asymmetrical, paramere somewhat reduced.

Two species have previously been placed in this genus, and four species are described here.
The extremely elongate head is the most obvious characteristic of Gnathoweisea,
but the 9-segmented antenna with a small, compact club is equally distinctive within this tribe.
The head is deeply inserted within the prothorax, the intercoxal process is lobed anteriorly and
protrudes ventrally except in G. schwarzi. No host data is available,
but members of this genus are undoubtedly scale predators, probably on diaspine scales.
The species of Gnathoweisea were reviewed by Gordon (1970a),
and the genus was discussed again by Gordon (1977).

KEY TO SPECIES OF GNATHOWEISEA

1. Pronotum without oblique line across anterolateral angle; prosternum not lobed anteriorly; anterior border of mesosternum raised (Fig. 15 c) .... schwarzi Gordon
- Pronotum with oblique line across anterolateral angle; prosternum lobed anteriorly; anterior border of mesosternum flat .... 2
2(1). Length 1.20 mm or more .... hageni, n. sp.
- Length 1.10 mm or less .... 3
3(2). Head extremely elongate, abruptly narrowed between hind margin of eye and antennal insertion; Nevada .... ferox, n. sp.
- Head shorter, not abruptly narrowed; not known from Nevada .... 4
4(3). Dorsal color light brown; elytral punctures fine, lightly impressed; pronotal surface feebly alutaceous .... micula, n. sp.
- Dorsal color brown to black; elytral punctures coarse, distinctly impressed; pronotal surface strongly alutaceous .... 5
5(4). Elytral punctures separated by a diameter or less: Arizona, California .... planiceps (Casey)
- Elytral punctures separated by more than a diameter, Texas .... texana, n. sp.
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#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 15 . Gnathoweisea sp. a. Head. b. Antenna. c. Metasternurn. d. Postcoxal line. e, f. Gnathoweisea schwarzi.
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Top

Gnathoweisea schwarzi Gordon
Fig. 15 c, e, f; Map, Fig. 17

Gnathoweisea schwarzi Gordon, 1970a, p. 50.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.98 to 1.03 mm,
width 0.70 to 0.75 mm.
Color medium brown except pronotum often dark brown or piceous.
Male genitalia as in Figure 15 e, f.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 16 . Gnathoweisea planiceps. a. b. c.
#__________________________________________

Discussion.
This species differs from the other members of the genus in having the prosternum not at all lobed in front and
the apex of the mesosternum raised to form a ventrally directed ridge (Fig. 15 c).
The intercoxal process of the prostemum is also much narrower than in the other 2 species.

Type locality.
Williams, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (70406).

Distribution.
Figure 17 . ARIZONA: type locality.

Top

Gnathoweisea planiceps (Casey)
Fig. 16 a-c; Map, Fig. 17

Smilia planiceps Casey, 1899, p. 135.
Microweisea planiceps Cockerell, 1903, p. 38—Leng, 1920, p. 213.
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Pentilia planiceps: Korschefsky, 1932, p. 225.
Gnathoweisea planiceps: Gordon, 1970a, p. 50.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.85 to 1.10 mm,
width 0.72 to 0.78 mm.
Color dark brown or piceous.
Male genitalia as in Figure 16 a, b.
Female genitalia as in Figure 16 c.

Discussion.
This species was previously known only from California, but I have seen several specimens from Arizona
that are apparently G. planiceps. For comparative remarks see the discussion under G. ferox, n. sp.
There are 2 type specimens of S. planiceps in the Casey collection.
The first of these, a male, is here designated and labeled the lectotype;
the other specimen is designated and labeled a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Southern California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35242).

Distribution.
Figure 17 . ARIZONA: Bright Angel Camp; Huachucha Mts., Millers Canyon; Hot Springs; Pima Co., Santa Rita Exp. Range; Santa Rita Mts.; Madera Canyon. CALIFORNIA: Argus Mts.; Pomona; Riverside Co., Sage.

Gnathoweisea texana, new species
Map, Fig. 17

Description.
Female, length 1.0 mm, width 0.72 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color dark brown, head and pronotum nearly black.
Head alutaceous, feebly shiny, nearly impunctate; moderately prolonged anterior to eye, sides parallel.
Pronotum dull, alutaceous, meshes small, punctures fine, indistinct, separated by one to 3 times a diameter.
Elytron shiny, punctures coarse, separated by slightly more than a diameter.
Ventral surface smooth medially, lateral portion of metasternum and entire abdomen alutaceous.

Holotype.
Female. TEXAS: Bell Co., Co. Rd., 4 ml. E. Heidenheimer, Barton Weems Farm, 26 Jun. 1978, coil. Robbins & Critchfield. USNM(101326).

This species closely resembles G. planiceps, but the elytral punctures are less dense in planiceps.
The only specimen examined is a female, therefore no genitalic comparisons are possible.
The specific name refers to the state in which the holotype was collected.

Gnathoweisea micula, new species
Map, Fig. 17

Description.
Female, length 1.05 mm, width 0.80 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color light brown; head, pronotum, and ventral surface slightly darker brown.
Head shiny, feebly alutaceous, impunctate; short anterior to eye and slightly widened.
Pronotum feebly alutaceous, somewhat shiny, punctures fine, indistinct, separated by less than to twice a diameter.
Elytron shiny, punctures feebly impressed, separated by one to 3 times a diameter.
Ventral surface smooth medially, lateral portion of metasternum and entire abdomen alutaceous.

Holotype.
Female. NEW MEXICO: Deming, July 11-12, 4,300-4,400 ft., Wickham. USNM (101327).

Paratypes.
Total 2 (females) (Fig. 17 ). ARIZONA: Adamana, 7-V-03, HS Barber collector; Walnut, Wickham. (USNM).
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#_________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 17 . Distribution. Gnathoweisea schwarzi (triangle); G. planiceps (dot);
## G. texana (open circle); G. micula (star); G. hageni (circled star); G. ferox (square).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________

The pale color of G. micula and the feeble alutaceous sculpture on the head and pronotum are diagnostic characters.
The head anterior to the eye is very short, and the sides are not parallel but slightly widened.
The only other known species with similar tendencies is G. hageni, n. sp.
Only females of this species have been ex-
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#_____________________________
##Fig. 18 Gnathoweisea hageni.
#_____________________________


amined. The specific epithet is from the Latin mica, meaning crumb, or morsel, and refers to the small size.

Top

Gnathoweisea hageni , new species
Fig. 18 ; Map, Fig. 17

Description.
Female, length 1.50 mm, width, 1.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color brown; head and pronotum dark brown.
Head alutaceous, slightly shiny, punctures fine, separated by 2 to 3 times a diameter;
short anterior to eye and strongly widened.
Pronotum feebly alutaceous, shiny, punctures distinct, separated by one to 3 times a diameter.
Elytron shiny, punctures coarse, separated by 2 to 4 times a diameter.
Ventral surface smooth medially, lateral portion of metasternum and entire abdomen alutaceous.
Genitalia as in Figure 18 .

Variation.
Length 1.25 to 1.50 mm, width 0.90 to 1.0 mm.
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#______________________________________
##Fig. 19 . Gnathoweisea ferox. a. b. c.
#______________________________________

Holotype.
Female. CALIFORNIA: Yuba Co., Bullards Bar, II-1956, K S. Hagen Collector. USNM (101328).

Paratypes.
Total 2 (females) (Fig. 17 ). CALIFORNIA: same data as holotype (KSH).

This is the largest species of Gnathoweisea known. The head is short as in G. micula,
and the pronotal punctures are distinctly visible. All specimens examined are females.
The species is named for Kenneth Hagen, the collector,
and one who has contributed much to the biosystematics of Coccinellidae.

Top

Gnathoweisea ferox , new species
Fig. 19 a-c; Map, Fig. 17

Description.
Male, length 1.0 mm, width 0.72 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color dark brown; head and pronotum black; leg piceous; epipleuron yellowish brown.
Head dull, strongly alutaceous, nearly impunctate;
extremely elongate, abruptly narrowed between hind margin of eye and antennal insertion.
Pronotum dull, alutaceous, meshes very small, punctures very fine, indistinct, separated by one to 4 times a diameter.
Elytron shiny, densely, coarsely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter or less.
Ventral surface smooth medially, lateral portion of metasternum and entire abdomen alutaceous.
Genitalia as in Figure 19 a-c.

Holotype.
Male. NEVADA: Churchill Co., 6 mi. east of Frenchman, 16-VI-1973, Stephen J. Chaplin. USNM(101329).

Paratypes.
Total 9 (Fig. 17 ). Same data as holotype except 3 dated 22 Aug. 1972. (USNM).
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Gnathoweisea ferox appears to have the head more strongly tapered
(narrowed from the hind margin of the eyes to the antennal insertion)
than the other members of the genus. The specific epithet is from the Latin meaning fierce,
and refers to the forbidding appearance of the head and mouthparts.

Genus Nipus Casey

NipusCasey,1899,p.132—Leng,1920,p.213—Korschefsky,1931,p.175—Gordon, 1970f, p. 71—Gordon, 1977, p. 208. Type-species; Nipus biplagiatus Casey, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Microweisini with form oval;
dorsum glabrous or partially pubescent;
pronotum usually completely concealing head (Fig. 20 d).
Head strongly elongate anterior to antennal insertion but not as elongate as in Gnathoweisea;
eyes separated by 3 times the width of an eye.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus elongate, somewhat conical.
Antenna with 7-segmented scape, 3-segmented club (Fig. 20 a).
Prosternum with anterior lobe pronounced, semicircular, nearly concealing mouthparts ventrally (Fig. 20 b).
Postcoxal line as in Figure 20 c.
Tarsus trimerous.
Male genitalia asymmetrical, paramere reduced.

This genus contains 4 species occurring in the southwestern United States.
Nipus is readily distinguished from other genera of Microweisini
because the head is almost always completely concealed beneath the pronotum.
The partially concealed head found in Gnathoweisea is the only remotely similar condition known.
The species of Nipus were reviewed by Gordon (1970f), and the genus was discussed again by Gordon (1977).
The only host record for this genus is that of N. biplagiatus preying upon Ehrhornia cupressi (Ehrhorn),
but all members of the genus are undoubtedly scale predators.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Nipus

1. Elytron with a pale red or yellow spot, or red or yellow band (Fig. 20 d)
- Elytron without pale spot or band .... 3
2(1). Form elongate, parallel sided (Fig. 20 d); California .... biplagiatus Casey
- Form elongate, oval, not parallel sided (Fig. 24 ); Arizona, Utah .... occiduus Gordon
3(1). Form narrow, elongate (Fig. 21 ); pronotum dull, strongly alutaceous; punctures on elytron extremely coarse; California .... niger Casey
- Form oval (Fig. 23 ); pronotum shiny, feebly alutaceous; punctures on elytron fine; Arizona, Colorado .... planatus Gordon

Top

Nipus biplagiatus Casey
Fig. 20 d-f; Map, Fig. 22

Nipus biplagiatus Casey, 1899, p. 133—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Herbert, 1920, p. 18— Schilder, 1928, p. 237—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 175—Gordon, 1970f, p. 72.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.25 to 1.50 mm, width 0.75 to 0.82 mm.
Form elongate, parallel-sided, abruptly narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 20 d).
Color piceous; large median area of elytron and anterior margin of pronotum yellow, ventral surface yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 20 e, f.
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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 20 . Nipus biplagiatus. a. Antenna. b. Prosternum. c. Postcoxal line. d. Habitus; e, f. male genitalia.
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
This species is known only from California and resembles N. occiduus which apparently does not occur in California.
In addition to the key characters, N. ^Occiduus is smaller and not as coarsely punctured as N. biplagiatus.
In the Casey collection is a unique female which must be considered the holotype of N. biplagiatus.

Type locality.
Los Angeles, California.

Type depository.
USNM (35224).
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Distribution.
Figure 22 . CALIFORNIA: Contra Costa Co., Vine Hill; Los Angeles; Los Gatos; Orange Co., Costa Mesa; San Bernardino; Upland.

Top

Nipus niger Casey
Fig. 21 ; Map, Fig. 22

Nipus niger Casey, 1899, p. 133—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 176—Gordon, 1970f, p. 73.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.05 to 1.10 mm, width 0.70 to 0.74 mm.
Form elongate, oval, gradually narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 21 ).
Color brownish piceous; anterior margin of pronotum yellowish brown, ventral surface brown.

Discussion.
No males of this species were available for study. Nipus niger is most similar to N. planatus,
but the key characters will readily separate the 2 species.
A unique female in the Casey collection must be considered the holotype of N. niger.

Type locality.
Sonoma Co., California.

Type depository.
USNM (35225).

Distribution.
Figure 22 . CALIFORNIA: Humboldt Co.; Los Gatos; Sonoma Co.

Top

Nipus planatus Gordon
Fig. 23 ; Map, Fig. 22

Nipus planatus Gordon, 1970f, p. 74.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.19 to 1.24 mm, width 0.81 to 0.84 mm.
Form elongate, oval, evenly narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly (Fig. 23 ).
Color brown; anterior and lateral borders of pronotum yellowish brown, mouthparts and leg yellowish brown.

Type locality.
Salida, Colorado.

Type depository.
USNM (70851).

Distribution.
Figure 22 . ARIZONA: Bright Angel Camp. COLORADO: Salidla.

Top

Nipus occiduus Gordon
Fig. 24 ; Map, Fig. 22

Nipusocciduus Gordon, 1970f, p. 75.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.20 to 1.24 mm, width 0.75 to 0.78 mm.
Form oval (Fig. 24 ).
Color piceous; elytron with yellow spot occupying 1/2 to 2/3 of elytron, anterior margin of pronotum yellowish brown.

Discussion.
See comparative remarks under N. biplagiatus.

Type locality.
Wasatch, Utah.

Type depository.
USNM (70852).

Distribution.
Figure 22 . ARIZONA: Chiricahua Mts.; Huachucha Mts., Millers Canyon; Oracle; Santa Rita Mts; Williams. UTAH: Wasatch.

Tribe Serangiini

Serangiini Blackwelder,1945,p.450—Pope,1962,p.627—Sasaji,1967,p.2—Sasaji, 1968, p. 20—Gordon, 1970e, p. 356—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 13—Belicek, 1976, p. 292—Gordon, 1977, p. 208.
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#______________________
##Fig. 21 . Nipus niger.
#______________________

Sticholotidinae with form compact; dorsally pubescent or not.
Head slightly prolonged anterior to antennal insertion, emarginate around insertion; eye coarsely faceted (Fig. 25 a).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus either elongate and conical, or short and barrel shaped.
Antenna 8 or 9-segmented, club composed of a single segment (Fig. 2 Sb).
Prosternum strongly lobed anteriorly, concealing mouthparts (Fig. 25 a), notched on each side for reception of antenna.
Epipleuron with fovea for reception of leg. Leg received in deep cavity on ventral surface;
at least front femur broad, flat, concealing tibia when leg retracted;
at least front tibia angulate externally.
Tarsus cryptotetramerous or trimerous.
Abdomen with 5 visible sterna. Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum complete (Fig. 25 c).
Male genitalia asymmetrical, paramere reduced.
Female genitalia lacking infundibulum.

This tribe presently contains 6 genera, 5 of which are native to the Old World.
Delphastus is the only native American representative of the tribe with 12 species occurring from Canada to Argentina.
Catana clauseni Chapin occurs in Cuba, but was introduced from Indonesia in 1930 for biocontrol of the citrus blackfly,
Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby. Serangiini is a closely knit group of genera, highly distinctive in appearance.
The strongly lobed prosternum that conceals the mouthparts and has a notch on each side for reception of the
antenna is the most striking characteristic; in addition, the ventral surface is deeply foveate for reception of the legs,
and at least the anterior leg is broad, flattened.
See Gordon (1977) for further discussion of the genera occurring in the Western Hemisphere.
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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 22 . Distribution. Nipus biplagiatus (dot); N. niger (star); N. planatus (square); N. occiduus (open circle).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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#_________________________
##Fig. 23 . Nipus planatus.
#_________________________

Genus Delphastus Casey

Delphastus Casey, 1899, p. 111—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p 220— Chapin, 1940, p. 264—Wingo, 1952, p. 22—J. Chapin, 1974, p.13—Belicek, 1976, p. 292—Gordon, 1970e, p. 357—Gordon, 1977, p. 209. Type-species; Oeneis pusillus LeConte, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Serangiini with form hemispherical, slightly elongate.
Head with apical segment of maxillary palpus slender, somewhat conical.
Antenna 9-segmented (Fig. 25 b).
Elytron without sutural line.
Epipleuron not descending externally.
Leg with femur broad; tibia angulate externally.
Tarsus trimerous.

There are only 3 species of this genus described from the area north of Mexico; the remaining 9 described species occur
from Mexico and the West Indies to Argentina. Members of Delphastus are known as predators on whiteflies (Aleurodidae)
with available host records as follows: Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby; Pelius kelloggi (Bemis); Trialeurodes floridensis (Quaintance);
Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); and Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morgan). However, a series of a species of Delphastus in the
USNM collection bears the host data "on Asterolecanium miliaris (Boisduval)", a pit scale. Kamiya (1966) records
Serangium japonicum japonicum Chapin as feeding on the soft scales Ceroplastes rubens Maskell and Ceroplastes japonicus Green
in Japan. It appears that members of the Serangiini feed on both whiteflies and scale insects. The species of Delphastus
were taxonomically treated by Gordon (1970e).
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#_________________________
##Fig. 24 . Nipus occiduus.
#_________________________

KEY TO SPECIES OF Delphastus

1. Length less than 1.10 mm; color pale reddish yellow; Florida .... pallidus (LeConte)
- Length more than 1.30 mm; color light reddish brown to black; not restricted to Florida .... 2
2(1). Prosternal lobe densely, coarsely punctate; California .... catalinae (Horn)
- Prosternal lobe smooth; not restricted to California .... pusillus (LeConte)

Top

Delphastus pallidus (LeConte)
Fig. 25 e, g; Map, Fig. 27

Oeneis pallidus LeConte, 1878a, p. 400.
Cryptognatha pallida: Horn, 1895, p. 83.
Delphastus pallidus: Casey, 1899, p. 112—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Blatchley, 1924, p. 167—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 220—Gordon, 1970e, p. 360.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.90 to 1.05 mm, width 0.70 to 0.80 mm.
Color pale reddish yellow except leg yellow.
Male genitalia as in Figure 25 e, g.

Discussion.
This small, pale species is readily recognizeable by the key characters.
The type is a unique female in the LeConte collection labeled
"Sand Pt. Fla, 18-2/ 979/Type 6696(red paper)/Oeneis pallidus LeC."
which must be considered the holotype.

Type locality. Sand Point, Florida.

Type depository. MCZ.
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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 25 . Delphastus pallidus. a. Head and prosternum. b, Antenna. c. Postcoxal line. d-g. Male genitalia.
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Distribution Figure 27 . FLORIDA: Homestead; Lake Alfred; Miami; Orlando; Pasco Co.; Sand Point; Volusia Co.

Top

Delphastus catalinae (Horn)
Fig. 26 a-d; Map, Fig. 27

Cryptognatha catalinae Horn, 1895, p. 83.
Delphastuscatalinae: Casey, 1899, p. 112—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 220—Gordon, 1970e, p. 365.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.40 to 1.50 mm, width 1.10 to 1.18 mm.
Color medium reddish brown, median area of pronotum slightly darker, legs and head of male pale yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 26 a-d.
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#______________________________
##Fig. 26 . Delphastus catalyze.
#______________________________

Discussion.
The coarsely punctured prosternal lobe distinguishes this species from other North American Delphastus.
In addition, D. catalinae is broader and usually paler in color than D. pusillus which it most closely resembles.
The type is a unique female in the Horn collection labeled
"Catalina Cal., 7-21-94/Holotype 3169(red paper)/Cryptognatha catalinae H."
which must be considered the holotype.

Type locality.
Catalina, southern California.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 27 . CALIFORNIA: Catalina; Los Angeles Co., Oak Canyon, Tanbark Flat; Pasadena, San Antonio Canyon; Santa Barbara.

Top

Delphastus pusillus (LeConte)
Fig. 28 a-c; Map, Fig. 27

Oeneis pusilla LeConte, 1852, p. 135—Crotch, 1873, p. 377.
Cryptognatha pusilla: Crotch, 1874b, p. 207—Horn, 1895, p. 83.
Delphastus pusillus: Casey, 1899, p. 112—Blatchley, 1910, p. 519—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Wingo, 1952, p. 45—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 14—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 220— Gordon, 1970e, p. 367.
Oeneis puncticollis LeConte, 1852, p. 135—Crotch, 1873, p. 377 (as female of pusilla).
Cryptognatha puncticollis: Crotch, 1874b, p. 207—Horn,1895, p. 83.
Delphastus pusillus var. puncticollis: Casey, 1899, p. 112—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 220.
Delphastus puncticollis: Gordon, 1970e, p. 367.
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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 27 . Distribution. Delphastus pallidus (dot); D. catalinae (open circle); D. pusillus (shaded).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Delphastus sonoricus Casey, 1899, p. 112—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 221—Gordon, 1970e, p. 367.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.40 to 1.60 mm, width 1.10 to 1.20 mm.
Color black; prosternum and leg yellow, male with head and lateral margin of pronotum yellow.
Male genitalia as in Figure 28 a, b.
Female genitalia as in Figure 28 c.

Discussion.
Delphastus pusillus is a widely distributed, variable species. The color pattern described above was taken
from a Maryland specimen which agrees quite well with LeConte's original description.
The southwestern U.S. specimens are usually dark brown rather than black and the males
do not have lighter colored pronotal margins, it was to this form that Casey gave the name D. sonoricus.
The brown form prevails south through Mexico and Central America with an occasional population from a
coastal locality exhibiting the color pattern of typical D. pusillus. Its range appears to be continuous
into South America at least as far as Peru.

I consider the three specimens of D. pusillus that remain in the LeConte collection type material.
The first of these, a male labeled "(orange disc)/ /Type 6697(red paper)/ Oe. pusilla LeC.",
I designate and label the lectotype. The second, bearing only an orange disc, and the third bearing
a pink disc are designated as paralectotypes. LeConte apparently had only one example of O. puncticollis,
and this specimen in his collection labeled "(orange disc)/Type 6698/Oeneis puncticollis LeC." must be
considered the holotype. Casey had 6 type specimens from southern Arizona and southern California.
I designate and label a male as the lectotype and the remainder as paralectotypes.
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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 28 . Delphastus pusillus. a. b. c.
#_______________________________________

Type locality.
Of pusillus, Georgia (lectotype here designated);
of puncticollis, "Southern States";
of sonoricus, Tucson, Arizona (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of pusillus and puncticollis, MCZ;
of sonoricus, USNM (35230).

Distribution.
Figure 27 . Massachusetts to Florida, west to California.

Cephaloscymnini, new tribe

Sticholotidinae of small size, length less than 3.0 mm.
Head prominent, exposed, deflected centrally;
eye large, narrow, elongate, very finely faceted, inner margin parallel or closer at posterior border of eye than at anterior border;
apex of clypeus truncate or subtruncate;
gena with or without narrow extension onto eye.
Antenna inserted frontally at apex of eye, insertion exposed or not; antenna short, 8-10segmented, club 3-segmented.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus long, slender, conical or parallel sided.
Mandible bidentate apically, or unidentate with feeble, subapical tooth.
Pronotum short, deeply excavated for reception of head, lateral border explanate, anterolateral angle strongly produced forward, extending nearly to apex
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 29 . Cephaloscymnus zimmermani zimmermani.
#_______________________________________________

of eye.
Prosternum broad, bicarinate or not, produced anteriorly to partially conceal mouthparts or not.
Epipleuron broad or narrow, not foveate for reception of leg. Leg slender, simple.
Tarsus cryptotetramerous; tarsal claw without tooth.
Abdomen with 5 visible sterna.
Postcoxal line on 1st abdominal sternum complete (Fig. 30 g).
Male genitalia symmetrical.

The group of genera here assigned to this tribe contain some of the most unusual appearing Coccinellidae in the entire family.
These genera have previously been placed in the Scymninae, but examination of all morphological characters shows that they
belong in the subfamily Sticholotidinae. They are not closely related to members of any presently established tribe;
therefore, the establishment of the tribe Cephaloscymnini is deemed necessary. The included genera are
Cephaloscymnus Crotch, Prodilis Mulsant, Neaporia Gorham, Aneaporia Casey and Prodioloides Weise.
The genus Cephaloscymnus has been placed in the Scymnini or Ortaliini by authors, while
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Prodilis, Neaporia, and Prodiloides have been placed in the Ortaliini.
Casey considered Aneaporia to belong to the Exoplectrini but this was an obviously incorrect placement.
All of these genera quite apparently share a common ancestry and must be grouped together as done here.
Examination of species of this group in existing collections indicates that additional genera will have
to be erected when a complete study is completed. The combination of short antenna; large, ventrally directed head;
large, narrow, finely faceted eyes; and short, explanate pronotum readily separate this tribe, not only from other
tribes of Sticholotidinae, but from all other North American Coccinellidae.
The only genus in this tribe occurring north of Mexico is Cephaloscymnus.

Genus Cephaloscymnus Crotch

Cephaloscymnus Crotch, 1873, p. 382—Horn, 1895, p. 81—Casey, 1899, p. 160— Blatchley, 1910, p. 524—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 168—Wingo, 1952, p. 19—Gordon, 1970b, p. 66. Type-species; Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni Crotch, by monotypy.

Cephaloscymnini with form elongate, slender (Fig. 29 ).
Head broad between eyes, frons 3 times the width of an eye;
inner margin of eyes nearly parallel;
apex of clypeus subtruncate;
gena not extending onto eye (Fig. 30 a).
Antennal insertion exposed; antenna 9-segmented, club 3-segmented (Fig. 30 b).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus slender, parallel-sided (Fig. 30 c).
Mandible unidentate apically, with feeble, subapical tooth (Fig. 30 d).
Surface of head and pronotum deeply, densely punctured, punctures contiguous or nearly so.
Prosternum short, not produced anteriorly, without carinae (Fig. 30 e).
Male metasternum with large, deep, pubescent pit (Fig. 30 f).
Postcoxal line as in Figure 30 g.
Female genitalia without infundibulum; spermethecal capsule simple, lacking cornu or ramus (Fig. 31 f).

The presence of a metacoxal pit in males and the short intercoxal prosternal process lacking carinae
or an anterior protuberance distinguish Cephaloscymnus from the other genera of Cephaloscymnini.
There are presently 7 species in this genus (Gordon, 1970b, 1974d), 2 of which are known only from
Mexico and 4 from Mexico and the United States. Cephaloscymnus bruchi Weise was described from Brazil;
I have not seen this species but suspect that it belongs in Prodilis.
No host data is available for members of this genus, but they are probably scale predators.
Cephaloscymnus has been revised by Gordon (1970b), with a subsequent paper (Gordon, 1974d)
on additional species from Mexico.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Cephaloscymnus

1. Length 2.15 mm or more; eastern United States, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico .... 2
- Length 2.15 mm or less; California, Arizona, Texas, Mexico .... 3
2(1). Pronotum and elytron piceous to black; eastern U.S. .... zimmermanni zimmermanni Crotch
- Pronotum usually reddish, elytron piceous to brown; southwestern U.S. and north-eastern Mexico .... zimmermanni australis Gordon
3(1). Ventral surface black (except legs and mouthparts) .... laevis Gordon
- Ventral surface piceous or brown .... 4
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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 30 . Cephaloscymnus sp. a. Lateral view of head and pronotum. b. Antenna. c. Maxillary palpus.
## d. Mandible. e. Prosternum. f. Metasternum. g. Postcoxal line.
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________

4(3). Pronotum finely punctured, anterior angle feebly explanate .... occidentalis Horn
- Pronotum coarsely punctured, anterior angle strongly explanate .... insulatus Gordon

Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni zimmermanni Crotch
Figs. 29, 31a-e; Map, Fig. 32

Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni Crotch, 1873, p. 382—Horn, 1895, p. 11—Casey, 1899, p. 161—Blatchley, 1910, p. 531—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 169—Wingo, 1952, p. 45.
Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni zimmermani: Gordon, 1970b, p. 67—Gordon, 1974d, p. 45.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.15 to 2.40 mm, width 1.30 to 1.45 mm.
Form elongate (Fig.
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#_______________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 31 . a-e. Cephaloscymnus zimmermani zimmermani. f C. z. australis.
#_______________________________________________________________________

29)
Color piceous to black dorsally; ventral surface piceous, tarsus yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 31 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 31 e.
Crotch had more than one type specimen,
but only one female labeled "(yellow disc)/Type 8247/ Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni Crotch" remains in the LeConte collection.
I designate and label that female the lectotype.

Type locality.
"Central Valley" (Ohio, Illinois, etc.) (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 32 . DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. INDIANA (state record). MARYLAND: Beltsville. NEW JERSEY: Montclair. SOUTH CAROLINA: (state record). TENNESSEE: Oak Ridge. VIRGINIA: Falls Church; Winchester. WEST VIRGINIA: Berkley.

Top

Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni australis Gordon
Fig. 31 f; Map, Fig. 32

Cephaloscymnus zimmermanni australis Gordon, 1970b, p. 67.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.36 mm, width 1.38 to 1.60 mm.
Color piceous to brown dorsally, pronotum red; venter black except leg, mouthparts and epipleuron
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Fig 32 . Distribution. Cephaloscymnus z. zimmermanni (dot); C. z. australis (star); C. occidentalis (shaded, disjunct locality with circled star); C. laevis (open circle); C. insulatus (square).

yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as illustrated for zimmermanni zimmermanni.
Female sperrnathecal capsule as in Figure 31 f.
See Gordon (1974d) for detailed discussion.

Type locality.
Kerrville, Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (70399).

Distribution.
Figure 32 . ARIZONA: Chiricahua Mts.; Cochise Co., Palmerlee; Huachucha Mts., Millers Canyon. NEW MEXICO: Las Vegas. TEXAS: Kerrville; Mountain Home.

Top

Cephaloscymnus occidentalis Horn
Fig. 33 a-e, Map, Fig. 32

Cephaloscymnusoccidentalis Horn, 1895,p. 111—Casey, 1899,p. 161—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 169—Gordon, 1970b, p. 69—Gordon, 1974d, p. 46.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.85 to 2.10 mm, width 1.10 to 1.40 mm.
Color brown dorsally, pronotum reddish brown; venter piceous, leg brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 33 ac.
Female genitalia as in Figure 33 e.

Discussion.
Horn apparently had more than one specimen when he described C. occidentalis,
but only one specimen, a female labeled "425/Los Angeles Cal/Lectotype 3030/C. occidentalis Horn"
remains in his collection, I designate and label this specimen the lectotype.
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#_____________________________________________________
##Fig. 33 . Cephaloscymnus occidentalis. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________________

Type locality.
Los Angeles, California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 32 . Arizona to California, also Texas (Brownsville).

Top

Cephaloscymnus insulates Gordon
Fig. 34 a-d; Map, Fig. 32

Cephaloscymnus insulates Gordon, 1970b, p. 69.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.00 to 2.10 mm, width 1.10 to 1.30 mm.
Color brown dorsally,
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 34 . Cephaloscymnus insulates. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

pronotum reddish;
venter piceous,
legs, mouthparts, and epipleuron brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 34 a-d.

Type locality.
Santa Rita Mts., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (70400).

Distribution.
Figure 32 . ARIZONA: Oracle; Santa Rita Mts, Box Canyon.

Top

Cephaloscymnus laevis Gordon
Fig. 35 a-e; Map, Fig. 32

Cephaloscymnus laevis Gordon, 1970b, p. 70—Gordon, 1974d, p. 46.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.00 mm, width 1.15 mm.
Color light brown dorsally; venter black, mouthparts, leg, and epipleuron light brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 35 ad.
Female genitalia as in Figure 35 e.

Discussion.
This species was originally described from a unique male from Nogales, Arizona.
Gordon (1974d) recorded 2 specimens of C. Iaevis from Hidalgo, Mexico.

Type locality.
Nogales, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
CAS.
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Distribution.
Figure 32 . ARIZONA: Pima Co.; Santa Rita Exp.

Range. MEXICO: Hidalgo.

Subfamily Scymninae

Scymninae Della Beffa, 1912, p. 168—Sasaji, 1968, p. 23—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 15.

Coccinellidae with dorsal surface pubescent (Scymnini, Selvadiini, Blaisdelliana, Zagloba) or glabrous (Hyperaspini, Zilus); size small.
Antenna very short, usually 2/3 or less the length of head, inserted ventrally.
Terminal segment of maxillary palpus not strongly securiform, usually parallel sided or barrel shaped.
Mentum broadly articulated with submentum.
Epipleuron of elytron narrow, short.
Middle coxae broadly separated.
Each femur nearly cylindrical, stout, occasionally flattened.
Tarsus cryptotetramerous or trimerous.

This subfamily contains the small, compact coccinellids as exemplified by members of the genera Scymnus and Hyperaspis.
Della Beffa (1912) was the first to group the mostly pubescent Scymnini and usually glabrous Hyperaspini together,
and this view was recently reinforced by Sasaji ( 1968). In America north of Mexico 5 tribes represent this subfamily,
one of which, the Selvadiini, is erected for the first time. Zilini is provided as a replacement name for Scymnillini.

KEY TO TRIBES OF SCYMNINAE

1. Abdomen with 5 visible sterna .... 2
- Abdomen with 6 or 7 visible sterna .... 3
2(1). Prosternum with large anterior lobe concealing mouthparts; Florida .... Cryptognathini
- Prosternum unmodified, not concealing mouthparts; Florida and elsewhere .... Zilini
3(1). Surface of elytron pubescent .... 4
- Surface of elytron glabrous .... Hyperaspini
4(3). Anterior margin of prosternum lobed, at least partially concealing mouthparts (Figs. 48c, 59c) .... 5
- Anterior margin of prosternum not lobed .... 6
5(4). Length less than 2.0 mm; pronotum black .... Stethorini
- Length more than 3.0 mm; pronotum reddish yellow .... Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Scymnini)
6(4). Head narrow, elongate in front of eye; apex of clypeus strongly emarginate, anterolateral angle produced forward (Fig. 292 a) .... Blaisdelliana sexualis Casey (Hyperaspini/l)
- Head broad, not elongate in front of eye; apex of clypeus truncate or nearly so, anterolateral angle not produced .... 7
7(6). Form flattened, nearly parallel sided; eyes small, separated by 3 times the width of an eye; antennal club symmetrical (Fig. 287 b) .... Selvadiini
- Form usually convex, rounded; eyes large, separated by twice the width of an eye; antennal club asymmetrical (Fig. 68 a) .... Scymnini

Tribe Zilini, new name

Scymnillini Casey, 1899, p. 1 12—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p 171— Blackwelder, 1945, p. 445—Sasaji, 1971, p. 58—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 46.

Scymninae of small size, usually less than 2.30 mm long;
form round or elongate, convex;
dorsal surface either distinctly pubescent or apparently glabrous,
head and
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig 35 . Cephaloscymnus laevis a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

anterolateral pronotal angle always pubescent.
Head partially inserted in pronotum.
Antenna short, compact, insertion exposed, 10-segmented, club symmetrical.
Maxillary palpus with apical segment cylindrical or slightly securiform.
Pronotum deeply emarginate anteriorly, lateral margin slightly explanate, anterolateral angle produced.
Prosternum with intercoxal process broad, flat, without carinae.
Leg free, simple;
tarsus cryptotetramerous;
tarsal claw with or without basal tooth.
Abdomen with 5 visible sterna, sterna compact and tightly joined.
Male genitalia symmetrical, form simple.
Female genitalia with sperm duct short; genital plate elongate, triangular.

There are 2 North American genera in this tribe, Zagloba and Zilus.
The tribe is strictly New World in distribution and forms a tightly knit group of genera and species.
The 5-segmented abdomen, broad intercoxal process of the prosternum,
and partially concealed head distinguish this tribe from other tribes in the Scymninae.
Examination of species of Zilus and Scymnillus indicates that they are congeneric,
therefore Scymnillus is placed as a junior synonym of Zilus, and the tribal name changed to Zilini.

KEY TO GENERA OF ZILINI

1. Elytron apparently glabrous .... Zilus Mulsant
- Elytron densely pubescent .... Zagloba Casey

Genus Zilus Mulsant

Scymnus (Zilus) Mulsant, 1850, p. 958—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 117. Type-species, Scymnus (Zilus) fulvipes Mulsant, by monotypy.
Zilus: Blackwelder, 1945, p. 445.
Scymnillus Horn, 1895, p. 110—Casey, 1899, p. 114—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Kor
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schefsky, 1931, p. 171—Blackwelder, 1945, p. 445. J. Chapin, 1974, p. 47. Typespecies; Scymnillus aterrimus Horn, by monotypy. New Synonymy.
Scymnillodes Sicard, 1922, p. 355—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 221—Chapin, 1930, p. 490—Blackwelder, 1945, p. 445 (as synonym of Zilus). Type-species; Scymnillodes viridimicans Sicard, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Zilini with length less than 2.0 mm.
Dorsal surface often with a metallic tint of varied colors;
pubescence usually limited to head and pronotum with occasional sparse hairs present on elytron.
Antenna extremely short, compact, club apparently 3-segmented (Fig. 36 a).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus slightly securiform (Fig. 36 b).
Gena extending onto eye.
Tarsal claw with basal tooth (Fig. 36 c).
Postcoxal line extending downward from base of first abdominal sternum, joining apex of sternum nearly at lateral margin (Fig. 36 d).
Male genitalia simple, symmetrical.
Female genitalia with infundibulum slender, elongate (Fig. 36 e).

The key characters will separate Zilus from Zagloba. In addition, Zilus often has a metallic tint of green, violet, or blue, etc.,
on the dorsal surface, and the postcoxal line extends in an arc from the base of the sternum to the posterolateral angle.
Most species of Zilus are neotropical with 4 species recorded from the United States.
They are apparently predators on various scale insects such as Lepidosaphes spp. and Aspidiotus spp,
but one species has been recorded on the whitefly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby.
The genus has not been treated taxonomically as a whole.

KEY TO SPECIES OF ZILUS

1. Length 1.0 mm or less .... eleutherae (Casey), n. comb.
- Length 1.20 mm or more .... 2
2(1). Dorsal surface with purple or blue tint; form broad; known only from Florida .... subtropicus (Casey), n. comb.
- Dorsal surface black or brown; form somewhat elongate; not restricted to Florida .... 3
3(2). Dorsal surface reddish brown; western United States .... aterrimus (Horn), n. comb.
- Dorsal surface black; eastern United States .... horni, n. sp.

Top

Zilus aterrimus (Horn), new combination
Fig. 37 a-f; Map, Fig. 39

ScymnillusaterrimusHorn,1895,p.110—Casey,1899,p.115—Leng,1920,p.214— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 171—Hatch, 1961, p. 154.
Scymnillus cochisensis Nunenmacher, 1912, p. 451. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.25 to 1.60 mm, width 0.90 to 1.35 mm.
Form elongate, oval (Fig. 37 f).
Color reddish brown except antenna, mouthparts and leg yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 37 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 37 e.

Discussion.
I cannot separate Z. cochisensis (Nunenmacher) from Z. aterrimus; therefore, I place Z. cochisensis as a junior synonym of Z. aterrimus.
Nunenmacher stated that he had 20 cotypes of S. cochisensis, 2 of which (male and female) are now in the California Academy of Science.
I here designate and label the female as the lectotype and the male as a paralectotype.
Horn had more than one specimen of S. aterrimus, and there are 3 specimens now in his collection,
the first of these, a
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#__________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 36 . Zilus sp. a. Maxillary palpus. b. Antenna. c. Tarsus, d. Postcoxal line.
#__________________________________________________________________________________

female labeled "Oregon Koebele/40/Lectotype 3185/Scymnillus aterrimus Horn", I designate the lectotype, the remaining 2 are designated as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Of aterrimus, Oregon (lectotype here designated);
of cochisensis, Benson, Cochise Co., Arizona (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of aterrimus, MCZ;
of cochisensis, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 39 . Idaho and Washington to California and Arizona.

Top

Zilus horni , new species
Fig. 38 a-f; Map, Fig. 39

Scymnillus aterrimus: J. Chapin, 1974, p. 47 (not S. aterrimus Horn, 1895).

Description.
Male, length 1.40 mm, width 1.0 mm.
Form oval (Fig. 38 f).
Color black except mouthparts, antenna, and leg yellowish brown.
Head coarsely punctured, punctures separated by less than a diameter.
Pronotum with coarse punctures as on head laterally, separated by a diameter or less, discal area finely punctured, punctures separated by one to 2 times a diameter.
Elytron finely punctured as on pronotal disc, punctures separated by one to 3 times a diameter.
Ventral surface smooth, finely punctured medially, becoming dull with alutaceous sculpture and coarse punctures laterally.
Genitalia as in Figure 36 a-d.

Female, similar to holotype except length 1.50 mm, width 1.10 mm.
Genitalia as in Figure 36 e.

Variation.
Length 1.40 to 1.60 mm.

Holotype.
Male. MARYLAND: Piney Pt., Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz (USNM 101330).

Allotype.
Female. MARYLAND: SI Java Farm Biol. Survey, 16:VII:1968, RE & Jan White Collectors. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 23. MARYLAND: same data as holotype; same data as allotype; College Park, X-2-1960, P. J. Spangler. (USNM).
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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 37 . Zilus aterrimus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 39 . Maryland to Florida, west to Wisconsin. Disjunct localities: LOUISIANA: Caddo Parish; East Baton Rouge Parish; Rapides Parish.

This eastern species has been confused with Z. aterrimus (Horn) although the distributions are disjunct.
In addition to differences in male and female genitalia,
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#________________________________________
##Fig. 38 . Zilus horni. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#________________________________________

these 2 species are also separable externally. Zilus horni is entirely black dorsally, and the pronotum is finely punctate medially.
Zilus aterrimus is reddish brown dorsally, and the pronotum is closely, coarsely punctate throughout.
The specific epithet is in honor of George H. Horn.

Top

Zilus eleutherae (Casey), new combination
Fig. 40 a-e; Map, Fig. 39

Scymnillus eleutherae Casey, 1899, p. 1 15—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 171—Blatchley, 1920, p. 44.

Diagnosis.
Length 0.90 to 1.0 mm, width 0.78 to 0.80 mm.
Form round, convex (Fig. 40 e).
Color purplish black; lateral pronotal border, ventral surface, and leg (except tarsus) dark brown; antenna, mouthparts and tarsus yellow.
Male genitalia as in Figure 40 a-c.

Discussion.
This minute species was described from the Bahamas and first recorded from Florida by Blatchley (1920).
The size and muted purplish black dorsum characterize Z. eleutherae in the North American fauna.
There are 3 types in the Casey collection, the first of which I designate and label the lectotype
and the other 2 as paralectotypes.
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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 39 . Distribution. Zilus aterrimus (shaded, western); Z. horni (shaded, eastern; disjunct localities, star);
## Z. eleutherae (circled star), Z. subtropicus (dot).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Type locality.
Eleuthera, Bahamas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 39 . FLORIDA: Cape Sable.

Top

Zilus subtropicus (Casey), new combination
Fig. 41 a-f; Map, Fig. 39

Delphastus subtropicus Casey, 1924, p. 170—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 221.
Scymnillodes subtropicus: Chapin, 1930, p. 493.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 1.80 mm, width 1.28 to 1.42 mm.
Form broad, oval (Fig. 40 f^). Color metallic purple or blue, pronotum often metallic green;
ventral surface yellow to reddish piceous, leg and mouthparts yellowish brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 41 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 41 e.

Discussion.
The metallic blue or purple dorsal color is very distinctive among North American coccinellids
but is shared with several other members of this genus that occur in the West Indies.
This species is apparently restricted to southern Florida but may also occur in the West Indies.
The type specimen is a unique female in the Casey collection (holotype).

Type locality.
Key West, Florida.

Type depository.
USNM (35228).

Distribution.
Figure 39 . FLORIDA: Biscayne; Coral Gables; Davie; Florida City, Fort Pierce; Hialeah; Key West, Miami; Paradise Key; Vero Beach.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 40 . Zilus eleutherae. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________

Genus Zagloba Casey

Zagloba Casey, 1899, p. 113—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 172— Hatch, 1961, p. 154—Gordon, 1970g, p. 481. Type-species; Cephaloscymnus ornatus Horn, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Zilini with length usually less than 2.00 mm.
Dorsal surface without metallic tint, pubescence dense, mostly erect, present throughout.
Antenna short, compact, club distinctly 3-segmented (Fig. 42 a).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus not securiform, sides nearly parallel, narrowed slightly at apex (Fig. 42 b).
Gena extending onto eye.
Tarsal claw with basal tooth (Fig. 42 c).
Postcoxal line complete or incomplete (Figs. 43f, 46f), never reaching apex of first abdominal sternum.
Male genitalia simple, symmetrical.
Female genitalia with infundibulum usually large, flattened laterally, sperm duct very short (Fig. 44 e).

The described species of Zagloba occur from Venezuela and Colombia north to Oregon and Pennsylvania with 3 known from the neotropics
and 4 from the United States. These species are not commonly collected and I have not seen host data for
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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 41 . Zilus subtropicus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#______________________________________________

any of the United States species. At least one Neotropical species, Z. obscura Gordon,
has been taken feeding on "scale insects" on banana and orange.
We may presume, therefore, that all species of Zagloba are likely to be scale predators.
Zagloba has not been taxonomically treated as a whole,
but Gordon (1970g) reviewed the Central and South American species.

#_________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 42 . Zagloba sp. a. Antenna. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Tarsus.
#_________________________________________________________________
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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 43 . Zagloba ornata. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
#______________________________________________

KEY TO SPECIES OF Zagloba

1. Pronotum entirely yellowish red; elytron black or dark brown (Fig. 44 f); Florida .... bicolor Casey
- Pronotum entirely black or brown, at most with some lateral paler areas; elytron uniformly dark or dark with yellow maculation; not known from Florida .... 2
2(1). Elytron brown with yellow maculation; Pacific Coast, Arizona .... ornata (Horn)
- Elytron black or brown, immaculate; not known from the Pacific Coast .... 3
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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 44 . Zagloba bicolor. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________

3(2). Punctures within arc of postcoxal line coarse, distinct; pronotum paler than elytron .... hystrix Casey
- Punctures within arc of postcoxal line fine, indistinct; pronotum and elytron concolorous .... satana, n. sp.

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Zagloba ornata (Horn)
Fig. 43 a-g; Map, Fig. 45

Cephaloscymnus ornatus Hom, 1895, p. 111.
Zagloba ornata: Casey, 1899, p. 114—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 172—Hatch, 1961, p. 154.
Zagloba laticollis Casey, 1899, p. 114—Leng, 1920, p. 214. New Synonymy.
Zagloba orbipennis Casey, 1899, p. 114—Leng, 1920, p. 214. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.75 to 2.00 mm, width 1.43 to 1.65 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color dark brown to light brown; antenna, mouthparts, and leg yellowish brown;
pronotum often with yellowish brown lateral areas;
elytron usually with 2 nebulous, yellow spots feebly connected (Fig. 43 g), but pattern variable as in Figure 43 g.
Postcoxal line complete (Pullus type) in both sexes (Fig. 43 f).
Male genitalia as in Figure 43 a-d. Female genitalia with infundibulum small, elongate (Fig. 43 e).
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#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 45 . Distribution. Zagloba ornata (shaded); Z. bicolor (dot); Z. hystrix (open circle); Z. satana (star).
#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
This species is unique among North American members of the genus in having the postcoxal line complete in both sexes
and in having a simple, reduced infundibulum. Zagloba laticollis Casey and Z. orbipennis Casey are conspecific with Z. ornata,
and I place both names as junior synonyms. Both species were described from unique specimens in the Casey collection
which must be considered holotypes. Zagloba ornata was described from several specimens, all from California,
and I designate and label as the lectotype a female in the Horn collection labeled
"702/ Aug./Siskiyou Co., Cal./lectotype 3186(red paper)/C. ornatus Horn."
Three other type specimens from various California localities are designated as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Of ornata, Siskiyou Co., California (lectotype here designated);
of laticollis, California;
of orbipennis, Healdsburg, Sonoma Co., California.

Type depository.
Of ornata, MCZ;
of laticollis (35234)
and orbipennis (35233), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 45 . Southern Arizona and California, north to southwestern Oregon.

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Zagloba bicolor Casey
Fig. 44 a-f; Map, Fig. 45

Zagloba bicolor Casey, 1899, p. 1 14—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 172.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.65 to 1.85 mm, width 1.22 to 1.33 mm.
Form elongate, oval (Fig. 44 f).
Color pale yellowish brown; pronotum yellowish red; elytron black or dark brown; mesa- and metasternum and first abdominal sternum dark brown.
Postcoxal
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line incomplete in both sexes.
Male genitalia as in Figure 44 a-d.
Female genitalia with infundibulum large, flattened laterally (Fig. 44 e).

Discussion.
This species is apparently restricted to Florida, and the color pattern alone will distinguish it from other members of the genus.
The type is a unique (holotype) female in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Capron, Florida.

Type depository.
USNM (35236).

Distribution.
Figure 45 . FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville, Dunedin; Jefferson Co., Monticello; Miami; Tampa.

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Zagloba hystrix Casey
Fig. 46 a-g, Map, Fig. 45

Zagloba hystrix Casey, 1899, p. 114—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, l 931, p.
172.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.45 to 1.75 mm, width 1.35 to 1.50 mm.
Form rounded, pronotum and elytron abruptly discontinuous in outline (Fig. 46 g).
Color medium reddish brown; antenna, leg and mouthparts yellowish brown; elytron dark brown to black.
Postcoxal line incomplete in both sexes (Scymnus, s. str., type) (Fig. 46 f).
Male genitalia as in Figure 46 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 46 e.

Discussion.
This species is difficult to separate from Z. satana, n. sp., but the pronotum is usually distinctly paler than the elytron in this species,
and the abdominal punctation is definitely coarser than in satana. There are 6 type specimens of hystrix in the Casey collection,
and the first of these, a female, is designated and labeled as the lectotype.
The other 5 types bear the same data and are designated as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35237).

Distribution.
Figure 45 . TEXAS: Brownsville; San Antonio; Zavalla Co., Nueoes River.

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Zagloba satana , new species
Fig. 47 a-h; Map, Fig. 45

Description.
Male, length 1.65 mm, greatest width 1.32 mm.
Form rounded (Fig. 47 h), outline of pronotum and elytron strongly discontinuous.
Color black; ventral surface and lateral border of pronotum dark reddish brown; antenna, mouthparts, and leg yellowish brown.
Dorsum densely pubescent with grayish white hairs, hairs erect on pronotum and elytron, oppressed on head.
Head densely, finely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter or less.
Pronotum 1/5 the length of elytron; punctures fine, separated by twice a diameter on disc, becoming contiguous along lateral margin.
Elytral punctation finer than on pronotum, punctures separated by less than to twice a diameter.
Metasternum smooth, nearly impunctate medially, punctures becoming coarse and dense laterally.
Abdominal punctation fine, punctures within arc of postcoxal line indistinct; postcoxal line complete (Fig. 47 g).
Genitalia as in Figure 47 a-d.
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 46 . Zagloba hystrix. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
#_______________________________________________

Female, similar to holotype except length 1.60 mm, width 1.29 mm; postcoxal line incomplete (Fig. 47 f); genitalia as in Figure 47 e.

Variation.
Length 1.45 to 1.75 mm, width 1.20 to 1.37 mm.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: Devils River, V-2-07, E. A. Schwarz call (USNM 101331).
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Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype except "on Pithecolobium". (USNM).

Paratypes.
(Fig. 45 ) Total 8. TEXAS: "Texas"; Devils River, V-4-07, FC Pratt Collector; same data as holotype; Laredo, 28-5, Hubbard and Schwarz. (USNM).

This is the only known species of Zagloba exhibiting sexual dimorphism in the shape of the postcoxal line.
The punctation, both dorsal and ventral, is obviously finer than in hystrix which satana most closely resembles.
Genitalia should be examined in members of this group to ensure accurate determination.
The specific epithet refers to the type locality.

Tribe Stethorini

Stethorini Dobzhansky, 1924,p.20—Korschefsky, 1931,p. 110—Kapur, 1948,302—Sasaji, 1968, p. 23—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 16.

Scymninae of small size, less than 2.0 mm; pubescent dorsally.
Antenna 11-segmented; inserted between eye and clypeus, clypeus not emarginate around base.
Maxillary palpus with terminal segment convergent epically.
Prosternum lobed anteriorly, partially concealing mouthparts; intercoxal process without carinae.
Leg free, simple; tarsus cryptotetramerous or trimerous.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna.

This tribe contains a single genus, Stethorus, which has usually been placed in the tribe Scymnini.
Dobzhansky (1924) erected the tribe Stethorini, but Korschefsky (1931) synonymized Stethorini with Scymnini,
and Kapur (1948) agreed with this placement. Sasaji (1968) considered Stethorini a valid tribe and I concur with his treatment.

Stethorini is easily separated from all other tribes of Scymninae because the clypeus is not emarginate around the antennal bases,
and the prosternum is arcuately produced in front, partly concealing the mouthparts.

Genus Stethorus Weise

Stethorus Weise, 1885a, p.65—Casey, 1899, p. 135—Kapur, 1948, p. 300—Wingo, 1952, p. 19—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 16—Belicek, 1976, p. 297—Gordon and Anderson, 1979, p. 61—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 229. Type-species; Stethorus punctillum Weise, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Nephopullus Brethes, 1925, p. 167—Kapur, 1948, p. 300. Type-species; Nephopullus
darwini Brethes, by subseqent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Body color black except antenna and mouthparts yellow, legs often yellow.
Head with moderately coarsely faceted eye; clypeus truncate anteriorly, anterolateral angle rounded.
Antenna short, 11-segmented (Fig. 48 a); inserted between eye and clypeus, clypeus not emarginate around base.
Maxillary palpus with apical segment oblong, obliquely truncate and narrower toward apex (Fig. 48 b).
Prosternum without carinae, produced anteriorly to partly conceal mouthparts (Fig. 48 c).
Tarsus trimerous or cryptotetramerous; tarsal claw bifid (Fig. 48 d), inner claw shorter in male than in female.
Abdomen with postcoxal line on basal sternum complete (Fig. 49 e).
Male genitalia with basal lobe symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Female spermathecal capsule present or absent, genital plate small, not triangular (Fig. 48 e).

There are 65 described species in this genus, and they are found in most parts of the world;
6 species occur in Arnerica north of Mexico. Most coccinellids are pre-
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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 47 . Zagloba satana. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
#_________________________________________________

daceous on insects of the order Homoptera, and some are plant feeders, but species of Stethorus feed almost exclusively on tetranychid mites.
The western Hemisphere species were treated by Gordon and Chapin (1983), see that publication for more detailed information.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Stethorus

1. Postcoxal line not arched beyond middle of first abdominal sternum (figs. 54d); basal abdominal sternum densely, coarsely punctured .... 2
- Postcoxal line arched beyond middle of first abdominal sternum (Figs. 51e, 53e); basal abdominal sternum sparsely, finely punctured .... 3
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2(1) Postcoxal line short, arc not reaching middle of first abdominal sternum; elytral punctures larger than pronotal punctures .... punctillum Weise
- Postcoxal line usually arched to middle of first sternum or nearly so (Fig. 53 e); elytral and pronotal punctures equal in size .... punctum punctum (LeConte)
3(1). Leg (except tarsus) black or brown; punctures on abdominal sterna coarse, dense (Fig. 53 g) .... punctum picipes Casey
- Lee with at least tibia Yellow; Punctures on abdominal sterna fine, sparse (Fig. 49 e) .... 4
4(3). Clypeal apex truncate; lateral pronotal punctures dense, contiguous .... pinachi Gordon and Chapin
- Clypeal apex emarginate; lateral pronotal punctures sparse, not contiguous .... 5
5(4). Elytral pubescence reddish brown; pronotal punctures fine, sparse .... caseyi Gordon and Chapin
- Elytral pubescence yellowish white; pronotal punctures coarse, not sparse utilis (Horn)

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Stethorus utilis (Horn)
Fig. 49 a-e; Map, Fig. 52

Scymnus utilis Horn, 1895, p. 107.
Stethorus utilis: Casey, 1899, p. 136—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 112—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 17—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 241.
Stethorus atomus Casey, 1899, p. 136—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 111—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 241.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.0 to 2.0 mm, width 0.75 to 1.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval. Color black; antenna, mouthparts, and leg yellow except basal 3/4 of femur brown.
Dorsal pubescence moderately long, semierect, mostly yellowish white with traces of brown.
Head finely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter or less;
pronotal punctures coarse, slightly larger than elytral punctures, separated by about a diameter on disc, less than a diameter laterally;
elytral punctures shallow, separated by one to 2 times a diameter;
metasternum with fine, dense punctures except nearly impunctate on basomedian area;
abdominal sterna finely, sparsely punctured. Arc of postcoxal line extending 3/4 length of first abdominal sternum, angulate (Fig. 49 e).
Apex of 6th abdominal sternum truncate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 49 a-c.
Female spermathecal capsule as in Figure 49 d.

Discussion.
This species is most easily confused with S. caseyi, but the dorsal pubescence of S. caseyi is reddish brown.
The male genitalia are similar in these 2 species, but the basal lobe in S. caseyi is more obviously triangular
and shorter than that of S. utilis.

Type locality.
Of utilis, Barstow, Florida;
of atomus, Columbus, Texas.

Type depository.
Of utilis, MCZ,
of atomus, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 52 . North Carolina to Florida, west to east Texas.

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Stethorus caseyi Gordon and Chapin
Fig. 50 a-f; Map, Fig. 52

Stethorus Caseyi Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 241.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.10 to 1.31 mm, width 0.75 to 1.05 mm.
Form short, rounded (Fig. 50 f).
Color black; antenna, mouthparts and leg except basal 3/4 of femur yellow.
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#________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 48 . Stethorus sp. a Antenna. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Venter. d. Tarsus. e. Genital plates.
#________________________________________________________________________________________________

Dorsal pubescence long, nearly erect, reddish brown.
Head shiny, finely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter;
pronotum with punctures coarser than on head, punctures separated by one to 3 times a diameter;
elytral punctation coarse, punctures separated by about a diameter;
metasternum with fine punctures medially, punctures becoming coarse and dense laterally.
Abdominal sterna with fine punctures sparse on first sternum, dense on remaining sterna.
Arc of postcoxal line extending 3/4 length of first abdominal sternum, angulate (Fig. 50 e).
Apex of 6th abdominal sternum feebly notched.
Male genitalia as in Figure 50 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 50 d.

Discussion.
The round form, reddish brown pubescence, and sparsely punctured pronotum will separate S. caseyi from S. utilis which it most closely resembles.

Type locality.
Devils River, Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (10061).

Distribution.
Figure 52 . ARIZONA: Catalina Springs; Chiricahua Mountains; Oracle; Santa Rita Mountains. NEW MEXICO: Albuquerque. TEXAS: Brownsville, Devils River, El Paso; Laredo; San Antonio; San Diego; Uvalde. UTAH: Leeds; St. George.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 49 . Stethorus utilis. a. b. c. d. e.
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 50 . Stethorus caseyi. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#_____________________________________________

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Stethorus pinachi Gordon and Chapin
Fig. 51 a-e; Map, Fig. 52

Stethorus pinachi: Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 250.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.25 to 1.40 mm, width 0.80 to 1.10 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color black;
antenna, mouthparts, and leg yellow except basal 3/4 of femur brown.
Dorsal pubescence short, semierect, yellowish white with traces of brown.
Head shiny, finely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter or more;
pronotal punctation coarser than on head, discal punctures separated by a diameter, lateral punctures

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 51 . Stethorus pinachi. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________

contiguous;
elytral punctation very coarse, punctures separated by less than a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely and densely punctured laterally, punctures finer and sparser medially;
abdominal sterna with fine punctures sparse on first sternum, dense on remaining sterna.
Arc of postcoxal line extending more than 3/4 length of first abdominal sternum, rounded (Fig. 51 e).
Sixth sternum feebly emarginate apically.
Male genitalia as in Figure 5 la-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 5 ld.

Discussion.
This species is quite distinctive in the form of the male genitalia which are most similar to those of S. punctum.
The truncate apex of the clypeus will

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 52 . Distribution. Stethorus utilis (shaded); S. caseyi (dot), S. pinachi (open circle).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________

distinguish S. chapini from S. utilis which it most closely resembles in external appearance.

Type locality.
Carrizo Springs, Dimmit Co., Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (100664).

Distribution.
Figure 52 . TEXAS: type locality.

Top

Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte)
Fig. 53 a-e; Map, Fig. 55

Scymnus punctum LeConte, 1852, p. 141—Horn, 1895, p. 106.
Stethorus punctum: Casey, 1899, p. 136—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 112—Wingo, 1952, p. 27—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 17—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 250.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.35 to 1.55 mm, width 0.95 to 1.15 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color black; antenna, mouthparts, and leg yellow except femur usually brown.
Dorsal pubescence short, semierect, yellowish white.
Head finely punctured, punctures separated by more than a diameter;
pronotum finely, densely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter on disc, contiguous laterally;
elytral punctures subequal in size to those on pronotum, separated by a diameter or less, metasternum coarsely punctured anteriorly and laterally;
abdominal sterna with coarse, dense punctures separated by less than a diameter.
Arc of postcoxal line usually reaching middle of basal abdominal sternum, sometimes shorter (Fig. 53 e).
Apex of 6th abdominal sternum notched.
Male genitalia as in Figure 53 a-c.
Female spermathecal capsule as in Figure 53 d.

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Discussion.
This species is native to North America, but somewhat difficult to distinguish from the introduced punctillum without examination of genitalia which are highly distinctive in the males.
The postcoxal line is shorter in S. punctillum than in S. punctum, and the elytral punctures are distinctly larger than the pronotal punctures in S. punctillum, nearly equal in S. punctum.
The female of punctillum lacks a spermathecal capsule.

Type locality.
Ontario, northern shore of Lake Superior.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 55 . Southeastern Canada to North Carolina, west to Montana and Colorado.

Top

Stethorus punctum picipes Casey
Fig. 53 f, g; Map, Fig. 55

Stethorus picipes Casey, 1899, p. 136—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 112—Hatch, 1961, p. 149—Belicek, 1976, p. 298—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 252.
Stethorus brevis Casey, 1899,p. 136—Korschefsky,1931,p.111—GordonandChapin, 1983, p. 252.

Diagnosis.
Description as for punctum except the leg black or dark brown (except tarsus), the ventral punctation is noticeably more coarse and dense, and the postcoxal line (Fig. 53 g) extends beyond the middle of the basal abdominal sternum.
Female spermathecal capsule as in Figure 53 f.

Discussion.
The male and female genitalia are identical in punctum and picipes, but the 2 nominate forms can be distinguished on the basis of the characters mentioned above.
I prefer to treat them as subspecies with punctum occurring from the east coast to Colorado and Montana and picipes occurring from California and British Columbia to Idaho and Alberta.

Type locality.
Of picipes, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co., California; of brevis, Siskiyou Co., California.

Type depository.
Of picipes and brevis, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 55 . Idaho to British Columbia, south to southern California.

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Stethorus punctillum Weise
Fig. 54 a-d; Map, Fig. 56

Stethorus punctillum Weise, 1891, p. 391 (in Reitter et al.)—Casey, 1899, p. 136— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 112—Kapur, 1948, p. 302—Hatch, 1961, p. 149—Belicek, 1976, p. 298—Gordon and Chapin, 1983, p. 270.
Coccinella minima Rossi, 1794, p. 89 (not Coccinella minima Huller, 1776). Scymnus (Stethorus) minimus: Weise, 1885a, p. 74.
Coccinella pusilla Herbst, 1797, p. 346 (not Coccinella pusilla Mullen, 1 Coccinella atra Illiger, 1798, p. 413 (not Coccinella atra Gmelin, 1790).
Stethorus ater: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 112.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.35 to 1.57 mm, width 0.90 to 1.12 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color black, antenna, mouthparts, and leg brownish yellow except basal 3/4 of femur brown.
Dorsal pubescence short, semierect, yellowish white.
Punctation oh head and pronotum fine, pronotal punctures separated by about a diameter, elytral punctures

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#_____________________________________________________________
##Fig. 53 . a-e. Stethorus punctum punctum. f, g. S. p. picipes
#_____________________________________________________________
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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 54 . Stethorus punctillum. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 55 . Distribution. Stethorus punctum punctum (shaded, eastern); S. p. picipes (shaded, western).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

coarse, separated by less then a diameter;
abdominal sterna with coarse, dense punctures separated by less than a diameter.
Arc of postcoxal line short, not reaching middle of basal abdominal sternum, rounded (Fig. 54 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 54 a-c.
Female genitalia lacking a spermathecal capsule and infundibulum.

Discussion.
This species is apparently a European introduction, but not an intentional one.
Brown (1950) first reported it from North America (Framingham, Mass.; Vineland Station and Leamington, Ontario)
and gave a key to separate S. punctillum, S. punctum, and S. picipes.
Stethorus punctillum is now known from several North American localities
and is often mixed with S. punctum in collections.
The species has become established on the west coast of the United States, but again it was not intentionally introduced.

Type locality.
Not stated.

Type depository.
Type not examined.

Distribution.
Figure 56 . Eastern: southeastern Canada to Massachusetts, west to Michigan and Wisconsin. Western: British Columbia (Vancover), to Oregon.

Tribe Scymnini

Scymnini Costa 1849, p. 9—Weise, 1895, p. 147—Casey, 1899, p. 133—Mader, 1 924, p. 8—Leng,1920,p.213—Korschefsky,1931,p. 110—Wingo, 1952, p. 19— Sasaji, 1968, p. 23—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 18—Belicek, 1976, p. 295.

Scymninae of small size, usually less then 3.0 mm;
form oval, rounded, or oblong; dorsal surface and eye pubescent.
Antenna 8 to 11 segmented, terminal segments
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 56 . Distribution. Stethorus punctillum.
#_____________________________________________

forming distinct club.
Maxillary palpus with apical segment cylindrical or securiform.
Leg free, simple, not expanded or enlarged; tarsus trimerous or cryptotetramerous, tarsal claw simple or with basal tooth.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna, sterna usually not fused medially, apex of 6th abdominal sternum of male modified.
Male genitalia vary from symmetrical to asymmetrical, form simple (Fig. 93 b), or complex (Fig. 190 a).
Female genitalia with sclerotized infundibulum; genital plate long and narrow, or short, nearly round.

Gordon (1976b) included the genera Selvadius and Blaisdelliana in this tribe.
I now consider Blaisdelliana a member of the Hyperaspini and erect the tribe Selvadiini for Selvadius.
There remain 6 North American genera in the Scymnini: one, Cryptolaemus, is introduced; another, Didion, is apparently endemic;
and the other 4 are worldwide in distribution. Three of these genera (Scymnus, Nephus, and Diomus) have previously been treated by Gordon (1976b);
therefore, the descriptions of the species are not included here, but the keys, illustrations, and synonymies are repeated.

KEY TO GENERA OF SCYMNINI

1. Head with mouthparts directed postero-ventrad in repose, concealing prosternum; basal antennal segment strongly enlarged (Fig. 57 c) .... Nephaspis Casey
- Head with mouthparts not concealing prosternum; basal antennal segment not strongly enlarged .... 2
2(1). Prosternum enlarged, expanded, capable of concealing mouthparts in repose (Fig. 59 c) .... Cryptolaemus Mulsant
- Prosternum not enlarged, not concealing mouthparts .... 3
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#____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 57 . Nephaspis oculatus. a. Venter. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Antenna. d. Postcoxal line.
## e-g. Male genitalia. h. Spermathecal capsule. i-l. Habitus and variations.
#____________________________________________________________________________________________

3(2). Prosternum with distinct carinae on intercoxal projection, carinae often reaching anterior margin of prosternum (Fig. 68 c) .... 4
- Prosternum without carinae, or at most with short ridges next to coxal cavities (Fig. 229 g) .... 5
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4(3). Postcoxal line extending downward, joining hind margin of first abdominal sternum (Fig.257 b), apex not recurved .... Diomus Mulsant
- Postcoxal line complete or incomplete, not joining hind margin of first abdominal sternum, apex recurved (Fig. 268 e, g) .... Scymnus Kugelann
5(3). Postcoxal line complete, recurved to base of first abdominal sternum (Fig. 62 e) .... Didion Casey
- Postcoxal line extending nearly to lateral margin of first abdominal sternum, either parallel to hind margin (Fig. 229 j), or with apex curved forward (Fig. 229 h) .... Nephus Mulsant

Genus Nephaspis Casey

Nephaspis Casey, 1899, p. 168—Casey, 1905, p. 161—Wingo, 1952, p. 44—Gordon, 1972b, p. 145—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 37—Gordon, 1976b, p. 8. Type-species;Nephaspis gorhami Casey, by subsequent designation of Gordon, 1972b.
Nephasis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 168—Blackwelder, 1945, p. 445 (error).

Scymnini with form elongate, somewhat oval;
length less than 1.60 mm.
Head with mouthparts directed posteroventrally in repose, concealing prosternum (Fig. 57 a);
clypeus extending beyond eye, anterolateral angle produced, rounded, anterior margin truncate, lateral margin emarginate at antennal insertion;
gena partially dividing eye. Maxillary palpus with apical segment somewhat securiform (Fig. 57 b).
Antenna with 8-segmented scape, basal 2 segments enlarged, club 3-segmented (Fig. 57 c).
Pronotum widest at posterolateral angle, narrowed epically.
Prosternum short, only slightly longer than anterior coxa, intercoxal process narrow, apex truncate.
Metasternum tumid.
Front and middle remora slender, not enlarged;
hind femur enlarged medially;
all tibiae slender;
tarsus cryptotetramerous, claw simple, not toothed.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna; Postcoxal line as in Scymnus (S. str.) (Fig. 57 d).
Male genitalia symmetrical (Fig. 57 e-g).
Female genitalia with distinctly sclerotized spermathecal capsule, infundibulum absent; genital plate long, slender.

The extremely large basal antennal segment, strongly tumid sternum and posteroventrally directed mouthparts characterize this genus.
It is unlike any other Western Hemisphere genus in these respects, being similar only to the Old World genus Clitostethus.

The 4 known species are all entirely neotropical except N. oculatus which is established in the United States.
This species is probably native to Central America and may have entered the West Indies and the United States on imported plant materials.
It is well established in Florida, and Wingo (1952) described it as N. amnicola from specimens taken in Iowa.
All available host data indicate that members of this genus are predators on whiteflies of the family Aleurodidae.
Specific host records are: Aleurodicus dispersus Russell and A. cocois (Curtis). This genus was revised by Gordon (1972b).

Top

Nephaspis oculatus (Blatchley), new combination
Fig. 57 e-l; Map, Fig. 58

Scymnus oculatus Blatchley, 1917, p. 140.
Nephaspis amnicola Wingo, 1952, p. 44—Gordon, 1972b, p. 149—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 37. New Synonymy.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 58 . Distribution. Nephaspis oculatus.
#___________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 1.19 to 1.48 mm, width 0.79 to 1.00 mm.
Color yellow; elytron usually piceous to black along base and lateral margin, central area yellowish brown, apex narrowly yellow (Fig. 57 j);
elytron in male is varied from completely black (except apical yellow area) to black or piceous with red or yellow discal spot (Fig. 57 i-l).
Discal spot small and round, or elongate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 57 e-g.
Female genitalia as in Figure 57 h.
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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 59 . Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. a. Antenna. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Venter. d. Tarsus. e. Postcoxal line. f. Female genitalia.
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
The name Scymnus oculatus Blatchley was overlooked during preparation of the revision of the genus Scymnus (Gordon, 1976b)
and was brought to my attention by Herbert Dozier.
Examination of the holotype revealed that S. oculatus is the same species later described as amnicola Wingo.

Type locality.
Of oculatus, Dunedin, Florida;
of amnicola, Iowa, Boone, Ledges State Park.
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Type depository.
Of oculatus, PU;
of amnicola, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 58 . FLORIDA: distributed throughout the state. IOWA: Boone, Ledges State Park. LOUISIANA: Pointe Coupee Parish. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Webster. TEXAS: Cameron Co., La Feria; Weslaco.

Genus Cryptolaemus Mulsant

Cryptolaemus Mulsant, 1853, p. 140—Crotch, 1874b, p. 204—Leng, 1920, p. 214— Korschefsky, 1931, p. l 69—Wingo, 1952, p. 22—Chapin, 1965, p. l 98—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 38. Type-species; Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, by monotypy.

Scymnini with length more than 3.00 mm; form oval, convex.
Antenna with 7-segmented scape, club 3-segmented, loose (Fig. 59 a).
Maxillary palpus with apical segment securiform (Fig. 59 b).
Prosternum broadly rounded anteriorly and produced to cover mouthparts and antenna (Fig. 59 c); carinae weak, parallel, extending less than halfway to anterior margin of prosternum.
Tibial spurs absent; tarsus trimerous; tarsal claw with broad basal tooth equal to half the length of claw (Fig. 59 d).
Abdomen with postcoxal line complete, as in Scymnus (Pullus) (Fig. 59 e).
Male genitalia with basal lobe symmetrical.
Female genitalia with strong spermathecal capsule; sperm duct short; infundibulum reduced to a small sclerite at head of bursa; genital plates long, triangular (Fig. 59 f).

Cryptolaemus is a small genus of the Indo-Australian region.
The only species present in the Western Hemisphere is C. montrouzieri which was introduced as a scale predator.
The expanded prosternum and large size readily separate Cryptolaemus from other genera of New World Scymnini.
In my previous key (Gordon, 1976b) to the genera of Scymnini, I inadvertently omitted this genus. Specific host records are as follows:
Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell); Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell); Coccus viridis (Green); Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell);
Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell); Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck); Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana); Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell);
Eriococcus araucariae (Maskell); Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell); Nipaecoccus aurilanatus (Maskell); Nipaecoccus f lamentosus (Cockerell);
Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell); Planococcus citri (Risso); Planococcus krauhniae (Kuwana); Planococcus vitis (Neidielski);
Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell); Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana); Pseudococcus crotonis (Green); Pseudococcus hirsutus (Green);
Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti); Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn); Pseudococcus obscures (Essig); Pulvinaria icerya (Guerin);
Pulvinaria psidii (Maskell); Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green); Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell);
Trionymus insularis (Ehrhorn). Ghorpade (1981) recorded C. montrouzieri as feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover in India.

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Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant
Fig. 60 a-e; Map, Fig. 61

Cryptolaemus montrousieri Mulsant, 1853, p. 140.
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri: Crotch, 1874b, p. 204 (emendation)—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 169—Wingo, 1952, p. 45—Chapin, 1965, p. 199—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 38.

Diagnosis.
Length 3 40 to 4.50 mm, width 2.40 to 3.10 mm.
Head, prothorax, tip
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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 60 . Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________________

of elytron and abdomen reddish yellow;
mesosternum and metasternum, leg and elytron (except tip) black or blackish (Fig. 60 e).
Punctation of head and pronotum dense, elytral punctation similar except on humeral callus which is shining, almost devoid of punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 60 a-d.
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#_______________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 61 . Distribution. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (shaded, disjunct localities dotted).
#_______________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
This species is well established in Califonia and south and central Florida.
There are 2 syntypes of montrouzieri, one in the UCCC collection, one in the PM collection (R. D. Pope, pers. comm.).

Type locality.
"Australia."

Type depository.
BMNH.

Distribution.
Figure 61 . CALIFORNIA: San Francisco to San Diego. FLORIDA: Clearwater. INDIANA: Lafayette (from Wingo, 1952). MISSOURI: Washington (from Wingo, 1952).

Genus Didion Casey

Didion Casey, 1899, p. 137—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 111—Gordon, 1976b, p. 8—Belicek, 1976, p. 299. Type-species; Didion longulum Casey, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Scymnini with form elongate, oval; length less than 2.00 mm.
Head short, eye partially concealed by pronotum.
Pronotum with lateral margin strongly convergent epically (except D. nanum), base of pronotum distinctly narrower than base of elytra (Fig. 63 e).
Antenna with scape 7-segmented, club 3 segmented, club segments uneven on lower margin (Fig. 62 a).
Maxillary palpus with apical segment cylindrical, apex oblique (Fig. 62 b).
Apex of prosternum truncate; intercoxal process flat, with a short carina next to each coxa (Fig. 62 c).
Tarsus cryptotetramerous; tarsal claw with strong basal tooth (Fig. 62 d).
Abdomen with postcoxal line on basal sternum complete, as in (Pullus) (Fig. 62 e).
Male genitalia with basal lobe somewhat triangular in ventral view, shorter than paramere; paramere broad, apex rounded; trabes longer than

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#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 62 . Didion sp. a, Antenna. b. Maxillary palpus. c. Prosternum. d. Tarsus. e. Postcoxal line. f. Female genitalia.
#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

phallobase (Fig. 63 a).
Female genitalia with spermathecal capsule bent near apex;
accessory gland present;
sperm duct short, inserted at base of infundibulum;
infundibulum long, slender;
coxal plate long, slender, with apical stylus (Figure 62 f).

Didion is apparently restricted to North America and is represented by 3 species.
No concrete information is available on host preferences of members of this genus,
but Wingo (1952) thought D. punctatum might be feeding on the two-spotted spider mite.
Belicek (1976) listed D. longulum as being on plants infested with spider mites.

Species of Didion are most likely to be confused with members of the genus

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#__________________________
##Fig 63 . Didion punctatum.
#__________________________

Scymnus, subgenus Pullus, but Didion lacks complete prosternal carinae, has 10-segmented antennae,
usually has the lateral pronotal margin nearly straight and strongly convergent anteriorly,
and has the pronotal base distinctly narrower than the elytral base.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Didion

1. Elytron black with reddish orange discal spot (Fig. 63 e) .... punctatum (Melsheimer)
- Elytron immaculate .... 2
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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 64 . Distribution. Didion punctatum.
#_________________________________________

2(1). Lateral margin of pronotum arcuate (fig. 67f); abdomen densely, coarsely punctured .... nanum (LeConte)
- Lateral margin of pronotum nearly straight, margins convergent epically (Fig. 63 e); abdomen not densely, coarsely punctured .... 3
3(2). Punctures on elytron large, deep, distinct; form extremely elongate, narrow (fig. 63e) .... punctatum (Melsheimer)
- Punctures on elytron small, shallow, indistinct; form oval .... longulum Casey

Top

Didion punctatum (Melsheimer)
Fig. 63 a-f; Map, Fig. 64

Scymnus punctatus Melsheimer, 1847, p. 80—Horn, 1895, p. 107—Casey, 1899, p. 152—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.
Scymnus (Pullus) punctatus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.
Didion punctatum: Gordon, 1976b, p. 49—Belicek, 1976, p. 300.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.45 to 1.80 mm, width 0.90 to 1.25 mm.
Form extremely elongate, slender.
Dorsal surface black or dark brown with anterior pronotal angle pale;
disc of elytron usually with reddish-orange spot (Figs. 63e, f), occasionally immaculate.
Elytral punctures large, deep, distinct.
Male genitalia as in Figure 63 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 62 f.

Discussion.
There are 8 specimens in the type series, all mounted in pairs on 4 points on the same pin
bearing the labels "Melsh, punctatus/(a ragged piece of red paper)."
The top specimen nearest the tip of the point is here designated and labeled as the lectotype,
and the remaining 7 specimens as paralectotypes.

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Type locality.
"Pennsylvania" (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 64 . Quebec to Alabama, west to British Columbia and California.

Top

Didion longulum Casey
Fig. 65 a-e; Map, Fig. 66

Didion longulum Casey, 1899, p. 137—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 111—Belicek, 1976, p. 299.
Didion parviceps Casey, 1899, p. 137—Leng, 1920, p. 213—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 111. New Synonymy.
Scymnus (Pullus) occiduus Casey, 1899, p 153—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.38 to 1.75 mm, width 0.95 to 1.20 mm.
Form elongate, oval. Dorsal surface black or piceous.
Pronotum with surface alutaceous, punctures nearly invisible except some northern specimens with fine but distinct punctures.
Elytral punctures fine, shallow.
Abdominal sterna feebly punctured, mostly smooth.
Male genitalia as in Figure 65 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 65 e.

Discussion.
This species and D. nanum are similar, but D. nanum has distinct, coarse punctures on the pronotum and the surface between punctures is shiny.
The siphonal apices are also different in the 2 species (Figs. 65c, 67c).

In my revision of the subgenus Pullus (Gordon, 1976b), I had intended to point out that Scymnus (Pullus) occiduus Casey belonged in the genus Didion,
but failed to do so. Therefore I now so indicate and also place occiduus as a junior synonym of longulum.
There are 2 types of occiduus (male and female) in the Casey collection,
I designate and label the female as the lectotype and the male as a paralectotype.
The types of D. longulum and D. parviceps are unique females (holotypes).
I cannot separate D. parviceps from D. longulum and consider them synonymous.

Type locality.
Of longulum, California, Sonoma Co., Duncans Mills;
of parviceps, California, Sonoma Co.;
of occiduus, Nevada, Reno (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of longulum (35247),
parviceps (35248), and
occiduus, (35249), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 66 . Alberta to British Columbia, south to California.

Top

Didion nanum (LeConte)
Fig. 67 a-f; Map, Fig. 66

Scymnus nanus LeConte, 1852, p. 141—Crotch, 1874b, p. 269—Horn, 1895, p. 107—Wingo, 1952, p. 28.
Scymnus (Pullus) nanus: Casey, 1899, p. 153—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163—Wingo, 1952, p. 28.
Didion nanum: Gordon, 1976b, p. 49—Belicek, 1976, p. 300.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.50 to 1.80 mm, width 1.15 to 1.40 mm.
Form elongate, oval (Fig. 67 f).
Color black; anterolateral angle of pronotum, mouthparts and leg dark reddish brown.
Punctation on head fine, punctures separated by a diameter or less.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 65 . Didion longulum. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________

Pronotum with punctures equal in size to those on head, separated by less than to twice a diameter;
lateral margins not convergent anteriorly, rounded in apical 1/4.
Elytron smooth, shiny, punctures coarser than on pronotum, separated by a diameter or less; pubescence grayish white, arranged in S-curve.
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first sternum.
All abdominal sterna coarsely, densely punctured; 5th
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#________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 66 . Distribution. Didion longulum (shaded); D. nanum (dot).
#________________________________________________________________

sternum feebly emarginate apically; 6th sternum broadly, deeply emarginate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 67 a-d.
Female genitalia as in Figure 67 e.

Discussion.
This species has often been identified as Scymnus (Pullus) tenebrosus in collections.
The form is broader than in other species of Didion, the pronotal margins are not convergent anteriorly,
and all abdominal sterna are coarsely, densely punctured.
Didion nanum resembles a typical Pullus in fascies more than it does other species of Didion.

LeConte (1852) stated that he had 2 specimens of nanus. There are 2 specimens now in his collection.
The first of these, a female labeled "(pale green disc)/4698/ Type 6747(red paper)" is here designated and labeled the lectotype.
The second specimen, a male, bears a pale blue disc which denotes a Lake Superior locality; thus I do not consider this specimen to be a type.

Type locality.
"Missouri Territory" (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 66 . IOWA: state record. ILLINOIS: Quincy. KANSAS: Atchison. MASSACHUSETTS: Berlin; Boston. ONTARIO: Brockville; Pt. Pelee; Prince Edward Co. PENNSYLVANIA: Dauphin Co., Harrisburg; Monroe Co., Canadensis, Wind Gap.

Genus Scymnus Kugelann

Scymnus Kugelann, 1794, p. 545.—Mulsant, 1846, p. 2 1 9.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 948.— Mulsant 1853, p. 152.—Costa, 1849, p. 82.—LeConte, 1852, p. 130.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 239.—Chapuis, 1876, p. 211.—Weise, 1885a, p. 6, 67.—Horn 1895, p.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 67 . Didion nanum. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#_________________________________________
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83.—Casey, 1899, p. 134.—Mader 1924, p. 8.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 115.—Wingo, 1952, p. 19.—Mader 1955, p. 869.—Fursch, 1958, p. 77.—Bielawski, 1959, p. 36.—Arnett, 1963, p. 809.—Chapin, 1965, p. 202.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 18.— Gordon, 1976b, p 10. Type-species; Scymnus nigrinus Kugelann, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Scymnini with form varying from rounded to elongate, oval, widest at middle of elytra unless otherwise stated.
Antenna 10 or 11 -segmented, club of 4 or 5 segments, lower margin of club segments uneven (Fig. 68 a, b).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, apex obliquely truncate.
Anterior margin of clypeus truncate or slightly convex, clypeus extending slightly beyond eye, a narrow, short projection extending onto eye at antennal insertion.
Tarsus with 4 segments, tarsal claw of male with inner claw larger than in female.
Prosternum with distinct carinae (Fig. 68 c).
Postcoxal line recurved toward base of first abdominal sternum, complete or incomplete.
Female genitalia with sclerotized infundibulum; genital plate long, narrowly triangular (Fig. 68 d).

The genus Scymnus was revised by Gordon (1976b); therefore, only additional locality records
and some necessary corrections in synonymy are included for each species herein,
except for one introduced species not included in 1976b, Scymnus (P.) suturalis Thunberg.

KEY TO SUBGENERA OF Scymnus

1. Postcoxal line incomplete, apical end recurved, directed toward base of first sternum (Fig. 68 e) .... Scymnus Kugelann
- Postcoxal line complete, recurved, extending to base of first sternum (Fig. 68 g) .... Pullus Mulsant

Subgenus Scymnus Kugelann

Scymnus Kugelann, 1794, p. 545.—Mulsant, 1846, p.219.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 965.— Casey, 1899, p. 138.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 115.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—Mader, 1955, p. 929.—Fursch, 1958, p. 79.—Bielawski, 1959, p. 44.—Kamiya, 1961, p. 291.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 19.— Gordon, 1976b, p. 10.—Belicek, 1976, p. 300. Type-species; Scymnus nigrinus Kugelann, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Antenna 10 or 11-segmented (Fig. 68 a, b); apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, obliquely truncate apically.
Prosternum with 2 strong carinae nearly always reaching anterior margin.
Postcoxal line incomplete, curved forward apically (Fig. 68 e, i); male 5th and 6th abdominal sterna truncate or emarginate epically.
Female with distinct infundibulum (Fig. 69 e).

KEY TO SPECIES OF Scymnus (Scymnus)

1. Species with elytron entirely pale or mostly pale with some dark areas, if mostly dark then pale areas not restricted to apical third nor forming distinct median spot on elytron .... 2
- Species with elytron black or black with distinct, pale, median or apical spot .... 3

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 68 . Scymnus sp. a, b. Antennae. c. Prosternum. d. Genital plates. e-g. Postcoxal lines.
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2(1). Form evenly tapered at both ends, average length less than 2.0 mm; elytron never with distinct, irregular, dark spots .... difficilis Casey
- Form broad in apical third, pronotum and elytron noticeably discontinuous; average length more than 2.0 mm.; elytron with distinct, irregular, dark spots at least on California specimens .... nebulosus LeConte
3(1). Elytron black with pale antero-median spot .... circumspectus Horn
- Elytron black without pale antero-median spot .... 4

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 69 . Scymnus (S.) nebulosus. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

4(3). Postcoxal line distinctly separated from hind margin of first abdominal sternum (Fig. 68 f) .... 5
- Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum or approaching it closely (Fig. 68 e) .... 7
5(4). Species known only from east of the Mississippi River; postcoxal line approaching hind maven of first sternum .... indianensis Weise
- Species known only from west of the Mississippi River, postcoxal line not approaching hind margin of first sternum .... 6
6(5). Apex of elytron with pale area forming a spot occupying apical 1/4 or more .... coosi Hatch
- Apex of elytron not or very feebly pale .... fenderi Malkin
7(4). Apical 1/3 or more of elytron yellowish red; pronotum alutaceous .... opaculus Horn
- Apex of elytron black or with narrow, pale yellow border; pronotum not alutaceous (except caurinus) .... 8
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 70 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) nebulosus.
#_______________________________________________

8(7). Pronotum alutaceous with punctures finer than on head; distribution mostly west of Rocky Mountains .... caurinus Horn
- Pronotum not alutaceous, punctures usually larger than on head; distribution mostly east of Rocky Mountains .... 9
9(8). Form extremely elongate, nearly parallel sided; known only from west of the Mississippi River .... 10
- Form rounded, not parallel sided; known from both east and west of the Mississippi River .... 11
10(9). Surface of elytron smooth, punctures distinctly coarser than on pronotum .... apicanus pseudapicanus, new name
- Surface of elytron distinctly micro-reticulate, punctures not or barely larger than on pronotum .... paracanus linearis Gordon
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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 71 . Scymnus (S.) difficilis. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________________

11(9). Basal lobe of male genitalia emarginate ventrally in lateral view (Fig. 82 b); female infundibulum slender, tapered at spermathecal end (Fig. 82 e) .... americanus Mulsant
- Male and female genitalia not as described above .... 12
12(11). Paramere of male genitalia short, strongly tapered from base to apex (Fig. 87 b); female infundibulum slender, sinuate toward spermathecal end (Fig. 87 e) .... paracanus paracanus J. Chapin
- Paramere of male genitalia elongate, not tapered toward apex (Fig. 84 b); female infundibulum short, broad at sperm athecal end (Fig. 84 e) .... apicanus apicanus J. Chapin

Scymnus (Scymnus) nebulosus LeConte
Fig. 69 a-e; Map, Fig. 70

Scymnus nebulosus LeConte, 1852, p. 137.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 262.—Horn, 1895, p. 95.—Steinweden, 1929, p. 29.
Scymnus (Scymnus) nebulosus: Casey, 1899, p. 154.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 22.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 13.
Scymnus infuscatus Boheman, 1859, p. 208.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 15.
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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 72 . Scymnus (S.) coosi. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Scymnus phelpsii Crotch, 1874a, p. 77.—Horn, 1895, p. 96.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 15.
Scymnus(Scymnus) phelpsii: Casey, 1899, p. 1954.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Malkin, 1943b, p. 194.—Hatch, 1961, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 15.—Belicek, 1976, p. 302.
Scymnus (Scymnus) harneyi Hatch, 1961, p. 152.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 15.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 13.

Scymnus (Scymnus) difficilis Casey
Fig. 71 a-e; Map, Fig. 73

Scymnus (Scymnus) difiicilis Casey, 1899, p. 154.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 19.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 19.

Scymnus (Scymnus) coosi Hatch
Fig. 72 a-d; Map, Fig. 73

Scymnus (Scymnus) coosi Hatch, 1961, p. 152.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 20.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 20.
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#____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 73 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) difficilis (dot); S. (S.) coosi (star).
#____________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Scymnus) fenderi Malkin
Fig. 74 a-e; Map, Fig. 75

Scymnus (Scymnus) fenderi Malkin, 1943a, p. 109.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 23.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1 976b, p. 23.

Scymnus (Scymnus) caurinus Horn
Fig. 76 a-e; Map, Fig. 77

Scymnus caurinus Horn, 1895, p. 97.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 74 , Scymnus (S.) fenderi. a. b. c. d. e.
#______________________________________________

Scymnus (Scymnus) caurinus: Casey, 1899, p. 154.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Malkin, 1943b, p. 194.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Belicek, 1976, p. 303.—Gordon, 1976b, 26.
Scymnus (Scymnus) aluticollis Casey, 1899, p. 154.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 26.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 26.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig 75 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) fenderi.
#____________________________________________

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 76 . Scymnus (S.) caurinus. a. b. c. d. e.
#_______________________________________________

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 77 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) caurinus.
#______________________________________________

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 78 . Scymnus (S.) indianensis. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________________

Scymnus (Scymnus) indianensis Weise
Fig. 78 a-e; Map, Fig. 79

Scymnus india nensis Weise, 1929, p. 33.
Scymnus (Scymnus) indianensis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.— J. Chapin, 1973, p. 1071. J. Chapin, 1974, p. 20. Gordon, 1976b, p. 30.
Scymnus (Scymnus) rusticus Casey, 1899, p. 154 (not Weise, 1895a). -Leng, 1920, p. 214.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 30.

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##Fig. 79 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) indianensis.
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##Fig. 80 . Scymnus (S.) circumspectus. a. b. c. d. e.
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Scymnus (Scymnus) circumspectus Horn
Fig. 80 a-e; Map, Fig. 81

Scymnus circumspectus Hom, 1895, p. 96.
Scymnus (Scymnus) circumspectus: Casey, 1899, p. 153.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 20.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 32.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 32.

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##Fig. 81 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) circumspectus.
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##Fig. 82 . Scymnus (S.) Americanus. a. b. c. d. e.
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##Fig. 83 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) americanus.
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Scymnus (Scymnus) americanus Mulsant
Fig. 82 a-e; Map, Fig. 83

Scymnus (Scymnus) americanus Mulsant, 1850, p. 965.—Casey, 1899, p. 153.— Blatchley, 1910, p. 526.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 35.
Scymnus americanus:LeConte, 1852,p. 137.—Crotch, 1874b,p.262.—Horn, 1895, p. 97.—Wilson, 1927, p. 170.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 35.

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##Fig. 84 . Scymnus (S) apicanus apicanus. a. b. c. d. e.
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##Fig. 85 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) apicanus apicanus (dot); S. a. pseudapicanus (star).
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Scymnus (Scymnus) apicanus apicanus J. Chapin
Fig. 84 a-e; Map, Fig. 85

Scymnus (Scymnus) apicanus J. Chapin, 1973, p. 1071.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 20.— Gordon, 1976b, p. 38.—Belicek, 1976, p. 301.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 38.

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##Fig. 86 . Scymnus (S.) apicanus pseudapicanus. a. b. c.
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Scymnus (Scymnus) apicanus pseudapicanus, new name
Fig. 86 a-c; Map, Fig. 85

Scymnus (Scymnus) apicanus borealis Gordon, 1976b, p. 38, not Scymnus borealis Hatch, 1961.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 38.

Scymnus (Scymnus) paracanus paracanus J. Chapin
Fig. 87 a-e; Map, Fig. 88

Scymnus(Scymnus) paracanus J. Chapin, 1973, p. 1071.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 21.Gordon, 1976b, p. 41.—Belicek, 1976, p. 302.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 41.

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##Fig. 87 . Scymnus (S.) paracanus paracanus. a. b. c. d. e.
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##Fig. 88 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) paracanus paracanus (dot); S. p. linearis (star).
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Scymnus (Scymnus) paracanus linearis Gordon
Fig. 89 a-e; Map, Fig. 88

Scymnus (Scymnus) paracanus linearis Gordon, 1976b, p. 44.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 41.

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##Fig. 89 . Scymnus (S.) paracanus linearis. a. b. c. d. e.
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##Fig 90 . Scymnus (S.) opaculus. a. b. c. d. e.
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Scymnus (Scymnus) opaculus Horn
Fig. 90 a-e; Map, Fig. 91

Scymnus opaculus Horn, 1895, p. 96.—Casey, 1899, p. 160.
Scymnus (Scymnus) opaculus: Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163. Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 45.—Belicek, 1976, p. 302.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 45.

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##Fig. 91 . Distribution. Scymnus (S.) opaculus.
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Subgenus Pullus Mulsant

Pullus Mulsant, 1846, p.241.—Mulsant, 1850, p.976.—Weise, 1885a, p.65.—Casey, 1899, p. 139.—Mader, 1924, p. 8.—Wingo, 1952, p. 11.—Fursch, 1958, p. 79.— Bielawski, 1959, p. 37.—Arnett, 1963, p. 812.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 22.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 48.—Belicek, 1976, p. 303. Type-species: Coccinella subvillosa Goeze, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Antenna 11-segmented (Fig. 68 b); apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, obliquely truncate apically.
Prosternum with 2 strong carinae nearly always reaching anterior margin.
Tarsus cryptotetramerus.
Postcoxal line complete, recurved apically, reaching base of first aWominal sternum (Fig. 68 g);
male 5th and 6th abdominal sterna moderately to strongly emarginate and impressed apically.

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#___________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 92 . Regions corresponding to the keys to species of Scymnus (Pullus).
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KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Scymnus (Pullus) OF REGION I
Map, Fig. 92

1. Male with tubercle at center of first abdominal sternum; pronotum black or dark with an obscure, narrow, pale anterior border; leg entirely black or piceous (see postpictus Casey) .... marginicollis Mannerheim
- Male lacking abdominal tubercle; pronotum variable but if black then with anterior border also black; leg variable but rarely entirely dark .... 2
2(1). Dorsal color pattern light reddish yellow with a dark median area extending from basal portion of pronotum posteriorly along elytral suture, narrowed at apex of elytron (Fig. 130 e) (see nugator Casey) .... loewii Mulsant
- Dorsal color pattern not as described above .... 3
3(2). Color entirely light yellowish brown; introduced into Eastern Canada and North Carolina (see suturalis Thunberg) .... impexus (Mulsant)
- Color not entirely yellowish brown, usually mostly black (except some forms of brullei) .... 4
4(3). Species entirely black dorsally except head may be partly or entirely pale, apex of elytron sometimes narrowly red or yellow, pronotal angle sometimes obscurely paler than disc .... 5
- Species with at least anterior pronotal angle pale red or yellow, usually with pronotum entirely pale or with a black, parabolic spot anterior to scutellum .... 9
5(4). Apex of elytron with a distinct yellow border .... pulvinatus Wingo
- Apex of elytron black or barely perceptibly red .... 6
6(5). Abdomen with median area of last 3 sterna distinctly pale, yellowish brown; anterior pronotal angle with a relatively broad, obscure area noticeably paler than disc; length less than 2.00 mm .... compar Casey

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- Abdomen usually entirely black; anterior pronotal angle entirely black or with very narrow paler area on margin; length more than 2.0 mm (except abbreviatus) .... 7
7(6). Length 1.90 to 2.05 mm; I st abdominal sternum of male with a tri-angular, feebly depressed, shining area medially .... abbreviates LeConte
- Length 2.0 mm or more, nearly always more than 2.20 mm; 1st abdominal sternum of male with a flattened median area, not depressed, somewhat rectangular .... 8
8(7). Average length 2.30-2.40 mm; form broad, robust; male genitalia as in Figure 138 .... tenebrosus Mulsant
- Average length 2.10-2.20 mm; form elongate, slender; male genitalia as in Figure 211 ....... lacustris
9(4). Elytron entirely light brown or with dark areas in basal 1/2 .... brullei Mulsant
- Elytron with at least basal 1/2 black .... 10
10(9). Pronotum entirely red or yellow .... 11
- Pronotum with at least median, basal projection black, usually with a large, black, parabolic spot medially .... 14
11(10). Form rounded, sides of elytra not parallel; lateral pronotal margin continuous with lateral margin of elytron; male with last sternum distinctly impressed .... 12
- Form elongate, sides of elytra parallel at least medially; Pronotum narrower than elytra at base; male with last sternum barely perceptibly impressed .... kansanus Casey
12(11). Elytron with large, red, apical spot, often occupying apical jhi .... 13
- Elytron with apex narrowly red .... cervicalis Mulsant
13(12). Form robust, rounded; apex of elytral spot strongly arcuate .... nemorivagus Wingo
- Form elongate; apex of elytral spot feebly arcuate (Fig. 108 ) .... semiruber Horn
14(10). Elytron with a distinct, pale area or spot in apical jhl .... 15
- Elytron black, usually with a narrow, apical red or yellow border, always straight, never taking the form of a defined spot .... 22
15(14). Form elongate, sides parallel medially; elytron with large, apical red spot extending forward at suture (Fig. 120 ) .... festatus Wingo
- Form rounded, sides not parallel, apical spot not extending forward at suture .... 16
16(15). Pronotum entirely red except basal median projection black; posterior third or more of elytron red .... 17
- Color combination not as above .... 18
17(16). Species known only from Missouri and Arkansas; male genitalia with basal lobe heavily sclerotized, almost rectangular with a small median projection (Fig. 123 ) .... nemorivagus Wingo
- Species known only from extreme eastern United States, Massachusetts to Florida; male genitalia with basal lobe feebly sclerotized, slender, apex pointed (Fig. 108 ) .... semiruber Horn
18(16). Length 2.00 mm or less, width less than 1.50 mm.; dorsal pubescence short, oppressed, grayish white; apical spot on elytron curved toward apex at suture (Fig. 116 ) .... rubricaudus Casey
- Characters not all as above .... 19
19(18). Length more than 2.00 mm, width 1.40 mm or more; dorsal pubsecence long, erect, yellowish white; apical spot on elytron as described for rubricaudus: pronotum entirely black except antero-lateral angle pale .... securus J. Chapin
- Not entirely as described above; Pronotum usually pale with black median spot .... 20
20(19). Elytron with red apical spot usually occupying at least apical 1/4, red (Fig. 225 ); last sternum of male deeply emarginate, lateral angle of emargination abrupt .... brullei Mulsant
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_ Elytron with apical pale spot restricted to apical 1/5 (Fig. 125 ); last sternum of male feebly emarginate, feebly impressed .... 21
21(20). Male genitalia with dorsal processes of basal lobe convergent apically (Fig. 127 ) .... louisianae J. Chapin
- Male genitalia with dorsal processes of basal lobe widely separated apically (Fig. 125 ) .... fraternus LeConte
22(14). Male genitalia with ventral ala strongly fused to basal lobe, apex of basal lobe bluntly triangular (Fig. 215 ) .... caudalis LeConte
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 23
23(22). Last sternum of male deeply emarginate, lateral angle of emargination abrupt; genitalia robust, heavily sclerotized, dorsal margin of paramere with long setae (Fig. 225 ) .... brullei Mulsant
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 24
24(23). First sternum of male with a deep, elongate-oval pit surrounded by dense hairs, often with a faint, longitudinal carina in middle of pit (Fig. 150 ); basal lobe of genitalia with ventral projection blunt .... iowensis Casey
- First sternum and genitalia not as described above .... 25
25(24). First sternum of male with a small, deep, triangular pit at apical margin; basal lobe of genitalia with ventral apical projection feebly developed, an elongate-oval, lightly sclerotized area on each side of middle in ventral view (Fig. 170 ) .... consobrinus LeConte
- First sternum and genitalia not as described above .... 26
26(25). Male genitalia with apex of basal lobe pointed, abruptly hooked downward in lateral view (Fig. 198 ) .... uncus Wingo
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 27
27(26). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused, apex of basal lobe projecting, pointed, (Fig. 200 ) .... puncticollis LeConte
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 28
28(27). Male genitalia with ventral projection of basal lobe tapered to a point, much longer than dorsal projection (Fig. 136 ) .... socer LeConte
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 29
29(28). Male genitalia heavily sclerotized, basal lobe broad, apex triangular in dorsal view, ventral projection tapered to a blunt point in ventral view (Fig. 153 ) .... majus, new name
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 30
30(29). Male genitalia with apex of basal lobe bluntly rounded, fused to ventral ala, margins of siphonal passage fused before apex (Fig. 218 ) .... creperus Mulsant
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 31
31(30). Male genitalia with basal lobe fused to ventral ala, apex of basal lobe flattened, triangularly spatulate, projecting beyond ventral ala (Fig. 217 ) .... peninsularis Gordon
- Male genitalia with basal lobe pointed epically; paramere slender, lower margin produced medially (Fig. 187 ) .... wingoi Gordon

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Scymnus (Pullus) OF REGION II
Map, Fig. 92

1. Elytron black with a large, median, reddish orange spot (Fig. 98 ) .... pacificus Crotch
- Elytron without median spot .... 2
2(1). Form extremely elongate, parallel-sided, lateral margin of pronotum and elytron strongly discontinuous (Fig. 93 ) .... coniferarum Crotch

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- Form oval, not parallel-sided; lateral margin of pronotum and elytron not noticeably discontinuous .... 3
3(2). Dorsal surface pale yellowish brown, elytron and pronotum unicolorous; length 2.00 mm or less; elytron distinctly alutaceous .... pallens LeConte
- Dorsal surface dark, or with a contrasting color pattern, not entirely pale, if pronotum and elytron unicolorous then length more than 2.25 mm; elytron not alutaceous .... 4
4(3). Dorsal color reddish brown, scutellum and sutural margin of elytron narrowly black; length 2.00 mm or less .... nugator Casey
- Dorsal color not as described above .... 5
5(4). Length less than 1.77 mm; pronotum pale yellowish brown, elytron dark reddish brown; Texas, Big Bend .... pauculus Gordon
- Length nearly always more than 1.75 mm; color pattern not as described above or if so, then length more than 2.50 mm .... 6
6(5). Dorsal color pattern light brown with a dark median area extending from basal portion of pronotum posteriorly along elytral suture, narrowed at apex of elytron (Fig. 130 e) .... loewii Mulsant
- Color pattern not as described above .... 7
7(6). Form elongate, nearly parallel-sided; dorsal color pattern either entirely reddish brown or with a median, black, pronotal spot .... flavescens Casey
- Color pattern not as above, or, if so, then form distinctly rounded (brullei Mulsant) .... 8
8(7). Length 2.00 mm or less; dorsal color pattern light yellowish brown with basal projection of pronotum and narrow sutural border dark brown to black, some specimens also with a black lateral and anterior border on elytron; Texas, Big Bend .... enochrus Gordon
- Length usually more than 2.00 mm.; color pattern not as described above .... 9
9(8). Pronotum entirely red or yellow .... 10
- Pronotum with at least median, basal projection black .... 11
10(9). Form rounded, sides of elytra not parallel; lateral prenatal margin continuous with lateral margin of elytron; male with last sternum distinctly impressed .... cervicalis Mulsant
- Form elongate, sides of elytra nearly parallel, at least medially; pronotum narrower than elytra at base; male with last sternum barely perceptibly impressed .... kansanus Casey
11(9). Dorsal color entirely light reddish brown except some dark color on pronotum, sometimes an obscure dark area present on basal jhi of elytron (Fig. 225 ); male with last sternum strongly emarginate, angle of emargination abrup .... brullei Mulsant
- Dorsal color and male last sternum not as described above .... 12
12(11). Species with a large, definite pale area at apex of elytron .... 13
- Species with apex of elytron black or with a more or less well-defined, pale apical border, never a definite pale spot (see socer LeConte) .... 17
13(12). Punctures on elytron coarse, arranged in curved, transverse rows, giving a slightly rugose appearance; male first sternum with tubercle medially .... postpictus Casey
- Punctures on elytron fine, not arranged in rows; male first sternum without tubercle .... 14
14(13). Length less than 2.10 mm, form elongate, nearly parallel-sided (Fig. 116 ) .... rubricaudus Casey
- Length more than 2.10 mm; form rounded, not parallel-sided .... 15
15(14). Elytron with apical spot usually restricted to apical 1/5, yellow (Fig. 125 ); last sternum of male feebly emarginate, feebly impressed .... 16

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- Elytron with apical spot usually occupying at least apical 1/4 (Fig. 225 ); last sternum of male deeply emarginate, lateral angle of emargination abrupt .... brullei Mulsant
16(15). Male genitalia with dorsal processes of basal lobe convergent apically (Fig. 127 ) .... louisianae J. Chapin
- Male genitalia with dorsal processes of basal lobe widely separated (Fig. 125 ) .... fraternus LeConte
17(12). Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first sternum; form elongate, almost parallel-sided; apex of elytron distinctly reddish yellow .... monticola Casey
- Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first sternum; color and form variable .... 18
18(17). Pronotum entirely black or black with a very small, obscure, paler area at anterolateral angle .... 19
- Pronotum mostly pale with a central dark area, or at least with antero-lateral angle broadly, distinctly red or yellow (see horni Gorham) .... 28
19(18). Known from the eastern edge of Region II (see compar Casey) .... tenebrosus Mulsant
- Known from Colorado westward (see weidti Casey) .... 20
20(19). Male genitalia with basal lobe slender, nearly as long as ventral ala, not fused to ventral ala (Fig. 157 ) .... renoicus Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 21
21(20). Male genitalia with basal lobe much shorter than ventral ala, not fused to ala, inner portion of ala lightly sclerotized, outer portion heavily Sclerotized (Fig. 160 ) .... mormon Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 22
22(21). Male genitalia pale, nearly transparent (Fig. 166 ) .... aridus Casey
- Male genitalia darkened, definitely Sclerotized .... 23
23(22). Male genitalia with apex of ventral projection of basal lobe robust, truncate (Fig. 151 ) .... calaveras Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 24
24(23). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused, apex more or less pointed in lateral view (Fig. 197 ) .... 25
- Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused, apex broadly rounded in lateral view .... 27
25(24). Sclerotized area of ventral ala nearly truncate apically, apex of basal lobe bluntly pointed (Fig. 197 ) .... papago Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 26
26(25). Sclerotized area of ventral ala deeply emarginate epically, apex of basal lobe sharply pointed (Fig. 192 ) .... wickhami Gordon
- Sclerotized area of ventral ala not emarpinate, rounded epically, apex of basal lobe sharply pointed (Fig. 184 ) .... impletus Gordon
27(24). Male genitalia with apex of basal lobe wide in lateral view, slightly enlarged before apex (Fig. 211 ) .... lacustris LeConte
- Male genitalia with apex of basal lobe narrow in lateral view, not enlarged before apex (Fig. 213 ) .... tahoensis Casey
28(18). Elytron strongly alutaceous, feebly shining; length about 2.00 mm .... uteanus Casey
- Elytron not noticeably alutaceous, strongly shining; length usually more than 2.00 mm .... 29
29(28). Pronotum mostly yellow or red with a small parabolic spot medially at base, spot not approaching anterior margin of Pronotum .... 30
- Pronotum mostly black with lateral margin and/or antero-lateral angle yellow or red, anterior margin of Pronotum black or very narrowly pale .... 35
30(29). Elytron with apical pale border wide, at least 1/5 of a mm; pronotal spot small,

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usually confined to area just anterior to basal median projection (see uncus Wingo) .... creperus Mulsant
- Elytron with apical pale border narrow, less than 1/6 of a mm.; pronotal spot usually extending ' the distance to anterior margin or more .... 31
31(30). Form rounded; length 2.40 mm .... garlandicus Casey
- Form elongate; length 2.25 mm or less .... 32
32(31). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala not fused (Fig. 150 ) .... 34
- Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused (Fig. 174 ) .... 33
33(32). Male genitalia short, compact, feebly sclerotized (Fig. 174 ) .... cockerelli Casey
- Male genitalia long, slender, lightly sclerotized (Fig. 215 ) .... caudalis LeConte
34(32). Male genitalia with ventral projection of basal lobe bluntly rounded, only slightly longer than dorsal projection (Fig. 150 ); male with pit on first sternum deep, elongate-oval, often with a fine, longitudinal carina at middle (Fig. 150 ) .... iowensis Casey
- Male genitalia with ventral projection of median lobe pointed, distinctly longer than dorsal projection (Fig. 186 ); median area of male first sternum glabrous, slightly flattened, densely punctured .... simulans Gordon
35(29). Length 2.00 mm or less .... 36
- Length more than 2.10 mm .... 38
36(35). Male genitalia pale, nearly transparent .... 37
- Male genitalia darkened, definitely sclerotized (Fig. 156 ) .... utahensis Gordon
37(36). Male genitalia with apex of dorsal projection of basal lobe broad, truncate (Fig. 162 ) .... ardelio Casey
- Male genitalia with apex of dorsal projection of basal lobe slender, no wider than ventral projection (Fig. 166 ) .... aridus Casey
38(35). Dorsal pubescence at least partly yellowish brown .... 39
- Dorsal pubescence entirely grayish or yellowish white .... 40
39(38). Black area of pronotum extending to anterior margin of pronotum, broad anterolateral angle pale .... barberi Gordon
- Black area of pronotum not quite reaching anterior margin medially, broad anterolateral angle and narrow anterior border pale .... solidus Casey
40(38). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused; male without pit on first sternum .... 41
- Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala not fused, ventral projection of basal lobe bluntly rounded (Fig. 150 ); male with deep elongate-oval pit on first sternum (Fig. 150 ) .... iowensis Casey
41(40). Male genitalia with central carinae of basal lobe divergent at apex, leaving a blunt, triangular apical area (Fig. 215 ) .... caudalis LeConte
- Male genitalia with central carinae of basal lobe not divergent, apex of basal lobe pointed in ventral view (Fig. 211 ) .... lacustris LeConte

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Scymnus (Pullus) OF REGION III
Map, Fig. 92

1. Elytron with a large, median, reddish orange spot (Fig. 98 ) .... pacificus Crotch
- Elytron without a median spot .... 2
2(1). Length nearly twice the width; lateral margin of pronotum strongly discontinuous with lateral margin of elytron; elytron yellowish brown with suture and scutellum usually black or dark brown (Fig. 93 ) .... coniferarum Crotch
- Length much less than twice the width; lateral pronotal margin more or less continuous with elytron; color variable .... 3


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3(2). Dorsal color primarily light brown or yellow, with or without a dark pattern .... 4
- Dorsal color primarily black or dark brown, with or without pale areas .... 12
4(3). Postcoxal line on first sternum reaching hind margin of sternum .... 5
- Postcoxal line on first sternum not reaching hind margin of sternum .... 6
5(4). Form elongate; Pronotum entirely pale or with a median black area; postcoxal line angulate flavescens Casey
- Form rounded; Pronotum always black at least medially; postcoxal line rounded, not angulate .... nigricollis Gordon
6(4). Elytron distinctly alutaceous, feebly shining; dorsum entirely light yellowish brown; form round; length less than 2.00 mm .... pallens LeConte
- Elytron not alutaceous, shining; dorsum with or without a dark pattern, length variable .... 7
7(6). Form elongate; dorsum entirely yellowish brown .... mimoides Gordon
- Form not particularly elongate, dorsum not entirely yellowish brown .... 8
8(7). Length less than 1.75 mm, pronotum pale yellowish brown, elytron reddish brown; Texas, Big Bend .... pauculus Gordon
- Length more than 1.75 mm; color pattern not as described above .... 9
9(8). Length 2.00 mm or less; dorsal color pattern light yellowish brown with basal projection of Pronotum and narrow sutural border dark brown to black, some specimens also with a black lateral and anterior border on elytron; Texas, Big Bend .... enochrus Gordon
- Length usually more than 2.00 mm, color pattern not as described above .... 10
10(9). Dorsal color pattern light brown with a dark median area extending from basal portion of Pronotum posteriorly along elytral suture, narrowed at apex of elytron (Fig. 130 e) .... loewii Mulsant
- Color pattern not as described above .... 11
11(10). Length 2.00 mm or slightly less; paramere of male genitalia as broad as basal lobe (Fig. 177 ) .... nugator Casey
- Length 1.75 mm or less; paramere of male genitalia narrower than basal lobe (Fig. 179 ) .... neomexicanus Gordon
12(3). Pronotum entirely red or yellow .... cervicalis Mulsant
- Pronotum black at least basally .... 13
13(12). Apical 1/4 to 1/3 of elytron red (Fig. 134 ); punctures on elytron coarse, arranged in curved, transverse rows, giving a slightly rugose appearance to elytron; male first sternum with tubercle .... postpictus Casey
- Species with all characters not as described above .... 14
14(13). Male with tubercle at middle of first sternum; elytron black except narrow apical border pale; leg usually all black; Pronotum with color variable but always with at least a narrow anterior border pale .... marginicollis Mannerheim
- Male without tubercle; leg usually pale or at least apical of tibia pale .... 15
15(14). Species with a distinct pale area on apex of elytron, or a pale, discal spot .... 16
- Species with apex of elytron black or with a straight pale border, never with a distinct pale spot .... 18
16(15). Species with a transversely oval, yellow spot restricted to apical 1/5 of elytron .... 17
- Species with apical 1/4 to ' of elytron red or with an elongate, median, red spot on elytron (Fig. 130 ) .... loewii Mulsant
17(16). Pronotum black, anterolateral angle very narrowly yellow; male 1st sternum not depressed medially, coarsely, densely punctured .... caffer Gordon
- Pronotum usually with median, parabolic, black spot, at least antero- lateral angle broadly yellow or red; male I st sternum depressed medially, finely, densely punctured .... louisianae J. Chapin

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18(15). Pronotum entirely black (see tahoensis Casey) .... 19
- Pronotum with at least anterolateral angle distinctly pale .... 24
19(18). Male genitalia with apex of ventral apical projection truncate in ventral view (Fig. 151 ) .... calaveras Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 20
20(19). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused, apex of basal lobe sharply pointed (Fig. 184 ) .... impletus Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 21
21(20). Male genitalia with median area of ventral ala not sclerotized, and elongate-oval area on each side of basal lobe also unsclerotized (Fig. 190 ) .... tenebricus Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 22
22(21). Male genitalia with sclerotized area of anterolateral angle of ventral ala produced, basal lobe with 2 median folds (Fig. 197 ) .... papago Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 23
23(22). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala strongly united, basal lobe slightly shorter than ventral ala, apex rounded in lateral view (Fig. 202 ) .... weidti Casey
- Male genitalia with basal lobe shorter than ventral ala, inner portion of ventral ala membranous, extending beyond outer portion (Fig. 160 ) .... mormon Casey
24(18). Elytron strongly alutaceous, feebly shining; Pronotum pale red with a small, black, parabolic spot anterior to scutellum .... uteanus Casey
- Elytron not noticeably alutaceous, strongly shining; Pronotum variable .... 25
25(24). Elytron not black but a dark mahogany brown with sutural and lateral borders obscurely black, apex of elytron with a wide, pale border; length usually less than 2.00 mm .... gilae Casey
- Elytron black, apex of elytron with a narrow, pale border .... 26
26(25). Pronotum pale with a black, basal spot not approaching anterior margin of Pronotum .... 27
- Pronotum mostly black, black area either reaching anterior border or very narrowly separated from it .... 32
27(26). Pronotum with black area poorly defined, restricted to median, basal 1/3 of pronotum .... creperus Mulsant
- Pronotum with black area parabolic, well defined, extending more than ' the distance to apical margin .... 28
28(27). Male genitalia with apical ventral process of basal lobe long, stout, curved upward in lateral view (Fig. 143 ) .... garlandicus Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 29
29(28). Male genitalia of the brullei type, basal lobe inflated (Fig. 223 ) .... hubbardi Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 30
30(29). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused (Fig. 174 ) .... cockerelli Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 31
31(29). Male genitalia without ventral ala (Fig. 129 ) .... apithanus Gordon
- Male genitalia with ventral ala (Fig. 159 ) .... horni Gorham

32(26). Pronotum black with anterolateral angle narrowly yellow; femur black except apex pale .... aridoides Gordon
- Pronotum with anterolateral angle broadly pale yellow; femur with at least apical .... 33
33(32). Male genitalia of the brullei type but with membranous lateral projection as in figure .... 34
- Male genitalia not of the brullei type, lacking membranous lateral projections .... 35
34(33). Black area of Pronotum separated from anterior margin by a narrow, yellow border; Texas (Big Bend) .... howdeni Gordon

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- Black area of pronotum reaching anterior margin; Arizona .... huachuca Gordon
35(33). Male genitalia with apical ventral process of basal lobe long, stout, curved upward in lateral view (Fig. 143 ) .... garlandicus Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 36
36(35). Male genitalia with basal lobe inflated in lateral view, a winglike lobe on each side of siphonal aperture (Fig. 220 ) .... bryanti Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 37
37(36). Male genitalia with apical ventral process of basal lobe long, broad at base, tapered to blunt apex (Fig. 154 ) .... ignarus Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 38
38(37). Male genitalia lightly sclerotized, nearly transparent .... 39
- Male genitalia normally sclerotized .... 40
39(38). Male genitalia with apical dorsal projection of basal lobe broad, truncate at apex (Fig. 162 ) .... ardelio Horn
- Male genitalia with apical dorsal projection tapered to a point (Fig. 166 ) .... aridus Casey
40(38). Male genitalia with inner border of ventral ala sclerotized (Fig. 142 a) (see humboldti Casey) .... solidus Casey
- Male genitalia with inner border of ventral ala not sclerotized (Fig. 148 ) .... barberi Gordon

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Scymnus (Pullus) OF REGION IV
Map, Fig. 92

1. Elytron with a large, median, reddish orange spot (Fig. 98 ) .... pacificus Crotch
- Elytron without a median spot .... 2
2(2). Length nearly twice the width; lateral margin of pronotum strongly discontinous with lateral margin of elytron; elytron yellowish brown with suture and scutellum usually black or dark brown (Fig. 93 ) .... coniferarum Crotch
- Length much less than twice the width; lateral pronotal margin more or less continuous with elytron; color variable .... 3
3(2). Dorsal surface distinctly alutaceous, completely pale yellowish brown .... pallens LeConte
- Dorsal surface not noticeably alutaceous, at least some dark areas present, usually almost completely black .... 4
4(3). Dorsal color pattern light brown with a dark median area extending from basal portion of pronotum posteriorly along elytral suture, narrowed at apex of elytron (Fig. 130 ), lateral border may also be dark (Fig. 130 ) .... loewii Mulsant
- Dorsal color not as described above .... 6
5(4). Apical 2/3 of elytron yellowish red, rest of elytron and pronotum except narrow lateral border black (Fig. 140 ); California (Channel Islands).... falli Gordon
- Color pattern not as described above .... 6
6(5). Dorsal color primarily pale yellowish brown with some dark marking .... 7
- Dorsal color primarily black or dark brown, sometimes with pale marking .... 8
7(6). Form elongate, margins of elytra subparallel; sutural border of elytron narrowly black, an obscure dark border on lateral margin .... mimoides Gordon
- Form round, margins of elytra not parallel; sutural border of elytron narrowly black but with no dark lateral border .... cockerelli Casey
8(6). Apical 1/4 to 1/3 of elytron red (Fig. 134 ), punctures on elytron coarse, arranged in



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curved, transverse rows, giving a slightly rugose appearance to elytron; male 1st sternum with tubercle medially .... postpictus Casey
- Apex of elytron black or narrowly pale, elytron not appearing rugose; male 1st sternum not tuberculate (except marginicollis) .... 9
9(8). Male with median tubercle on 1st sternum; elytron black except narrow apical border; legs usually all black or at least remora entirely black; Pronotum varying from almost entirely yellow to nearly all black but with at least apical border narrowly pale .... marginicollis Mannerheim
- Male 1st sternum without tubercle; legs usually pale but if black then at least apex of femur pale .... 10
10(9). Pronotum entirely red or yellow (see cervicalis Mulsant) .... carri Gordon
- Pronotum at least partly black .... 11
11(10). Pronotum mostly yellow or red with a black area medially anterior to scutellum, black area not approaching anterior margin of Pronotum .... 12
- Pronotum mostly or entirely black, black area reaching anterior margin or very narrowly separated from it .... 14
12(11). Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of 1st sternum; elytron distinctly micro reticulate (see uteanus Casey) .... nevadensis Weise
- Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of 1st sternum; elytron not micro-reticulate or feebly so .... 13
13(12). Length less than 2.00 mm.; 1st sternum of male densely punctured medially .... erythronotum Gordon
- Length 2.00 mm or more, 1 st sternum of male with a flattened, shining, impunctate area medially (see garlandicus Casey) .... horni Gorham
14(11). Elytron dark mahogany brown with suture and lateral border black, apex of elytron with a wide, pale border, length less than 2.00 mm .... gilae Casey
- Elytron black or black with a pale apical border; length variable but usually more than 2.00 mm .... 15
15(14). Pronotum entirely black .... 16
- Pronotum with at least anterolateral angle pale .... 28
16(15). Large, robust, length usually 2.65 mm or more; dorsal pubescence yellowish brown; dorsal surface entirely black except narrow apical margin pale .... calaveras Casey
- Characters not all as described above .... 17
17(16). Male genitalia with basal lobe much shorter than ventral ala (Fig. 172 ) .... 18
- Male genitalia with basal lobe as long as ventral ala or nearly so .... 19
18(17). Male genitalia with basal lobe extremely short (Fig. 172 ); 6th sternum of male deeply, abruptly emarginate .... mendocino Casey
- Male genitalia with basal lobe not extremely short (Fig. 194 ); male 6th sternum normally emarginate .... elusivus Gordon
19(17). Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, not fused to ventral ala .... 20
- Basal lobe of male genitalia robust, fused to ventral ala .... 21
20(19). Basal lobe of male genitalia with dorsal apical projection not wider than ventral apical projection, dorsal margin of basal lobe sinuate (Fig. 157 ) .... renoicus Casey
- Basal lobe of male genitalia with dorsal apical projection wider than ventral apical projection, dorsal margin of basal lobe not sinuate (Fig. 145 ) .... jacobianus Casey
21(19). Male genitalia with a small, elongate sclerite medially at base of basal lobe, apex bluntly pointed in lateral view, basal lobe and ventral ala fused (Fig. 202 ) .... weidti Casey
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 22
22(21). Apex of basal lobe of male genitalia rounded in lateral view (Fig. 207 ) .... 23
- Apex of basal lobe of male genitalia pointed in lateral view (Fig. 184 ) .... 26

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23(22). Apex of basal lobe slender, evenly rounded in lateral view (Fig. 213 ) .... 24
- Apex of basal lobe broad, rounded dorsally, abruptly angled ventrally in lateral view (Fig. 207 ) .... hesperius Gordon
24(23). Basal lobe with median ventral carinae slightly separated, ventral ala fused in basal 3/4 (Fig. 213 ) .... tahoensis Casey
- Basal lobe with median ventral carinae joined, ventral ala fused in more than basal 3/4 (Fig. 211 ) .... 25
25(24). Apex of basal lobe as wide or wider than paramere in lateral view .... lacustris LeConte
- Apex of basal lobe narrower than paramere in lateral view .... tahoensis Casey
26(22). Apex of ventral ala angulate, produced, or with a median membranous area .... 27
- Apex of ventral ala not ungulate or produced (Fig. 184 ) .... impletus Gordon
27(26). Apex of ventral ala simple, angulate (Fig. 192 ) .... wickhami Gordon
- Apex of ventral ala divided by median membranous area, inner sclerotized area angulate (Fig. 190 ) .... tenebricus Gordon
28(15). Male first sternum with a deep, elongate-oval pit, pit often with a median carina; ventral apical projection of basal lobe of male genitalia rounded (Fig. 150 ) .... iowensis Casey
- Male first sternum without a pit, at most with a shallow depression; ventral apical projection of basal lobe of male genitalia not as described above .... 29
29(28). Male genitalia feebly sclerotized, nearly transparent .... 30
- Male genitalia distinctly sclerotized, darkened .... 31
30(29). Apex of dorsal projection of basal lobe truncate (Fig. 162 ) .... ardelio Horn
- Apex of dorsal apical projection of basal lobe pointed (Fig. 166 ) .... aridus Casey
31(29). Basal lobe of male genitalia ovate in ventral view, ventral alas and paramere curved inward (Fig. 181 ) .... nuttingi Gordon
- Male genitalia not as described above .... 32
32(31). Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala fused .... 33
- Male genitalia with basal lobe and ventral ala not fused .... 37
33(32). Basal lobe of male genitalia with apex broadly rounded in lateral view, no median sclerite at base in ventral view Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, a median, basal sclerite present in ventral view .... 36
34(33). Median, ventral carinae of basal lobe distinctly separated at least basally (Fig. 208 ) .... luctuosus Casey
- Median, ventral carinae of basal lobe united or nearly so from base to apex (Fig. 211 ) .... 35
35(34). Apex of basal lobe broad, broadly rounded in lateral view (Fig. 211 ) .... lacustris LeConte
- Apex of basal lobe narrow in lateral view (Fig. 213 ) .... tahoensis Casey
36(33). Basal lobe of male genitalia evenly tapered from base to apex (Fig. 204 ) Alberta .... aquilonarius Gordon
- Basal lobe of male genitalia narrowed before apex, apex slightly bulbous (Fig. 206 ); California .... martini Gordon
37(32). Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, tapered from base to apex (Fig. 156 ) .... utahensis Gordon
- Basal lobe of male genitalia not as described above .... 38
38(37). Male genitalia with inner margin of ventral ala sclerotized^7 basal lobe broad (Fig. 142 ) .... solidus Casey
- Male genitalia with inner margin of ventral ala not sclerotized, basal lobe slender (Fig. 146 ) .... humboldti Casey
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Scymnus (Pullus) caffer Gordon
Fig. 96 a-d

Scymnus (Pullus) canter Gordon 1976b, p. 65.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 65.

Scymnus (Pullus) coniferarum Crotch
Fig. 93 a-f; Map, Fig. 95

Scymnus coniferarum Crotch, 1874a, p. 77.—Horn, 1895, p. 105.
Scymnus (Pullus) coniferarum: Casey, 1899, p. 152.—Leng, 1920, p. 214—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 66.—Belicek, 1976, p. 305.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 66, and Gordon (1982).

Scymnus (Pullus) suturalis Thunberg
Fig. 94 a-e; Map, Fig. 95

Scymnus suturalis Thunberg, 1795, p. 106.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 138.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 66.—Gordon, 1982, p. 250 (see Korschefsky, 1931, for complete synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Description as for S. (P.) coniferarum:
Body slightly broader, less elongate in appearance;
punctures on elytron coarse, dense, separated by the diameter of a puncture or less;
basal lobe of male genitalia broad in ventral view, abruptly narrowed in apical 1/4, apex in lateral view distinctly bent downward;
apex of sipho S-shaped (figs. 94a-c);
female genitalia with infundibulum slender, rodlike (fig. 94e).

Discussion.
Gordon (1976b) included this species as S. (P.) coniferarum which is primarily a California species.
Subsequent investigation revealed that the Pennsylvania and New York specimens were actually S. (P.) suturalis (Gordon, 1982).
It was introduced into Michigan from Germany in 1961, and has recently been collected there,
but whether this population is a result of the introduction or an accidental establishment is not apparent (Hoebeke, in press).

Type locality.
"Suecica".

Type depository.
Type not examined.

Distribution.
Figure 95 . CONNECTICUT: Middlesex Co., Clinton. MICHIGAN: Saginaw Co., Saginaw. NEW YORK. PENNSYLVANIA: (see Gordon, 1982, for specific localities).

Scymnus (Pullus) impexus Mulsant
Fig. 97 a-d

Scymnus (Pullus) impexus Mulsant, 1850, p. 979.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 127.— Delucchi, 1954, pp. 243-278.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 70.
Scymnus(Pullus)abietis Mulsant, 1846,p.247 (not Paykull, 1798).—Mulsant, 1850, p. 979.

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#_____________________________________________________
##Fig. 93 . Scymnus (P.) coniferarum. a. b. c. d. e. f.
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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 94 , Scymnus (P.) suturalis, a. b. c. d. e.
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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 95 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) coniferarum (shaded, peripheral localities dotted); S. (P.) suturalis (star), S. P. cager (triangle).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 70. Establishment of this species has been effected in the Willamette Valley of Oregon following releases made in 1960 and 1962.

Scymnus (Pullus) pacificus Crotch
Fig. 98 a-e; Map, Fig. 99

Scymnus pacificus Crotch, 1874a, p. 77.—Horn, 1895, p. 100.
Scymnus (Pullus) pacificus: Casey, 1899, p. 152.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 72.
Scymnus strabus Horn, 1895, p. 100.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 72.
Scymnus (Pullus) strabus: Casey, 1899, p. 152.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 72.
Additional locality record: ARIZONA: Yavapai Co., 15 mi. S. Prescott.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 96 . Scymnus (P.) caffer. a. b. c. d.
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Scymnus (Pullus)flavescens Casey
Fig. 100 a-d; Map, Fig. 101

Scymnus (Pullus)flavescens Casey, 1899, p. 139.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 75.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 75.
Additional locality records: ARIZONA: Apache Co., Chuska. UTAH: Wayne Co., Henry Mts.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 97 . Scymnus (P.) impexus. a. b. c. d.
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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 98 . Scymnus (P.) pacificus. a. b. c. d. e.
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 99 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) pacificus.
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig 100 . Scymnus(P.) flavescens. a. b. c. d.
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#__________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 101 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.)flavescens (dot), S. (P.) nigricollis (Star).
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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 102 . Scymnus (P.) nigricollis. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) nigricollis Gordon
Fig. 102 a-d; Map, Fig. 101

Scymnus (Pullus) nigricollis Gordon, 1976b, p. 78.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 78.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 103 , Scymnus (P.) kansanus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) kansanus Casey
Fig. 103 a-d; Map, Fig. 104

Scymnus (Pullus) kansanus Casey, 1899, p. 142.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Wingo, 1952, pp. 28.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 78.
For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 78.
Additional locality record: NEW JERSEY: Fort Lee.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 104 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) kansanus.
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 105 . Scymnus (P.) pauculus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) pauculus Gordon
Fig. 105 a-d; Map, Fig. 106

Scymnus (Pullus) pauculus Gordon, 1976b, p. 81.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 81.
Additonal locality record. ARIZONA: Oracle.
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#_____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 106 . Distribution, Scymnus (P.) pauculus (star); S. (P.) pallens (dot).
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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 107 . Scymnus (P.) pollens. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) pallens LeConte
Fig. 107 a-d; Map, Fig. 106

Scymnus pallens LeConte, 1852, p. 137.—Crotch, 1847b, p. 263.—Horn, 1895, p. 99.
Scymnus (Pullus) pallens: Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.—Hatch, 1961, p. 149.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 84.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 84.
Additional locality record: TEXAS: Patricio Co., Martin, 12 mi. S.

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 108 . Scymnus (P.) semiruber. a. b. c. d. e.
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Scymnus (Pullus) semiruber Horn
Fig. 108 a-e; Map, Fig. 109

Scymnussemiruber Horn, 1895,p. 102.
Scymnus (Pullus) semiruber: Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Wilson, 1927, p. 169.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 86.
Scymnus puritanus Casey, 1924, p. 174.—Leng, 1927, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 86.

For detailed description and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 86.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 109 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) semiruber.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 110 . Scymnus (P.) gilae. a. b. c. d.
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Scymnus (Pullus) gilae Casey
Fig. 110 a-d; Map, Fig. 111

Scymnus (Pullus) gilae Casey, 1899, p. 147.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 89.
Scymnus (Pullus) infans Casey, 1899, p. 149.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 89.
Scymnus apiciventris Casey, 1924, p. 175.—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 91.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p 89.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 111 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) gilae.
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 112 . Scymnus (P.) mimoides. a. b. c. d.
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Scymnus (Pullus) mimoides Gordon
Fig. 112 a-d; Map, Fig. 113

Scymnus (Pullus) mimoides Gordon, 1976b, p. 93.

For detailed description and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 93.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 113 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) mimoides.
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 114 . Scymnus (P.) cervicalis. a. b. c. d.
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#______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 115 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) cervicalis (disjunct localities dotted).
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Scymnus (Pullus) cervicalis Mulsant
Fig. 114 a-d; Map, Fig. 115

Scymnus (Pullus) cervicalis Mulsant, 1850, p. 984.—Casey, 1899, p. 142.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Wingo, 1952, p. 29.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 28.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 95.
Scymnus cervicalis: LeConte, 1852, p. 139.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 266.—Horn, 1895, p. 103.—Wilson, 1927, p. 169.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 95.
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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 116 . Scymnus (P.) rubricaudus. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) rubricaudus Casey
Fig. 116 a-e; Map, Fig. 117

Scymnus(Pullus)rubricauda Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.
Scymnus (Pullus) texanus Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213 (synonym of creperus Mulsant).—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Wingo, 1952, p. 32.
Scymnus (Pullus) chromopyga Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Wingo, 1952, p. 32.
***Same as 175
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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 116 . Scymnus (P.) rubricaudus. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) rubricaudus Casey Fig.
116a-e; Map, Fig. 117

Scymnus(Pullus)rubricauda Casey, 1 899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.
Scymnus (Pullus) texanus Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213 (synonym of creperus Mulsant).—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Wingo, 1952, p. 32.
Scymnus (Pullus) chromopyga Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Wingo, 1952, p. 32.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 118 . Scymnus (P.) enochrus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) enochrus Gordon.
Fig. 118 a-d; Map, Fig. 119

Scymnus (Pullus) enochrus Gordon, 1976b, p. 102.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 102.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 119 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) enochrus.
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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 120 . Scymnus (P.) festatus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
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#________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 121 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) festatus (dot); pulvinatus (star).
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Scymnus (Pullus) Gestates Wingo
Fig. 120 a-f; Map, Fig. 121

Scymnus (Pullus) festatus Wingo, 1952, p. 31.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 103.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 103.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 122 . Scymnus (P.) pulvinatus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) pulvinatus Wingo
Fig. 122 a-d; Map, Fig. 121

Scymnus (Pullus) pulvinatus Wingo, 1952, p. 34.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 106.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 106.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 123 . Scymnus (P.) nemorivagus. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) nemorivagus Wingo
Fig. 123 a-d; Map, Fig. 124

Scymnus (Pullus) nemorivagus Wingo, 1952, p. 35.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 109.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 109.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 124 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) nemorivagus.
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Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus LeConte
Fig. 125 a-f; Map, Fig. 126

Scymnus fraternus LeConte, 1852, p. 138.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 264.—Horn, 1895, p. 101.—Stehr, 1930, p. 49.—Wingo, 1952, p. 31.—Chapin, 1973, p. 1072.
Scymnus haemorrhous LeConte, 1852, p. 138.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 264.—Horn, 1895, p. 101.
Scymnus (Pullus) creperus var. fraternus: Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p. 213
Scymnus (Pullus) haemorrhous: Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Wilson, 1927, p. 170.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.
Scymnus dentipes Fall, 1901, p. 234.—Fall, 1904, p. 176.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 125 . Scymnus (P.) fraternus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________________

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 126 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) fraternus (peripheral and disjunct localities dotted).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) fraternus: Wingo, 1952, p. 31.—J Chapin, 1973, p. 1071.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 24.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 109.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 109.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 127 . Scymnus (P.) louisianae. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 128 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) louisianae.
#_________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) louisianae J. Chapin
Fig. 127 a-d; Map, Fig. 128

Scymnus (Pullus) louisianae J. Chapin, 1973, p. 1071.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 24.— Gordon,1976b,p.115.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1 976b, p. 1 15.

Additional locality record: TEXAS: Hidalgo Co., MacAllen.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 129 . Scymnus (P.) apithanus. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) apithanus Gordon
Fig. 129 a-d; Map, Fig. 132

Scymnus(Pullus)apithanus Gordon, 1976b, p. 118.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 118.

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#_______________________________________________________
##Fig. 130 . Scymnus (P.) loewii. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
#_______________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) loewii Mulsant
Fig. 130 a-h; Map, Fig. 131

Scymnus (Pullus) loewii Mulsant, 1850, p. 908.—Gorham, 1897, p. 227.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.—Leng and Mutchler, 1933, p. 87.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 27.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 119.
Scymnus loewii: Crotch, 1874b, p. 271.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig.. 131 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) loewii (peripheral localities dotted).
#_____________________________________________________________________________

#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 132 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) apithanus (star); S. (P.) marginicollis (shaded, peripheral and disjunct localities dotted).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#_____________________________________________________
##Fig. 133 . Scymnus (P.) marginicollis. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________________

Scymnus cinctusLeConte, 1852,p. 137.-Crotch, 1874b,p.263.—Horn, 1895,p.99. Scymnus (Pullus) cinctus: Gorham, 1897, p. 227.—Casey, 1899, p. 152.—Wilson, 1927, p. 169.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Wingo, 1952, p. 30.
Scymnus suturalis LeConte, 1852,p. 138(not Thunberg, 1795).—Crotch, 1874b,p. 264.
Scymnus lecontei Crotch, 1874b, p. 264.—Horn, 1895, p. 99.
Scymnus(Pullus)lecontei: Gorham, 1897,p.227.—Casey, 1899,p.152.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 134 . Scymnus (P.) postpictus. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________________

Scymnus flebilis Horn, 1895, p. 100.
Scymnus (Pullus)flebilis: Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 120.
Scymnus (Pullus) sarpedon Casey, 1899, p. 152.—Leng, 1920, p.213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 120.
Scymnus (Pullus) nubes Casey, 1899, p. 151.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 120.
Scymnus scotti Nunenmacher, 1934, p. 17.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 120.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 119 Additional locality record: TEXAS: Garza Co.; 2 mi. N. Justiceburg.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 135 . Distbution. Scymnus (P.) postpictus.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) marginicollis Mannerheim
Fig. 133 a-e; Map, Fig. 132

Scymnus marginicollis Mannerheim, 1843, p. 313.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1053.— LeConte, 1852, p. 140.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 267.—Horn, 1895, p. 104.
Scymnus (Pullus) marginicollis: Casey, 1899, p. 142.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.—Wingo, 1952, p. 34.—Hatch, 1961, p. 150.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 125.—Belicek, 1976, p. 304.
Scymnus californicus Boheman, 1859, p. 207.
Scymnus (Pullus) californicus: Casey, 1899, p. 142—Leng, 1920, p. 213.

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#________________________________________
##Fig. 136 . Scymnus(P.)socer. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) desertorum Casey, 1899, p. 145.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 125.
Scymnus (Pullus) marginicollis borealis Hatch, 1961, p. 150.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 125.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 125.

Scymnus (Pullus) postpictus Casey
Fig. 134 a-e; Map, Fig. 135

Scymnus (Pullus) postpinctus Casey, 1899, p. 141 (lapsus).—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.
Scymnus (Pullus) postpictus Casey, 1908, p. 405 (emendation).—Leng, 1920, p. 213. Gordon, 1976b, p. 130.—Belicek, 1976, p. 304.

For detailed synonymy, description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 130.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 137 . Distribution. Scymuzus (P.) socer.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) socer LeConte
Fig. 136 a-d; Map, Fig. 137

Scymnus socer LeConte, 1852, p. 139.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 267.—Horn, 1895, p.103.
Scymnus (Pullus) socer: Casey, 1899, p. 144.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 29.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 133.
Scymnus (Pullus) kinzeli Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160 (kinzelii).—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 30.
Scymnus (Pullus) innocens Casey, 1899, p. 145.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 133.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 133.


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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 138 . Scymnus (P.) tenebrosus. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 139 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) tenebrosus.
#_________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) tenebrosus Mulsant
Fig. 138 a-e; Map, Fig 139

Scymnus (Pullus) tenebrosus Mulsant, 1850, p. 989.—Casey, 1899, p. 148.—Leng, 1920, p.213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p.166.—Wingo, 1952, p.40.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 30.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 137.
Scymnus tenebrosus: LeConte, 1852, p. 140.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 268.—Horn, 1895, - p. 106.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 137.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 140 . Scymnus (P.) falli. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 141 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) falli (star); S. P. solidus (peripheral localities dotted).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) Salli Gordon
Fig. 140 a-e; Map, Fig. 141

Scymnus (Pullus) falli Gordon, 1976b, p. 140.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 140.

Additional locality record: CALIFORNIA: Ventura Co., Santa Barbara Island.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 142 . Scymnus (P.) solidus. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) solidus Casey
Fig. 142 a-d; Map, Fig. 141

Scymnus (Pullus) solidus Casey, 1899, p. 145.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 143.
Scymnus (Pullus) blaisdelli Casey, 1899, p. I 47.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 155.—Hatch, 1961, p. 150.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 143.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 143.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig 143 . Scymnus (P.) garlandicus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________
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#___________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 144 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) garlandicus (star); S. (P.) jacobianus (dot).
#___________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) garlandicus Casey
Fig. 143 a-d; Map, Fig. 144

Scymnus (Pullus) garlandicus Casey, 1899, p. 147.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 145.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 145.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig.145 . Scymnus (P.) jacobianus. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) jacobianus Casey
Fig. 145 a-d; Map, Fig. 144

Scymnus (Pullus) jacobianus Casey, 1899, p. 148.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 148.
Scymnus (Pullus) jacinto Casey, 1899, p. 148.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 148.
Scymnus (Pullus) extricatus Casey, 1899, p. l 48.—Leng, 1920, p.213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 148.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 148.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 146 Scymnus (P.) humboldti. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) humboldti Casey
Fig. 146 a-d; Map, Fig. 147

Scymnus (Pullus) humboldti Casey, 1899, p. 146.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 150.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 150.

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#___________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 147 . Distribution, Scymnus (P.) humboldti (disjunct locality dotted).
#___________________________________________________________________________

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 148 . Scymnus (P.) barberi. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) barberi Gordon
Fig. 148 a-d; Map, Fig. 149

Scymnus (Pullus) barberi Gordon, 1 976b, p. 153.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 153

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#_____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 149 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) barberi (star), S. (P.) iowensis (dot).
#_____________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) iowensis Casey
Fig. 15 Oa-d; Map, Fig. 149

Scymnus (Pullus) iowensis Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Wingo, 1952, p. 41.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 156.
Scymnus collaris Melsheimer, 1847, p. 180 (not Herbst, 1797).—LeConte, 1852, p. 141.—Mulsant, 1856, p. 152.—Horn, 1895, p. 103.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 529.— Weise, 1929, p. 33.
Scymnus (Pullus) collaris: Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.
Scymnus melsheimeri Weise, 1929, p. 33 (replacement name).

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 156.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 150 . Scymnus (P.) iowensis. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 151 . Scymnus(P.) calaveras. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) calaveras Casey
Fig. 51 a-d; Map, Fig. 152

Scymnus(Pullus) calaveras Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Bowditch, 1902,p.207.—Casey, 1910, p. 110.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 155.—Malkin, 1943b, p. 193.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.—Belicek, 1976, p. 306.
Scymnus(Pullus)saginatus Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Leng,1920,p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.

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#___________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 152 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) calaveras (disjunct locality dotted).
#___________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) strenuus Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Malkin, 1943b, p. 194.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.
Scymnus (Pullus) stygicus Casey, 1899, p. 151.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.
Scymnus (Pullus) tenuivestis Casey, 1899, p. 151.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.
Scymnus (Pullus) calaveras ab. tenuivestis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.
For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 159.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 153 . Scymnus (P.) majus. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) majus, new name
Fig. 153 a-d

Scymnus (Pullus) majusculus Wingo, 1952, p. 40.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 163 (not Scymnus (Pullus) majusculus Mader, 1950).

Diagnosis.
Description and distribution.—See Gordon ( 1 976b). It has been pointed out to me by Herbert Dozier that the name majusculus Wingo, 1952,
is a homonym of majusculus Mader, 1950. I therefore propose the name majus, a Latin adjective referring to the large size, for this species.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 154 . Scymnus (P.) ignarus. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) ignarus Gordon
Fig. 154 a-d; Map, Fig. 155

Scymnus (Pullus) ignarus Gordon, 1976b, p. 163.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 163.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 155 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) ignarus (star); S. (P.) monticola (rectangle); S. (P.) utahensis (dot).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) monticola Casey
Fig. 155

Scymnus (Pullus) monticola Casey, 1899, p. 146.—Leng, 1920, p. 21 3.—Korschefsky, 1931, p 162.—Gordon, 1 976b, p. 165.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 165.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig 156 . Scymnus (P.) utahensis. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) utahensis Gordon
Fig. 156 a-d; Map, Fig. 155

Scymnus (Pullus) utahensis Gordon, 1976b, p. 165.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 165. Additional locality records: OREGON: Harney Co.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 157 . Scymnus (P.) renoicus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) renoicus Casey
Fig. 157 a-d; Map, Fig. 158

Scymnus (Pullus) rejoices Casey, 1899, p. 149.—Bowditch, 1902, p. 207.—Leng, 1920,p.213.—Korschefsky,1931,p.161.—Hatch,1961,p.151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 169.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 169.
Additional locality records: IDAHO: Rupert. UTAH: Millard Co., Hawbush Dunes, SE Delta.

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 158 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) renoicus (star), S. (P.) horni (shaded, peripheral localities dotted).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) horni Gorham
Fig. 159 a-d; Map, Fig. 158

Scymnus (Pullus) horni Gorham, 1897, p. 229.—Casey, 1899, p. 144.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 172.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 172.
Additional locality records: TEXAS: Brewster Co., Marathon; Culberson Co., SE Van Horn; Garza Co. 2 mi. N. Justiceburg; Hudspeth Co. 10 mi. S. Cornudas.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 159 . Scymnus (P.) horni. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 160 Scymnus (P.) mormon. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) mormon Casey
Fig. 160 a-d; Map, Fig. 161

Scymnus (Pullus) mormon Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Casey, 1924, p. 176.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 175.
Scymnus (Pullus) subsimilis Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Casey, 1910, p. 109.—Casey, 1924, p. 176.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 175.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 161 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) mormon.
#_____________________________________________

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#____________________________________________
Fig. 162 . Scymnus (P.) ardelio. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) ardelio Horn
Fig. 162 a-d; Map, Fig. 163

Scymnus ardelio Horn, 1895, p. 105.
Scymnus (Pullus) ardelio: Casey, 1899, p. 148.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Hatch, 1961, p. 50.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 177.—Belicek, 1976, p. 305.
Scymnus (Pullus) apacheanus Casey, 1899, p. 146.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 177.
Scymnus (Pullus) decipiens Casey, 1899, p. 147 (not Weise, 1885).—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 177.
Scymnus sanctus Weise, 1929, p. 33 (new name for decipiens Casey).—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 177.
Additional locality records: IDAHO: Tuttle. NEW MEXICO: Lea Co., 8 mi. E. Lovington. TEXAS: Culberson Co., 13 mi. W. Van Horn; Pecos Co., 6 mi. N. Pyote.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 163 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) ardelio.
#_______________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 164 . Scymnus (P.) erythronotum. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) erythronotum Gordon
Fig. 164 a-d; Map, Fig. 165

Scymnus (Pullus) erythronotum Gordon, 1976b, p. 181.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 181.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig 165 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) erythronotum.
#__________________________________________________

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 166 . Scymnus (P.) Aridus. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) aridus Casey
Fig. 166 a-d; Map, Fig. 167

Scymnus(Pullus)aridus Casey, 1899,p. 146.—Casey, 1924,p. 176.—Leng, 1920,p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 184.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 184.
Additional locality records: UTAH: San Juan Co., 26 mi. S. Hanksville.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 167 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) andus.
#____________________________________________

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 168 . Scymnus (P.) aridoides. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) aridoides Gordon
Fig. 168 a-d, Map, Fig. 169

Scymnus (Pullus) aridoides Gordon, 1976b, p. 187.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 187.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 169 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) aridoides.
#________________________________________________

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 170 . Scymnus (P.) consobrinus. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) consobrinus LeConte
Fig. 170 a-d; Map, Fig. 171

Scymnus consobrinus LeConte, 1852,p. 139.—Horn, 1895,p. 103.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 266.
Scymnus (Pullus) consobrinus: Mulsant, 1853, p. 153.—Casey, 1899, p. 142.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.—Wingo, 1952, p. 42.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 190.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 190.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 171 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) consobrinus.
#__________________________________________________

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 172 . Scymnus (P.) mendocino. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) mendocino Casey
Fig. 172 a-d; Map, Fig. 173

Scymnus (Pullus) mendocino Casey, 1899, p. 151.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 193.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 193.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 173 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) mendocino.
#________________________________________________

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 174 , Scymnus (P.) cockerelli. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) cockerelli Casey
Fig. 174 a-d; Map, Fig. 175

Scymnus(Pullus)cockerelliCasey, 1 899, p. 144.—Leng, 1 920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 196.
Scymnus mimes Fall, 1901, p. 234.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 196.
Scymnus (Pullus) mimes: Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 196.
Additional locality record: UTAH: Leeds.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 175 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) cockerellf (dot); S. (P.) carri (star).
#_____________________________________________________________________________

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 176 . Scymnus (P.) carry. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) carri Gordon
Fig. 176 a-d; Map, Fig. 175

Scymnus (Pullus) carri Gordon, 1976b, p. 199.—Belicek, 1976, p. 304.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 199.


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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 177 . Scymnus (P.) negator. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) nugator Casey
Fig. 177 a-d; Map, Fig. 178

Scymnus(Pullus)nugator Casey, 1 899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.— 1931, p. 163.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 199.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 199.


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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 178 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) nugator.
#______________________________________________

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig 179 . Scymnus(P.) neomexicanus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) neomexicanus Gordon
Fig. 179 a-d; Map, Fig. 180

Scymnus (Pullus) neomexicanus Gordon, 1976b, p. 203.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 203.

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#_______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 180 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) neomexicanus (star), S. P. nuttingi (dot).
#_______________________________________________________________________________

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 181 . Scymnus (P.) nuttingi. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) nuttingi Gordon
Fig. 181 a-d; Map, Fig. 180

Scymnus (Pullus) nuttingi Gordon, 1976b, p. 204.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 204.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 182 . Scymnus (P.) compar. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) compar Casey
Fig. 182 a-d; Map, Fig. 183

Scymnus (Pullus) compar Casey, 1899, p. 148.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 33.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 206.
Scymnus (Pullus) vicksburgicus Casey, 1924, p. 175.—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 206. Scymnus(Pullus) impunctusWingo, 1952, p. 35.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 33.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 207.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 206.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 183 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) compar.
#_____________________________________________

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 184 . Scymnus (P.) impletus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) impletus Gordon
Fig. 184 a-d; Map, Fig. 185

Scymnus (Pullus) impletus Gordon, 1976b, p. 209.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 209.

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 185 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) impletus (shaded, peripheral localities dotted), S. (P.) simulans (star), S. (P.) wingoi (rectangle).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#________________________________________
##Fig. 186 , Scymnus (P.) simulans. a. b.
#________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) simulans Gordon
Fig. 186 a, b; Map, Fig. 185

Scymnus (Pullus) simulans Gordon, 1976b, p. 214.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 214.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 187 . Scymnus (P.) wingoi. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) wingoi Gordon
Fig. 187 a-d; Map, Fig. 185

Scymnus (Pullus) wingoi Gordon, 1976b, p. 215.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 215.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 188 . Scymnus (P.) abbreviatus. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) abbreviatus LeConte
Fig. 188 a-d; Map, Fig. 189

Scymnus abbreviatus LeConte, 1852, p. 140.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 268.—Horn, 1895, p. 104.

Scymnus (Pullus) abbreviatus: Casey, 1899, p. 153.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 193 1, p. 153.—Gordon, 1 976b, p. 216.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 216.

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 189 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) abbreviatus.
#_________________________________________________

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 190 . Scymnus (P.) tenebricus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) tenebricus Gordon
Fig. l90a-d; Map, Fig. 191

Scymnus (Pullus) tenebricus Gordon, 1976b, p. 220.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 220.


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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 191 . Distribution, Scymnus (P.) tenebricus.
#_________________________________________________


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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 192 . Scymnus (P.) wickhami. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) wickhami Gordon
Fig. 192 a-d; Map, Fig. 193

Scymnus (Pullus) wickhami Gordon, 1976b, p. 223.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 223.

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#_______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 193 . Distribution, Scymnus (P.) wickhami (dot); S. (P.) elusivus (star).
#_______________________________________________________________________________

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 194 . Scymnus (P.) elusivus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) elusivus Gordon
Fig. 194 a-d; Map, Fig. 193

Scymnus (Pullus) elusivus Gordon, 1976b, p. 226.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 226.
Additional locality record: CALIFORNIA: San Diego Co., Julian.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 195 . Scymnus (P.) uteanus. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) uteanus Casey
Fig. 195 a-d; Map, Fig. 196

Scymnus (Pullus) uteanus Casey, 1899, p. 144.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 226.

Scymnus (Pullus) rhesus Casey, 1899, p. 144.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 228.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 226.

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#___________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 196 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) uteanus (dot); S. (P.) papago (star).
#___________________________________________________________________________


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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 197 . Scymnus (P.) papago. a. b.
#_____________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) papago Casey
Fig. 197 a, b; Map,, Fig. 196

Scymnus (Pullus) papago Casey, 1899, p. 151.—Leng, l 92O7 p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 230.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 230.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 198 . Scymnus (P.) Incus. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) uncus Wingo
Fig. 198 a-d; Map, Fig. 199

Scymnus (Pullus) uncus Wingo, 1952, p. 38.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 32.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 232.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 232.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 199 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) uncus.
#____________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 200 . Scymnus (P.) puncticollis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________________


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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 201 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) puncticollis.
#___________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis LeConte
Fig. 200 a-d; Map, Fig. 201

Scymnus puncticollis LeConte, 1852, p. 139.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 266.—Hom, 1895, p. 102.

Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis: Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 1920, p. 133.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Wingo, 1952, p. 37.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 31.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 232.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 232.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig 202 . Scymnus (P.) weidti. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) weidti Casey
Fig. 202 a-d; Map, Fig. 203

Scymnus (Pullus) weidti Casey, 1899, p. 149.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Casey, 1924, p.

176.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 237.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 237.

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#_______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 203 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) weidti (dot); S. (P.) aquilonarius (star).
#_______________________________________________________________________________

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 204 Scymnus (P.) aquilonarius. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) aquilonarius Gordon
Fig. 204 a-d; Map, Fig. 203

Scymnus (Pullus) aquilonarius Gordon, 1976b, p. 240.—Belicek, 1976, p 305.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 240.

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#______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 205 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) martini (star); S. (P.) hesperius (dot).
#______________________________________________________________________________

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 206 . Scymnus (P.) martini. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) martini Gordon
Fig. 206 a-d; Map, Fig. 205

Scymnus (Pullus) martini Gordon, 1976b, p. 240.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 240.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 207 . Scymnus (P.) hesperius. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) hesperius Gordon
Fig. 207 a-d; Map, Fig 205

Scymnus (Pullus) hesperius Gordon, 1976b, p. 243.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 243.
Additional locality record: CALIFORNIA: Eldorado Co., Pollock Pines.


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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 208 . Scymnus (P.) luctuosus. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) luctuosus Casey
Fig. 208 a-d; Map, Fig. 209

Scymnus (Pullus) luctuosus Casey, 1899, p.146.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 245.

Scymnus (Pullus) sonomae Casey, 1899, p. l 47.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 245.

Scymnus (Pullus) advena Casey, 1899, p. 147.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 245.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 245.

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#________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 209 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) luctuosus (dot); S. (P.) nevadensis (star).
#________________________________________________________________________________

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 210 . Scymnus (P.) nevadensis. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) nevadensis Weise
Fig. 210 a-d; Map, Fig. 209

Scymnus nevadensis Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Leng and Mutchler, 1933, p. 35.
Scymnus(Scymnus) nevadensis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163.—Gordon, 1976b, p.248.
Scymnus (Scymnus) innocuus Casey, 1899, p. 154 (not Boheman, 1859).—Leng, 1920, p. 214.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 248.

Scymnus (Pullus) lacustris LeConte
Fig. 211 a-d; Map, Fig. 212

Scymnus lacustris LeConte, 1850, p. 239.—LeConte, 1852, p. 140.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 268.—Horn, 1895, p. 105.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 211 . Scymnus (P.) lacustris. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) lacustris: Mulsant, 1850, p. 989.—Mulsant, 1853, p. 153.—Casey, 1899, p. 149.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Hatch, 1961, p. 151.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 250.—Belicek, 1976, p. 305.
Scymnus (Pullus) cultratus Wingo, 1952, p. 38.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 250.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 250.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 212 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) lacustris.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) tahoensis Casey
Fig. 213 a-h; Map, Fig. 214

Scymnus (Pullus) tahoensis Casey, 1899, p. 150.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 253.—Belicek, 1976, p. 305.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 253.

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#__________________________________________________________
##Fig. 213 . Scymnus (P.) tahoensis. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
#__________________________________________________________

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 214 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) tahoensis.
#________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte
Fig. 215 a-d; Map, Fig. 216

Scymnus caudalis LeConte, 1850, p. 238.—LeConte, 1852, p. 139.—Horn, 1895, p. 103.
Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte: Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 256.
Scymnus (Pullus) natchezianus Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 256.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 215 . Scymnus (P.) caudalis. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________


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#__________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 216 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) caudalis (dot); S. (P.) peninsularis (star).
#__________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) indutus Casey, 1899, p. 145.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 256.
Scymnus (Pullus) agricola Casey, 1899, p. 145.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 256.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 256.

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 217 . Scymnus (P.) peninsularis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) peninsularis Gordon
Fig. 217 a-d; Map, Fig. 216

Scymnus (Pullus) peninsularis Gordon, 1976b, p. 259.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 259.


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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 218 . Scymnus (P.) creperus. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) creperus Mulsant
Fig. 218 a-d; Map, Fig. 219

Scymnus (Pullus) creperus Mulsant, 1850, p. 985.—Mulsant, 1853, p. 153.—Casey, 1899,p. 140.—Leng, 1920,p.213.—Korschefsky, 1931,p. 157.—J.Chapin, 1974, p. 28.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 260.
Scymnus creperus: LeConte, 1852, p. 139.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 265.—Horn, 1895, p. 101.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig.219 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) creperus (peripheral localities dotted).
#_____________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) medionotans Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 29.
Scymnus (Pullus) subtropicus Casey, 1899, p. 143.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 29.
Scymnus (Pullus) hortensis Wingo, 1952, p. 36.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 29.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 260.
Additional locality records: TEXAS: Garza Co., 2 ml. N. Justiceburg.
VIRGINIA: Virginia Beach.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 220 . Scymnus (P.) bryanti. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) bryanti Gordon
Fig. 220 a-d; Map, Fig. 221

Scymnus (Pullus) bryanti Gordon, 1976b, p. 263.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 263.

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 221 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) bryanti (dot); S. (P.) howdeni (star); S. (P.) hubbardi (rectangle); S. (P.) huachucha (open circle).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 222 . Scymnus (P.) howdeni. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) howdeni Gordon
Fig. 222 a-d; Map, Fig. 221

Scymnus (Pullus) howdeni Gordon, 1976b, p. 265.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 265.

Scymnus (Pullus) hubbardi Gordon
Fig. 223 a-d; Map, Fig. 221

Scymnus (Pullus) hubbardi Gordon, 1976b, p. 268.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 268.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 223 . Scymnus (P.) hubbardi. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________


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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 224 . Scymnus (P.) huachucha. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) huachuca Gordon
Fig. 224 a-d; Map, Fig. 221

Scymnus (Pullus) huachuca Gordon, 1976b, p. 269.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 269.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 225 . Scymnus (P.) brullei. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) brullei Mulsant
Fig. 225 a-h; Map, Fig. 226

Scymnus (Pullus) brullei Mulsant, 1850, p. 984.—Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 155.—Wingo, 1952, p 33.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 26.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 270.

Scymnus brullei: Crotch, 1874b, p. 264.—Horn, 1895, p. 101.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 226 . Distnbution. Scymnus (P.) brullei.
#_____________________________________________


Scymnus (Pullus) hemorrhous var. divisus Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p.213.—
Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Wingo, 1952, p. 33.
Scymnus (Pullus) hemorrhous var. laurenticus Casey, 1899, p. 140.—Leng, 1920, p
213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Wingo, 1952, p. 33.
Scymnus (Pullus) hemorrhous var. subaeneus Casey, 1899, p. 141.—Leng, 1920, p.
213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.—Wingo, 1952, p. 33.
Scymnus (Pullus) lodi Stehr, 1946, p. 80.—Wingo, 1952, p. 30.—Gordon, 1970b, p
270.

For detailed synonymy, description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 270.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig 227 . Scymnus (P.) securus. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Scymnus (Pullus) secures J. Chapin
Fig. 227 a-b; Map, Fig. 228

Scymnus (Pullus) securus J. Chapin, 1973, p. 1072.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 25.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 275.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 275.
Additional locality record: ONTARIO: Kent Co., Tilbury.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 228 . Distribution. Scymnus (P.) securus.
#______________________________________________


Genus Nephus Mulsant

Scymnus (Nephus) Mulsant, 1846, p. 237.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 958.—Casey, 1899, p. 167.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 116.—Mader, 1950, p. 60.—Wingo, 1952, p. 19.— Bielewski, 1959, p. 49.—Arnett, 1963, p. 812.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 33. Typespecies; Sphaeridium quadrimaculatum Herbst, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.
Nephus: Pope, 1957, p. 309.—Chapin, 1965, p. 200.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 276.— Belicek, 1976, p. 306.

Scymnini with antenna 10 or 11-segmented, basal 2 segments fused or not (Figs. 229a-f).
Prosternum lacking intercoxal carinae except short carina often present

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adjacent to coxal cavity, not extending anterior to cavity (Fig. 229 g).
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna;
Postcoxal line on first sternum incomplete, nearly reaching lateral margin, apical end either parallel to hind margin of sternum or recurved toward basal margin (Fig. 229 hj).
Tarsus 3-segmented.
Female genitalia lacking infundibulum, genital plate long, narrow, triangular (Fig. 229 k);
male genitalia simple, basal lobe asymmetrical or symmetrical.

The genus Nephus was revised in detail by Gordon (1976b), therefore, only additional locality records and some necessary corrections in synonymy are included for each species, and one additional species is described.

KEY TO SUBGENERA OF Nephus

1. Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum parallel to hind margin of sternum, at most with only extreme apex curved forward (Fig. 229 j); antenna 10-segmented, basal 2 segments tightly joined (Fig. 229 d) .... 2
- Postcoxal line not completely parallel to hind margin of sternum, definitely curved forward apically (Fig. 229 h, i) .... 3
2(1). Body dorsoventrally flattened (Fig. 255 f); antenna short, club oval (Fig. 229 f) .... Depressoscymnus Gordon
- Body not dorsoventrally flattened; antenna of normal length, club with inner margin of segments discontinous (Fig. 229 d) .... Scymnobius Casey
3(1). Postcoxal line strongly curved forward along lateral border of first sternum, extending onto basal half of sternum .... Sidis Mulsant
- Postcoxal line not extending onto basal half of sternum, gently curved forward apically .... 4
4(3). Antenna 11-segmented (Fig. 229 b) .... Nephus Mulsant
- Antenna 10-segmented (Fig. 229 e) .... Turbocymnus Gordon

Subgenus Nephus Mulsant

Nephus Mulsant, 1846, p. 237.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 958.—Casey, 1899, p. 167.— Wingo, 1952, p. 19.—Bielawski, 1959, p. 49.—Arnett, 1963, p. 812.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 278.—Belicek, 1976, p. 306. Type-species; Sphaeridium quadrimaculatum Herbst, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Antenna 11-segmented, basal 2 segments fused or at least tightly joined (Fig. 229 b).
Abdomen with Postcoxal line incomplete, distinctly curved forward epically, not parallel to hind margin of first sternum (Fig. 229 h).

KEY TO SUBSPECIES OF Nephus (Nephus) ornatus (LECONTE)

1. Elytron with irregular, elongate, yellow spot (Fig. 232 ); north of New England, west and north of the Great Lakes .... ornatus naviculatus (Casey)- Elytron with 2 large, yellow spots (Fig. 230 f); New England west to Great Lakes .... ornatus ornatus (LeConte)

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 229 . a-f. Antennae. a. Nephus (Nephus) quadrimaculatus. b. Nephus (Nephus) ornatus ornatus.
## c. Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus. d. Nephus (Scymnobius) sordidus. e. Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei.
## f. Nephus (Depressoscymnus) schwarzi. g. Prosternum of Nephus sp. h. Postcoxal line of Nephus (N.) ornatus ornatus.
## i. Postcoxal line of Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei. j. Postcoxal line of Nephus (Scymnobius sp.). k.
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________________
##Fig. 230 . Nephus (N.) ornatus ornatus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#_________________________________________________________


Nephus (Nephus) ornatus ornatus (LeConte)
Fig. 230 a-f; Map, Fig. 231

Scymnus ornatus LeConte, 1850, p. 239.—LeConte, 1852, p. 135.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 260.—Horn, 1895, p. 94.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) ornatus: Casey, 1899, p. 155.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) ornatus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) sanguinifer Casey, 1899, p. 155.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) sanguinifer Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. p. 280.
Scymnus frosti Casey, 1924, p. 171.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 280.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig.231 . Distrbution. Nephus (N.) ornatus ornatus (star); N. (N.) ornatus naviculatus (dot).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Nephus ornatus: Belicek, 1976, p. 307.
Nephus (Nephus) ornatus ornatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 280.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 280.

Nephus (Nephus) ornatus naviculatus (Casey)
Fig. 232 ; Map, fig. 231

Scymnus (Scymnobius) naviculatus Casey, 1899, p. 155.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) naviculatus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 163.
Scymnus (Scymnus) kincaidi Hatch, 1961, p. 152.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 282.
Nephus (Nephus) ornatus naviculatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 282.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 282.

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 232 . Nephus (N.) naviculatus.
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Subgenus Sidis Mulsant

Scymnus (Sidis) Mulsant, 1850, p. 975.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 117.—Bielawski, 1959, p. 42.—Fursch, 1960, p. 305.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 282. Type-species: Scymnus (Sidis) binaevatus Mulsant, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931. Nephus (Sidis): Gordon, 1976b, p. 282.

Antenna 10-segmented, large basal segment undivided (Fig. 229 c); apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, obliquely truncate epically.
Postcoxal line on 1st abdominal sternum incomplete, nearly reaching lateral margin, curved forward parallel to lateral margin.
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical (Fig. 233 a);
spermathecal capsule of female divided into spindle-shaped nodulus and annotated cornu, accessory gland opening at middle of nodus (Fig. 233 e).

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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 233 Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus. a. b. c. d. e.
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Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus (Mulsant)
Fig. 233 a-e; Map, Fig. 234

Scymnus (Sidis) binaevatus Mulsant, 1850, p. 975.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 150. Mader, 1950, p. 121.—Pope, 1957, p. 295.
Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 284.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 284.
Additional locality records: CALIFORNIA: San Mateo Co., Daly City.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig 234 . Distribution. Nephus (Sidis) binaevatus.
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Subgenus Turboscymnus Gordon

Turboscymnus Gordon, 1976b, p. 287. Type-species: Scymnus georgei Weise, by monotypy.

Antenna 10-segmented, one large basal segment present showing slight indication of fusion (Fig. 229 e);
apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, obliquely truncate epically.
Postcoxal line on 1st abdominal sternum curved throughout, apical end approaching lateral border of sternum, curved forward (Fig. 229 i).
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical;
female spermathecal capsule feebly curved medially (Fig. 235 e).

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#________________________________________________________
##Fig. 235 . Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei. a. b. c. d. e.
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#_______________________________________________________
##Fig. 236 . Distribution. Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei.
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Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei (Weise)
Fig. 235 a-e; Map, Fig. 236

Scymnus bisignatus Horn, 1895, p. 92. - (not Boheman, 1859).—Weise, 1929, p. 33.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) bisignatus: Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus georgei Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.
Scymnus (Scymnus) bisignatus: Hatch, 1961, p. 153.
Nephus georgei: Belicek, 1976, p. 307.
Nephus (Turboscymnus) georgei (Weise): Gordon, 1976b, p. 287.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 287.

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Subgenus Scymnobius Casey

Scymnus (Scymnobius) Casey, 1899, p. 139.—Weise, 1905, p. 220.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 116.—Hatch, 1961, p. 153.—Arnett, 1963, p. 812.— Gordon, 1976, p. 290.—Type-species; Scymnusflavifrons Melsheimer, by subsequentdesignationofGordon, 1976b.
Nephus (Scymnobius): Gordon, 1976b, p. 290.

Antenna 10-segmented, basal 2 segments very tightly joined (Fig. 229 d);
apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical, obliquely truncate Epically.
Postcoxal line on 1st abdominal sternum running parallel to hind margin of sternum, not reaching lateral margin,
apex may be slightly curved forward.
Male genitalia with basal lobe symmetrical or asymmetrical;
female spermathecal capsule bent or curved at approximately a right angle (Fig. 237 e).

KEY TO SPECIES OF Nephus (Scymnobius)

1. Elytron entirely or mostly light yellow or brown .... 7
- Elytron entirely black or at least dark, often with yellow areas or spots .... 2
2(1). Elytron entirely black; pronotum reddish yellow .... gordoni (Dozier)
- Elytron not entirely black, or if so, then pronotum not entirely reddish yellow .... 3
3(2). Elytron completely black or with 2 yellow spots (Fig. 243 f) or with one yellow spot (Fig. 243 g) or with 2 spots feebly connected (Fig. 243 h) California and Oregon .... atramentarius (Boheman)
- Elytron not as described above, or if so, not occurring in California or Oregon .... 4
4(3). Elytron with 2 yellow spots; Arizona .... quadrarius (Casey)
- Elytron variable but never with 2 distinctly defined, yellow spots .... 5
5(4). Elytron with a more or less rounded, yellow or reddish yellow spot on apical half .... 6
- Elytron with 2 irregularly transverse yellow areas (Figs. 24 1 e, f), areas often obscurely connected medially .... guttulatus (LeConte)
6(5). Form nearly round; pronotum entirely reddish yellow or with only a small, basal area darkened; Florida .... bivulnerus (Horn)
- Form elongate; pronotum usually entirely black or with antero-lateral angle narrowly pale; not restricted to Florida .... flavifrons (Melsheimer)
7(1). Elytron dark brown in basal l, apical paler brownish red (Fig. 252 a) .... timberlakei, n. sp.
- Elytron unicolorous or with only sutural margin darkened .... 8
8(7). Form short, rounded; pronotum distinctly paler than elytron .... wickhami Gordon
- Form elongate, narrow, pronotum and base of elytron unicolorous .... 9
9(3). Occuring in eastern United States from Atlantic Coast to eastern Texas .... intrusus (Horn)
- Occuring in western United States from Pacific Coast to western Texas, Colorado and Idaho .... sordidus (Horn)

Nephus (Scymnobius)flavifrons (Melsheimer)
Fig. 237 a-f; Map, Fig. 238

Scymnus flavifrons Melsheimer, 1847, p. 181.—LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 261.—Horn, 1895, p. 93.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 526.
Scymnus (Scymnobius)flavifrons: Casey, 1899, p. 155—Leng, 1920, p. 214.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 237 . Nephus (S.) flavifrons. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________________

Scymnus (Nephus)flavifrons: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—J. Chapin, 1974, p.34.
Scymnus (Nephus) bioculatus Mulsant, 1850, p. 960.
Scymnus bioculatus: LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p 261.
Scymnusfllavifrons var. bioculatus: Horn, 1895, p. 93.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) bioculatus: Casey, 1899, p. 155.
Scymnus (Nephus)Jlavi^Srons ab. bioculatus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.
Scymnus (Nephus) bioculatus guttiger Mulsant, 1850, p. 961.

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 238 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) flavifrons (peripheral and disjunct localities dotted).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus bioculatus var. guttiger: Horn, 1895, p. 93.
Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons ab. guttiger Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.
Scymnus (Nephus) bioculatus marginellus Mulsant, 1850, p. 961.
Scymnus bioculatus var. marginellus: Horn, 1895, p. 93.
Scymnus (Nephus) flavifrons marginellus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.
Scymnus ludovicianus Casey, 1924, p. 172.—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 34.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 292.
Nephus (Scymnobius) flavifrons: Gordon, 1976b, p. 292.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 292.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 239 . Nephus (S.) bivulnerus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) bivulnerus (Horn)
Fig. 239 a-f; Map, Fig. 240

Scymnus bivulnerus Horn, 1895, p. 92.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) bivulnerus: Casey, 1899, p. 155.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) bivulnerus: Korschefsky, 193 1, p. 155.
Nephus (Scymnobius) bivulnerus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 295.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 295.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 240 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) bivulnerus.
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#_________________________________
##Fig 241 . Nephus (S.) guttulatus.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) guttulatus (LeConte)
Fig. 241 a-g; Map, Fig. 242

Scymnus guttulatus LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 261.—Horn, 1895, p. 95.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) guttulatus: Casey, 1899, p 155.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) guttulatus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 159.
Scymnus coloradensis Horn, 1895, p. 94.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Gordon, 1976b, 298.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) coloradensis: Casey, l899, p. 156.
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#_______________________________________________
##Fig.242 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) guttulatus.
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Scymnus (Nephus) coloradensis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 156
Scymnus (Scymnobius) scitus Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 16S.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 298.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) suavis Casey, 1899, p. 1 S6.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 298.
Scymnus (Nephus) suavis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.
Nephus (Scymnobius) guttulatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 298.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 299.
Additional locality records: CALIFORNIA: San Diego Co., Mouth of Tijuana R.;
San Luis Obispo Co., Oceano, Dune Lakes 3 mi. S.
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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 243 . Nephus (S.) atramentarius.
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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 244 . Distibution . Nephus (S.) atramentarius.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) atramentarius (Boheman)
Fig. 243 a-h; Map, Fig. 244

Scymnus atramentarius Boheman, 1859, p.207.—Leng, 1920, p.214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) maculatus Hatch, 1961, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 302.
Nephus (Scymnobius) atramentarius: Gordon, 1976b, p. 301.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 301. Additional locality record: IDAHO: Caribou Co., Soda Springs

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 245 . Nephus (S.) quadrarius.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) quadrarius (Casey) Fig. 245 a-e; Map, Fig. 246
Scymnus quadrarius Casey, 1924, p. 173.—Leng, and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.
Scymnus schuberti Nunenmacher, 1934a, p. 17.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 303.
Nephus (Scymnobius) quadrarius: Gordon, 1976b, p. 303.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 303. Additonal locality record: ARIZONA: Santa Cruz Co., Madera Canyon.
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#_______________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 246 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) quadrarius (dot); N. (S.) wickhami (star).
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#________________________________
##Fig. 247 . Nephus (S.) wickhami.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) wickhami Gordon
Fig. 247 a-d; Map, Fig. 246

Nephus (Scymnobius) wickhami Gordon, 1976b, p. 306.
For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 306.
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#________________________________
##Fig. 248 . Nephus (S.) sordidus.
#________________________________

Nephus (Scymnobius) sordidus (Horn)
Fig. 248 a-e; Map, Fig. 249

Scymnus sordidus Horn, 1895, p. 93.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) sordidus: Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, p. 214,
Scymnus (Nephus) sordidus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) intrusoides Hatch, 1961, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 309.
Nephus sordidus: Belicek, 1 976, p. 307.
Nephus (Scymnobius) sordidus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 309.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 309. Additional locality records: CALIFORNIA: Imperial Co., Glamis; Riverside Co., Rice Dunes; San Diego, Co., mouth of Tijuana R.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 249 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) sordidus.
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#________________________________
##Fig. 250 . Nephus (S.) intrusus.
#________________________________

Nephus (Scymnobius) intrusus (Horn) Fig. 250 a-b; Fig. 251 c-e; Map, Fig. 253

Scymnus intrusus Horn, 1895, p. 92.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 526.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) intrusus: Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Nephus) intrusus: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 34.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) inops: Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 312.
Scymnus (Nephus) inops: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.
Nephus (Scymnobius) intrusus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 312.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 312. Additional locality records: TEXAS: Jones Co., 2 ml. w. Noodle; Tom Green Co., 16 ml. NE San Angelo.
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#________________________________
##Fig. 251 . Nephus (S.) intrusus.
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#___________________________________
##Fig. 252 . Nephus (S.) timberlakei.
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Nephus (Scymnobius) timberlakei, new species
Fig. 252 a, b

Description.
Female, length 1.66 mm, width 1.22 mm.
Oval, elongate.
Color brownish red, elytron dark brown in basal l/2, dark brown area blended into brownish red of apical (Fig. 252 a),
mesa- and metasterna dark brown.
Punctures on head and pronotum extremely fine, nearly invisible.
Elytron slightly dull, surface alutaceous, coarsely punctured, punctures separated by one to 3 times a diameter;
pubescence yellowish white, semi-erect, arranged in S-curve.
Postcoxal line parallel, widely separated from hind margin of 1st sternum, not approaching lateral margin.
Apex of 6th sternum barely perceptibly emarginate.
Female genitalia as in Figure 252 b.

Variation. Length 1.66 to 2.0 mm; width 1.22 to 1.33 mm.

Holotype.
Female. TEXAS: Brownsville, Apr. 21, '15, Timberlake Coll., Salt Lake Lab No. 9682. USNM (101332).

Paratypes.
Total 3. Same data as holotype except collection dates Apr. 4, '15; Apr. 20, '15; Apr. 21, '15. (UCR) (USNM).

This species most closely resembles N. intrusus, but N. timberlakei is larger and has the elytron bicolored.
No males were available for study, so the genitalic affinities remain unknown.
I name this species for P. H. Timberlake who first identified it as an undescribed species,
in recognition of his fine work in the Coccinellidae.
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#____________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 253 . Distribution. Nephus (S.) intrusus (dot); N. (S.) gordoni (star).
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#______________________________
##Fig 254 . Nephus (S.) gordoni.
#______________________________

Nephus (Scymnobius) gordoni (Dozier)
Fig. 254 a-e; Map, Fig. 253

Scymnus (Scymnobius) gordoni Dozier, 1971, p. 87.
Nephus (Scymnobius) gordoni: Gordon, 1 976b, p. 315.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p 315. Additional locality record: SOUTH CAROLINA: 7 mi. NE Pickens.

Subgenus Depressoscymnus Gordon

Depressoscymnus Gordon, 1976b, p. 315. Type-species; Nephus (Depressoscymnus) schwarzi, by monotypy.

Antenna short, 10-segmented, basal 2 segments tightly joined, club broad, oval outer margin of segments nearly continuous (Fig. 229 f);
apical segment of maxillary

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 255 . Nephus (Depressoscymnus) schwarzi.
#______________________________________________

palpus distinctly securiform.
Body flattened dorsoventrally (Fig. 255 f).
Postcoxal line as in Scymnobius.
Male genitalia symmetrical;
spermathecal capsule of female of the Scymnobius type.

Nephus (Depressoscymnus) schwarzi Gordon
Fig. 255 a-f; Map, Fig. 256

Nephus (Depressoscymnus) schwarzi Gordon, 1976b, p. 315.
For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 315. Additional locality record: ARIZONA: Pima Co., Molino Basin, Mt. Lemmon Hwy., 4,400'

Genus Diomus Mulsant
Scymnus (Diomus) Mulsant, 185O, p. 951.—Gorham, 1897, p. 226.—Casey, 1899, p. 139.—Leng,1920,p.213.—Korschefsky,1931,p. 116.—Mader, 1955,p.955.— Wingo, 1952, p. 19.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 35. Diomus: Weise, 1885a, p. 83.—Mader, 1924, p. 8.—Chapin, 1933, p. 95.—Pope,

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#___________________________________________________________
##Fig. 256 . Distribution. Nephus (Depressoscymnus) Schwartz.
#___________________________________________________________

1957, p. 3 1 1.—Gordon, 1 976b, p. 3 19.

Type-species: Coccinella thoracicus Fabricius, by subsequent designation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Head with clypeal margin truncate, gena extending onto eye beside antennal insertion;
antenna 1 O-segmented, 3rd segment as long as segments 4-6 combined (Fig. 257 a);
apical segment of maxillary palpus securiform.
Prosternum with 2 fine, complete carinae extending to anteror margin of prosternum.
Tarsus 3-segmented.
Postcoxal line extending down and joining hind margin of 1st abdominal sternum (Fig. 257 b).
First abdominal sternum fused to 2nd medially;
male with sterna 2-6 contracted, 5th sternum broadly, feebly emarginate epically.
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical; sipho extremely long, slender, or short, evenly curved.
Female genitalia with genital plates short, rounded or truncate apically (Fig. 257 c);
sperm duct long and tangled, or short, simple.

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The genus Diomus was revised in detail by Gordon (1976b), therefore, only additional locality records
and some necessary corrections in synonymy are included for each species.
One imported species now established in California is included.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Diomus

1. Color completely pale yellow or yellowish brown; length less than 1.40 mm .... debilis (LeConte)
- Color not completely pale, or if so, then length more than 1.40 mm .... 2
2(1). Elytron black with single, obliquely transverse, yellow band, anterior to middle (Fig. 258 a); Florida .... balteatus (LeConte)
- Elytron not as described above; Florida and elsewhere .... 3
3(2). Elytron black except apical 1/4 yellow (Fig. 276 e) .... terminates (Say)
- Elytron not as described above .... 4
4(3). Elytron black or at least dark with irregular yellow areas (Fig. 269 d); California .... taedarus (Fall)
- Elytron not as described above; species not occurring in California .... 5
5(4). Elytron dark brown with 2 irregularly connected yellow spots (Fig. 268 b); Brownsville, Texas .... pseudotaedatus Gordon
- Elytron not as described above .... 6
6(5). Apex of elytron with a single yellow spot not reaching suture (Fig. 280 d) .... roseicollis (Mulsant)
- Elytron not as described above .... 7
7(6). Pronotum yellow with large black median spot; elytron almost completely dark, only narrow border pale, western Texas .... texanus Gordon
- Pronotum and elytron not as described above; not known from western Texas .... 8
8(7). Pronotum yellow; elytron black or dark with sutural and apical margins obviously reddish brown, or entirely light yellowish brown; Arizona .... arizonicus Gordon
- Dorsal color not as described above; not occurring in Arizona .... 9
9(8). Form depressed, oval; elytron dark with 2 rounded, yellow spots (Fig. 266 d) .... humilis Gordon
- Form not depressed; elytron rarely with 2 yellow spots (except myrmidon) .... 10
10(9). Elytron entirely light reddish brown; Texas .... xanthaspis (Mulsant)
- Elytron either entirely dark or dark with a distinct pale pattern .... 11
11(10). Elytron dark with some form of definite pale markings .... 14
- Elytron entirely dark or with obscure, indefinite lightening toward apex, or with apical border narrowly yellow .... 12
12(11). Elytron entirely black; coastal California (imported species) .... pumilio Weise
- Elytron not entirely black, or if so, then not occurring in coastal California (native species) .... 13
13(12). Elytron with apex distinctly, narrowly yellow; Pronotum entirely reddish yellow or at most with basal, median projection darkened .... xanthaspis (Mulsant)
- Elytron entirely black or dark or with an obscurely paler area on apical half; Pronotum usually with at least basal half darkened, often entirely piceous .... austrinus Gordon
14(11). Length 1.75 mm, or more; form robust, convex; elytron with 2 somewhat rounded, yellow spots (Fig. 265 d) .... myrmidon (Mulsant)
- Length less than 1.80 mm; form not strongly robust or convex; elytron rarely with 2 rounded, yellow spots .... 15
15(14). Elytron with single yellow spot on disc, or with yellow spot on disc narrowly connected to broad, apical, yellow area (Fig. 271 e, f); form strongly rounded .... bigemmeus (Horn)

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#_______________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 257 . Diomus sp. a. Antenna. b. Postcoxal line. c. Genital plates.
#_______________________________________________________________________

- Elytron with color pattern not as described above; form narrow, elongate, or form short, broad, nearly truncate epically .... 16
16(15). Form elongate, narrow, parallel sided (Fig. 261 e-j) .... 17
- Form short, broad, nearly truncate apically (Fig. 263 d) .... liebecki (Horn)
17(16). Basal lobe of male genitalia robust, strongly asymmetrical in ventral view (Fig. 261 a) .... amabilis (LeConte)
- Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, not strongly asymmetrical in ventral view (Fig. 260 a) .... floridanus (Mulsant)

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 258 . Diomus balteatus. a. b.
#__________________________________

Top

Diomus balteatus (LeConte)
Fig. 258 a-b; Map, Fig. 259

Scymnus balteatus LeConte, 1878a, p. 399.—Horn, 1895, p. 87.
Scymnus(Diomus)balteatus: Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, pa 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 155.
Diomus balteatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 322.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 322.

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#____________________________________________________________________
##Fig 259 . Distibution. Diomus balteatus (star); D. floridanus (dot).
#____________________________________________________________________

Top

Diomus floridanus (Mulsant)
Fig. 260 a-e; Map, Fig. 259

Hyperapis floridana Mulsant, 1850, p. 1040.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.
Scymnus floridana: Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 85.
Scymnus quadritaeniatus LeConte, 1878a, p. 400.—Horn, 1895, p. 90.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 323.
Scymnus (Diomus) quadritaeniatus: Casey, 1899, p. 157.
Scymnus pellio Blatchley, 1927, p. 142.—Leng and Mutchler, 1933, p. 35.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 323.
Diomus floridanus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 322.

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#_____________________________
##Fig. 260 . Diomus floridanus.
#_____________________________

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 322. Additional locality record: FLORIDA: Gainesville.

Diomus amabilis (LeConte) Fig. 261 a-e; Map, Fig. 262

Scymnus amabilisLeConte, 1852,p. 135.—Crotch, 1874b,p.260.—Horn, 1895,p. 94.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) amabilis: Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.
Scymnus (Diomus) dulcis Casey, 1899, p. 159.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.\224Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 326.

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#_________________________________________________________
##Fig. 261 . Diomus amabilis. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.
#_________________________________________________________
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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 262 . Distribution. Diomus amabilis.
#_________________________________________

Scymnus (Diomus) emertoni Casey, 1924, p. 172.—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 158.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 326.
Scymnus (Diomus) amabilis: Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 35.
Diomus amabilis: Gordon, 1976b, p. 326.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 326. Additional locality record: MISSOURI: Columbia.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 263 . Diomus liebecki. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________

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#__________________________________________________________________
##Fig 264 . Distribution. Diomus liebecki (dot); D. myrmidon (star).
#__________________________________________________________________

Top

Diomus liebecki (Horn)
Fig. 263 a-e; Map, Fig. 264
Scymnus liebecki Horn, 1895, p. 89.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 527.
Scymnus(Diomus) liebecki: Casey, 1899, p.157.—Leng, 1920, p.214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.
Scymnus (Diomus) adulans Casey, 1899, p. l 57.—Leng, 1920, p.214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 153.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 329.
Scymnus (Diomus) ohioensis Stehr, 1946, p. 80.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 329.
Diomus liebecki: Gordon, 1976b, p. 329.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 329.
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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 265 . Diomus myrmidon. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________

Top

Diomus myrmidon (Mulsant)
Fig. 265 a; Map, Fig. 264

Scymnus (Diomus) myrmidon Mulsant, 1850, p. 954.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 261. Casey, 1899, p. 157.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.
Scymnus myrmidon: LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Horn, 1895, p. 89.
Diomus myrmidon: Gordon, 1976b, p. 331.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 331.

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#__________________________
##Fig. 266 . Diomus humilis.
#__________________________

Top

Diomus humilis Gordon
Fig. 266 a-d; Map, Fig. 267

Diomus humilis Gordon, 1976b, p. 333.
For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 333. Additional locality record: FLORIDA: Punta Gorda.

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#________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 267 . Distribution. Diomus humilis (dot); D. pseudotaedatus (star).
#________________________________________________________________________

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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 268 . Diomus pseudotaedatus. a. b.
#_______________________________________

Top

Diomus pseudotaedatus Gordon
Fig. 268 a, b; Map, Fig. 267

Diomus pseudotaedatus Gordon, 1976b, p. 333.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 333.

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#_______________________________________
##Fig, 269. Diomus taedatus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________

Top

Diomus taedatus (Fall)
Fig. 269 a-d; Map, Fig 270

Scymnus taedatus Fall, 1901, p 233
Scymnus (Diomus) taedatus: Leng, 1920, p 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p l 66.
Diomus taedatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 335

For detailed description and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 335 Additional locality record: ARIZONA: Santa Cruz Co., Madera Canyon.

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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 270 Distribution. Diomus tardatus
#_______________________________________
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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 271 . Diomus bigemmeus. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#______________________________________________

Top

Diomus bigemmeus (Horn)
Fig. 271 a-f; Map, Fig. 272

Scymnus bigemmeus Horn, 1895, p. 87.—Blatchley, 1918, p. 421.
Scymnus (Diomus) bigemmeus: Casey, 1899, p. 156.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 155.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 36.
Scymnus (Diomus) stigma Casey, 1899, p. 158. (not Weise, 1898b).—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 338.
Scymnus lunaris Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 161.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 338.
Diomus bigemmeus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 337.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 337.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 272 . Distribution. Diomus bigemmeus.
#__________________________________________

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#_______________________________________
##Fig 273 . Diomus austrinus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________

Top

Diomus austrinus Gordon
Fig. 273 a-d; Map, Fig. 274

Diomus austrinus Gordon, 1976b, p. 341.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 341.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 274 . Distribution. Diomus austrinus.
#__________________________________________

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#______________________________________
##Fig. 275 . Diomus pumilio. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________

Top

Diomus pumilio Weise
Fig. 275 a-d; Map, Fig. 279

Diomus pumilio Weise, 1885b, p. 237.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 148.
Scymnus flavifrons Blackbum, 1889, p. 95.—Blackburn, 1892, p. 250.
Scymnus (Scymnobius) pumilio: Hatch, 1961, p. 153.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.35 to 1.60 mm, width 1.0 to 1.20 mm.
Form oval, somewhat oblong.
Color black except male with anterior pronotal margin, head, propleuron, mouthparts, and anterior leg reddish yellow.
Male genitalia as in Figure 275 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 275 d.

Discussion.
This is an Australian species imported several times into the Unitea States and Canada, now known to be established only in coastal California (K. Hagen, pers. comm.).

Type locality.
Of pumilio and flavifrons, South Australia.

Type depository.
Of pumilio and flavifrons, types not examined

Distribution.
Figure 279 . CALIFORNIA: Marin Co. to San Diego (coastal).

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 276 . Diomus terminatus. a. b. c. d. e.
#____________________________________________

Top

Diomus terminates (Say)
Fig. 276 a-e; Map, Fig. 277

Scymnus terminates Say, 1835, p. 203.—LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 259.—Horn, 1895, p. 90.
Scymnus(Diomus)terminatus:Mulsant, 1850, p. 952.—Casey, 1899, p. 158.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 166.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 36.
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#__________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 277 . Distribution. Diomus terminatus (peripheral localities dotted).
#__________________________________________________________________________

Scymnus femoralis LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 260.—Horn, 1895, p. 91.
Scymnus (Diomus) femoralis: Casey, 1899, p. 158.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.
Scymnus (Diomus) terminatus ab. ^Semoralis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.
Scymnus (Diomus) partitus Casey, 1899, p. 158.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 164.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 36.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 342.
Diomus terminatus: Gordon, 1976b, p. 341.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 341.

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#_________________________________
Fig. 278 . Diomus texanus. a. b. c.
#_________________________________

Top

Diomus texanus Gordon
Fig. 278 a-c; Map, Fig. 279

Diomus texanus Gordon, 1976b, p. 346.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 346.
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#___________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 279 . Distribution. Diomus texanus (dot); D. pumilio (shaded).
#___________________________________________________________________

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 280 . Diomus1 roseicollis. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Top

Diomus roseicollis (Mulsant)
Fig 280 a-d; Map, Fig. 281

Scymnus (Diomus) roseicollis Mulsant, 1853, p. 142.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.
Scymnus roseicollis: Crotch, 1874b, p. 270.—Dimmock, 1906, p. 382.
Diomus roseicollis: Gordon, 1976b, p. 348.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 348.

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#________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 281 , Distribution. Diomus roseicollis (star); D. xanthaspis (dot).
#________________________________________________________________________

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 282 . Diomus xanthaspis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Top

Diomus xanthaspis (Mulsant)
Fig. 282 a-d; Map, Fig. 281


Scymnus (Diomus) xanthaspis Mulsant, 185O, p. 952.—Horn, 1895, p. 90.—Casey, 1899, p. 160.—Leng, 192O, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 37.
Scymnus xanthaspis: LeConte, 1852, p. 136.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 259.
Scymnus (Diomus) houstoni Casey, 1899, p. 158.—Leng, 192O, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 160.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 350.
Scymnus (Diomus) appalacheus Casey, 1899, p. 158.—Leng, 192O, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 350.
Scymnus (Diomus) brunnescens Casey, 1899, p. l 58 (not Motschulsky, 1866).—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Weise, 1929, p. 33.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 154.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 350.
Scymnus caseyi Weise, 1929, p. 33 (not Brethes, 1924).—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 167.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 350.
Scymnus caseyianus Leng and Mutchler, 1933, p. 35.
Diomus xanthaspis: Gordon, 1976b, p. 348.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 348.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 283 . Diomus arizonicus. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

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Diomus arizonicus Gordon
Fig. 283 a-d; Map, Fig 284

Diomus arizonicus Gordon, 1976b, p. 353.

For detailed description, and discussion see Gordon, 1 97 6b, p. 353.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 284 . Distribution. Diomus arizonicus.
#___________________________________________

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#______________________________________
##Fig. 285 . Diomus debilis. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________

#_______________________________________
##Fig 286 . Distribution. Dfomus debilis.
#_______________________________________
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Diomus debilis (LeConte)
Fig. 285 a-d; Map, Fig. 286

Scymnus debilis LeConte, 1852, p. 137.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 263.—Horn, 1895, p. 91.
Scymnus (Diomus) debilis: Casey, 1899, p. 159.—Leng, 1920, p. 2 l 4.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 157.
Scymnus (Diomus) pusio Casey, 1899, p. 159.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 165.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.
Scymnus (Diomus) aeger Casey, 1899, p. 159.—Leng, 1920, p. 214.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.
Scymnus (Diomus) molliculus Casey, 1924, p. 175.—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—Wingo, 1952, p. 43.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.
Scymnus (Diomus) minutissimus Casey, 1924, p. 176 (not de Villers, 1789).—Leng and Mutchler, 1927, p. 33.—Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.
Scymnus (Diomus) minor Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.
Diomus debilis (LeConte): Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.

For detailed synonymy, description, and discussion see Gordon, 1976b, p. 354.
Additional locality records: CALIFORNIA: El Centro; Inyo Co., Saline Valley.

TEXAS: Hudspeth Co., 10 mi. S. Cornudas.

Selvadiini, new tribe

Hyperaspinae with form elongate, oblong, dorsoventrally flattened; dorsal surface strongly pubescent.
Antenna short, with fusiforrn club.
Intercoxal process of prosternum bicarinate.
Epipleuron narrow, flat, not foveate for reception of femoral apices.
Leg free, simple, not enlarged or expanded; tarsus cryptotetramerous.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna; basal sternum broad, fused to 2nd sternum medially.
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical.
Female genital plate short, transverse.

The genus Selvadius had previously been considered a member of the Scymnini because of the obviously pubescent dorsal surface.
However, the antenna is typically hyperaspine, and the head is also hyperaspine in that it is broad epically,
and partially conceals the antennal insertions.
The male and female genitalia do not particularly resemble those of members of either the Hyperaspini or Scymini.
Selvadius shows some affinity to the genus Hyperaspidius (Hyperaspini), which lacks obvious dorsal pubescence,
and also resembles some members of the genus Diomus (Scymnini) in the form of the female genital plate, sperm duct and male sipho.
I prefer to erect a new tribe for this genus rather than force it into either the Hyperaspini or Scymnini because to do so would,
in either case, cause an undesirable expansion of the tribal limits.

Genus Selvadius Casey

Selvadius Casey, 1899, p. 137.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 111.— Gordon, 1970a, p.45.—Gordon, 1976b, p.8. Type-species; Selvadius rectus Casey, by monotypy.

Diagnosis.
Length less than 2.50 mm.
Color pale yellowish brown to dark reddish brown.
Form elongate, oblong, dorsoventrally flattened.
Head broad, surface convex, width between eyes about 3 times the width of an eye; eye completely exposed;

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 287 . Selvadius sp. a. Head. b. Antenna. c. Hind leg. d. Postcoxal line. e. Female genitalia.
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________

clypeal apex broadly emarginate or nearly truncate, anterolateral angle abrupt,
lateral border emarginate at antennal insertion with flange partially covering antennal insertion (Fig. 287 a).
Antenna 11-segmented (Fig. 287 b).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus strongly securiform.
Pronotum with intercoxal process raised, flat between carinae which extend nearly to apex of prosternum.
Tarsal claw with strong median tooth (Fig. 287 c).
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete, of Scymnus type (Fig. 287 d).
Male genitalia with basal lobe strongly curved in lateral view; paramere broad, strongly narrowed in apical 1/3; trabes longer than phallobase (Fig. 288 ); sipho with extremely long, attenuated apical portion (Fig. 290 b).
Female genitalia without definite spermathecal capsule; sperm duct long, coiled; genital plate transverse, base narrowed, produced (Fig. 287 e).

Discussion.
Selvadius is apparently restricted to North America and is represented there by 4 described species.
No information is available on the biology of members of this genus, but they may be similar to members of Hyperaspidius in this respect.
Species of both genera have been collected in grassland communities, very near the ground, and Selvadius must feed on insects
(almost certainly scale insects) associated with grasses or herbs of that community. The type series of S. maderi was collected

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#____________________________
##Fig. 288 . Selvadius rectus.
#____________________________

from oak (Quercus agrifolia). Because of the pubescent dorsal surface and incomplete postcoxal lines,
species of Selvadius are most likely to be confused with species of Scymnus (Scymnus).
The widely separated, completely exposed eyes and partially concealed antennal insertions
will distinguish Selvadius from members of the Scymnini.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Selvadius

1. Length less than 1.50 mm .... 2
- Length 1.60 mm or more .... 3
2(1). Pronotal punctures coarse, nearly contiguous; Arizona, Texas .... rectus Casey
- Pronotal punctures fine, not obvious, separated by the diameter of a puncture or more; California .... maderi (Nunenmacher)
3(1). Length 1.60 to 2.0 mm; Colorado, Wyoming .... nunenmacheri Gordon
- Length 2.0 to 2.25 mm; Arizona, California, New Mexico .... megacephalus (Fall)

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 289 . Selvadius maderi. a. b.
#__________________________________

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Selvadius rectus Casey
Fig. 288 ; Map, Fig. 293

Selvadius rectus Casey, 1899, p. 138—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 11 1.—Gordon, 1970a, p. 45.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.40 mm, width 0.80 mm.
Form elongate, not exactly parallel sided, widest at middle of elytron.
Postcoxal line short, widely incomplete.
Male genitalia as in Figure 288 .

Discussion.
This species resembles S. maderi in the small size and overall appearance.
The only external difference that I have been able to detect is the size and density of the pronotal punctures
which are much coarser and closer together in S. rectus than in S. maderi.
However, I've seen only the type and 2 additional specimens of S. rectus, so this character may not be constant.
The type is a unique (holotype) male in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Tucson, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35250).

Distribution.
Figure 293 . ARIZONA: Tucson. CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Eureka Valley. TEXAS: E1 Paso.

Top

Selvadius maderi (Nunenmacher), new combination
Fig. 289 a, b; Map, Fig. 293

Scymnus maderi Nunenmacher, 1937, p. 183.
Scymnus quercus Nunenmacher, 1934, p. 18 (not Scymnus quercus Mulsant, 1850).

Diagnosis.
Length 1.20 to 1.40 mm, width 0.75 to 0.90 mm.
Similar to S. rectus in all respects except pronotal punctures finer, less dense.
Male genitalia as in Figure 289 a, b.

Discussion.
A male cotype is here designated as the lectotype, and 3 other type

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 290 . Selvadius nunenmacheri. a. b. c.
#___________________________________________

specimens designated as paralectotypes. I previously examined the types of this species, and realized that it belonged to Selvadius,
but I neglected to formally transfer it although it was not included in the Scymnus revision (Gordon, 1976b).

Type locality.
Vine Hill, Contra Costa Co., California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 293 . CALIFORNIA: type locality.

Top

Selvadius nunenmacheri Gordon
Fig. 290 a-c; Map, Fig. 293

Selvadius nunenmacheri Gordon, 1970a, p. 45.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.55 to 2.35 mm, width 1.0 to 1.35 mm.
Form varies from parallel sided to slightly oval.
Male genitalia as in Figure 290 a, b.
Female genitalia as in Figure 290 c.

Discussion.
I regard the specimens recorded here as composing a single polymorphic species.
There is noticeable variation in size and some variation in the form of the postcoxal line and body shape.
The male genitalia, however, are constant throughout and I cannot find a pattern in the observed variation.
There are wide gaps in the known distribution of S. nunenmacheri,
and I expect that specimens from appropriate localities will confirm the integrity of this species.

Type locality.
Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Type depository.
USNM (70401).

Distribution.
Figure 293 . COLORADO: Colorado Springs; Nunn, Pawnee Grassland. WYOMING: Cheyenne; Tipton.

Selvadius megacephalus (Fall) Fig. 291 a-c; Map, Fig. 293
Scymnus megacephalus Fall, 1901, p. 233.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 162.
Selvadius megacephalus: Gordon, 1970a, p. 45.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 291 . Selvadius megacephalus. a. b. c.
#___________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.25 mm, width 1.60 to 1.70 mm
Form parallel sided to slightly oval (Fig. 291 c).
Dorsal surface reddish brown except narrow sutural margin dark brown.
Male genitalia as in Figure 291 a, b.

Discussion.
The type locality is Pasadena, California, and I have seen one additional California specimen.
Examples from Arizona and New Mexico appear to match the type exactly; therefore, I refer them to this species.
No solid external differences are apparent that will separate S. megacephalus and S. nunenmacheri except size,
and there is a slight overlap even there. However, the male genitalia are noticeably different, and I regard both species as valid.
The type specimen is a unique (holotype) female in the Fall collection.

Type locality.
Pasadena, California.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 293 . ARIZONA: Santa Catalina Mts.; Santa Cruz Co., Mowrv Tucson. CALIFORNIA: Cathedral City; Pasadena. NEW MEXICO: Hot Springs.

Tribe Hyperaspini

Hyperaspini Costa, 1849, pp. 9, 64.—Casey, 1899, p. l l 5.—Blatchley,1910, p 519.— Korschefsky, 1932, p. 176.—Chapin, 1966, p. 278.—J Chapin, 1974, p. 38.— Belicek, 1976, p. 294.
Hyperaspidini, Wingo, 1952, p. 17.
Hyperaspiens Mulsant, 1850. p. 2.
Hyperaspidae Berg, 1874, p. 291.
Hyperaspides Crotch, 1873, p. 377.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 208.—Gorham, 1894, p. l 83.
Hyperaspites Chapuis, 1876, p. 166.
Hyperaspidina Jacobson, 1916, p. 969.

Scymninae of small to medium size, 1.50 to 5.0 mm in length;
form ranges from elongate oval, depressed, to rounded, convex.
Dorsal surface glabrous except in

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Blaisdelliana.
Antenna short, 9 to 11-segmented; club elongate, fusiform, apical segment small, recessed in preceding segment.
Eye large, entire or weakly notched, finely faceted, without pubescence.
Maxillary palpus with apical segment securiform.
Scutellum usually large. Epipleuron of elytron narrow, usually flat, usually excavated for reception of femoral apex except Hyperaspidius and Blaisdelliana.
Leg short; femur grooved for reception of tibia; tarsus cryptotetramerous.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna in female, 7 sterna visible in male.
Male genitalia asymmetrical.
Female coxal plate usually short, transverse, stylus reduced or absent.

I recognize 6 genera in America north of Mexico as belonging to this tribe.
Five of these have traditionally been placed here, and I now transfer Blaisdelliana Gordon from the Scymnini to the Hyperaspini.
Chapin (1966) was the first to critically study the genera of Western Hemisphere Hyperaspini using internal characters as well as external characters,
and he succeeded in creating order from the chaos that previously existed.
El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation) further refined Chapin's preliminary work to provide a solid generic classification.

KEY TO GENERA OF HYPERASPINI

1. Dorsal surface strongly pubescent .... Blaisdelliana Gordon
- Dorsal surface glabrous .... 2
2(1). Anterior tibia with external tooth or spine (Fig. 458 c) .... Brachiacantha Chevrolat
- Anterior tibia without external tooth or spine .... 3
3(2). Epipleuron of elytron not excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices (Fig. 295 b) .... Hyperaspidius Crotch
- Epipleuron of elytron excavated for reception of middle and hind femora apices (Fig. 333 d) .... 4
4(3). Epipleuron of elytron strongly descending externally; anterior tibia wide, angulate or rounded anteriorly at external margin (Fig. 330 b); elytron greenish black with red spot behind middle .... Thalassa Mulsant
- Epipleuron of elytron flat or feebly inclined; anterior tibia slender or enlarged epically; elytron not greenish black .... 5
5(4). Femur short, stout; tibia enlarged epically (Fig. 327 b); elytron reddish brown, without maculation (Fig. 328 e); rare .... Helesius Casey
- Femur slender; tibia slender, not enlarged epically (Fig. 333 f); elytron usually black or brown with pale maculation, rarely immaculate .... Hyperaspis Redtenbacher

Genus Blaisdelliana Gordon

Blaisdelliana Gordon, 1970a, p. 43. Type-species; Hyperaspis sexualis Casey, by monotypy.

Hyperaspini with form broad, somewhat elongate, appearing almost rectangular;
length less than 2.0 mm; entire dorsal surface pubescent.
Head elongate, inclined downward. Antenna 10-segmented (Fig. 292 b); antennal insertion exposed.
Eye entire, small, widely separated.
Clypeus nearly parallel sided, apex emarginate (Fig. 292 a).
Lateral margin of pronotum rounded.
Epipleuron of elytron narrow, flat, not excavated for reception of middle or hind femoral apices.
Prosternum with 2 faint carinae extending nearly to apex.
Posterior margin of metasternum nearly on equal plane with abdomen between coxa and lateral margin.
Leg long, slender; anterior tibia simple; tarsal claw without basal tooth.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal ster

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 292 . Blaisdelliana sexualis. a. Head. b. Antenna. c. Postcoxal lines. d-g. Male genitalia. h. Habitus.
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num incomplete, of Scymnus type (Fig. 292 c).
Apical abdominal sternum of male truncate.
Male genitalia with basal lobe slightly asymmetrical, paramere rooted in phallobase (Fig. 292 d).
Female genitalia with compound spermatheca, basal portion without appendix, coxal plate transverse (Fig. 292 g).

Blaisdelliana is known only from the southwestern United States, and I recognize only one species in the genus.
Casey (1899) correctly placed sexualis in the Hyperaspini, Dobzhansky ( 1941 ) transferred it to the Scymnini,
and Gordon (1970a) erected the genus Blaisdelliana for it but retained it in the Scymnini.
Present examination of the female genitalia and antennae of this species has resulted in a reevaluation of its position
and I now consider it to belong in the Hyperaspini. The only morphological characteristic (albeit a most obvious one)
that has caused B. sexualis to be considered a scymnine is the presence of dorsal pubescence.
In all other respects it is a hyperaspine. Blaisdelliana is most similar to Hyperaspidius
but the dorsal pubescence and produced anterolateral clypeal angles of Blaisdelliana will distinguish that genus.
No host data are available.


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##Fig 293 . Distribution. Selvadius rectus (star); S. maderi (open circle); S. nunenmacheri (dot); S. megacephalus (square).
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Top

Blaisdelliana sexualis (Casey)
Fig. 292 a-h; Map, Fig. 294

Hyperaspis sexualis Casey, 1924, p. 167.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 196.
Scymnus sexualis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 86.
Blaisdelliana vanduzeei Gordon, 1970a, p. 43.
Blaisdelliana sexualis: Gordon, 1974c, p. 209.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.25 to 1.78 mm, width 0.84 to 1 25 mm.
Dorsal surface black

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##Fig. 294 . Distribution. Blaisdelliana sexualis.
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to brown (Fig. 292 h); antenna, mouthparts, femoral apices and remainder of leg yellow;
male with clypeus and Irons yellow (in California specimens narrow lateral border of pronotum yellow).
Male genitalia as in Figure 292 d-f.
Female genitalia as in Figure 292 g.

Discussion.
The specimens from California are a little larger than those from Utah, and the male has a yellow pronotal margin.
The basal lobes of the male genitalia are noticeably different when males from St. George, Utah, were compared with a male from Fresno, Califomia,
but a male from Yuma, Arizona, exhibits an intermediate

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form. I consider all specimens examined as conspecific on the premise that additional material from intermediate localities will provide intergrading specimens.

Type locality.
St. George, Utah (lectotype and paralectotypes previously designated by Gordon (1974c).

Type depository.
USNM (35158).

Distribution.
Figure 294 . ARIZONA: Yuma. CALIFORNIA: Fresno Co.; Indio; Kings Co.; Rosamond. UTAH: St. George.

Genus Hyperaspidius Crotch

Hyperaspidius Crotch, 1873, p. 382.—Casey, 1899, p. 130.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.— Casey, 1924, p. 168.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.—Hatch, 1961, p. 155.—Chapin, 1966, p. 280.—Belicek, 1976, p. 308. Type-species; Hyperaspis vittigera LeConte (not Chrysomela trimaculatus L., 1767, of authors), by original designation.

Hyperaspini with body usually elongate, subparallel to parallel sided, dorsoventrally compressed; dorsal surface glabrous.
Head usually yellow in male, brown or black in female.
Antenna 10-segmented (Fig. 295 a); antennal insertion exposed.
Eye entire.
Scutellum small, wider than long.
Epipleuron of elytron narrow, not descending externally, not grooved medially, not excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices (Fig. 295 b).
Prosternum with 2 carinae convergent anteriorly.
Posterior margin of metasternum nearly on equal plane with abdomen between coxa and lateral margin.
Leg with femur and tibia slightly compressed; anterior tibia simple; tarsal claw without basal tooth.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum nearly complete, similar to Pullus type, or incomplete, of Scymnus type.
Apical abdominal sternum in male feebly to strongly emarginate.
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical, paramere rooted in phallobase, of 3 distinct types (Figs. 295c, 298a, 309a).
Female genitalia with compound spermatheca, basal portion with appendix (Fig. 296 d), coxal plate always transverse.

The lack of epipleural depressions and simple tarsal claws will separate Hyperaspidius from other hyperaspine genera.
Hyperaspidius is a New World genus containing 26 species, none of which are known to occur south of Mexico.
Crotch (1873) designated Chrysomela trimaculata L. as the type species,
however, the specimens Crotch identified as trimaculata were North American specimens described as Hyperaspis vittigera by LeConte (1852).
Since Chrysomela trimaculata L. is supposedly a tropical American species, Crotch apparently misidentified the vittigera of LeConte,
therefore I recognize H. vittigera LeConte as the type-species of Hyperaspidius
because LeConte's type was among other specimens actually seen by Crotch when he made his type species designation.
The type of Chrysomela trimaculata (L.) is missing from the Linnean collection in London,
therefore the exact identity of that species may never be determined.

Host records for Hyperaspidius species are almost nonexistent.
I have seen 2 females from Phoenix, Arizona, labeled "on cottony cochineal scale of cactus."
El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation) stated that specimens of H. comparatus Casey were collected feeding on distichlis mealybug,
Distichlicoccus salines (Cockerell)?, and that they were reared in the laboratory on the solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani Ferris.
One species

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has been recorded in the literature as feeding on Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell) in Texas,
and "H. vittigerus" was recorded on Antonina graminis (Maskell).
Some species of Hyperaspidius are prevalent in grasslands, others are known only from sand dune areas.
As a group they are rather uncommonly collected, perhaps because they usually occur close to the ground
where normal net sweeping will not reach them. Pit traps are an effective method of collecting as evidenced
by several large series of specimens examined in the course of this study. Hyperaspidius is one of the North Amencan genera
that needs to be studied further. I am not satisfied with many of the conclusions reached herein,
and biosystematic research will be needed as well as the collection of many more specimens from critical areas
in order to accurately reflect the actual taxonomic picture.

Hyperaspidius was last treated in its entirety by Casey (1899). Since then, various authors have published individual descriptions,
and regional papers by Wingo (1952), Hatch (1961), and Belicek (1976) have each included a few species.
The genus can be divided into 3 groups based on the form of the median lobe of the male genitalia.
I designate these as the comparatus, arcuatus, and vittigerus groups.
Morphological distinctions are discussed under each group heading.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Hyperaspidius

1. Elytron vitiate, always with yellow discal vitta which may be incomplete, and a yellow vitta on lateral margin (Figs. 37 I d, 31 8d) .... 14
- Elytron not appearing vitiate, discal vitta absent, lateral margin vittate or not .... 2
2(1). Species occurring east of Mississippi River .... 3
- Species occurring west of Mississippi River .... 9
3(2). Elytron black with 4 yellow spots (Fig. 313 ) .... venustulus (Mulsant)
Elytron never with 4 yellow spots as figured above .... 4
4(3). Elytron entirely yellow, immaculate (Fig. 298 e) .... transfugatus Casey
- Elytron yellow with dark maculation, or dark with yellow lateral border .... 5
5(4). Elytron yellow with dark maculation, humerus usually with small, elongate brown spot (Fig. 299 e) .... militaris (LeConte)
- Elytron dark brown or black, with or without yellow lateral border .... 6
6(5). Elytron with complete yellow lateral border (Fig. 312 d) .... marginatus (Gaines)
- Elytron entirely brown or black, or dark with incomplete yellow border in humeral area .... 7
7(6). Species known from Massachusetts (Fig. 310 e) .... blatchleyi, n. name
- Species known from North Carolina to Florida .... 8
8(7). Male pronotum reddish yellow except basal 1/3 with obscure, brown maculation; female unknown; Florida .... flavocephalus Blatchley
- Male pronotum mostly brown or black; female pronotum dark brown or black except anterior angle pale; North Carolina, Georgia .... nubilates Casey
9(2). Elytron entirely yellow, immaculate (Fig. 308 d) .... nanellus, n. sp.
Elytron brown or black, usually maculate .... 10
10(9). Elytron dark, with basal and lateral borders yellow (Fig. 303 d) .... arcuatus (LeConte)
- Elytron not as described above .... 11
11(10). Pronotum entirely pale, yellow with reddish yellow maculation; elytron with discal spot in apical 1/2 (Fig. 315 c) .... insignis Casey
Pronotum mostly brown or black; elytron without discal spot .... 12
12(11). Elytron brown or black with complete yellow vitta on lateral margin (Fig. 312 d); Texas .... marginatus (Gaines)

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- Elytron brown or black, if yellow lateral vitta present, then vitta interrupted in apical 1/4 with apical spot present; not occurring in Texas .... 13
13(12). Elytron brown or black with yellow lateral vitta interrupted in apical 1/4 with apical spot present (Fig. 300 d) .... tristis (LeConte)
- Elytron entirely brown or black, sometimes with faint maculation apparent on humeral angle and/or disc (Fig. 302 d) .... ploribundus (Nunenmacher)
14(1). Species occurring east of the 100th meridian, north of Texas (Fig. 317 d) .... wolcotti (Nunenmacher)
- Species occurring west of the 100th meridian, or if east of the 100th meridian, then only in Texas .... 15
15(14). Prosternum coarsely punctured, anterior margin nearly always broadly, feebly emarginate .... 16
- Prosternum impunctate or with fine, indistinct punctures, anterior margin truncate
16(15). Female with 6th abdominal sternum abruptly narrowed to rounded apex; male with 6th abdominal sternum strongly narrowed toward apex, apex strongly emarginate; body form extremely elongate, tapered toward apex (Fig.325 d); Coral Pink Sand Dunes, Utah .... andrewsi, n. sp.
- Female with 6th abdominal sternum gently narrowed to broadly rounded apex; male with 6th abdominal sternum feebly narrowed toward apex, apex weakly emarginate; not known from Coral Pink Sand Dunes .... 17
17(16). Species occurring in Texas .... 18
- Species not occurring in Texas .... 19
18(17). Body elongate, parallel sided; dorsal maculation light brown, indistinct (Fig. 321 d) .... shauli Nunenmacher
- Body broad, sides not appearing strongly parallel sided; dorsal maculation dark brown or black (Fig. 318 d) .... oblongus Casey
19(17). Pronotum yellow to reddish yellow, often yellow with indistinct reddish yellow maculation .... 20
- Pronotum mostly yellow or mostly black, if mostly yellow, then with some dark brown or black maculation .... 21
20(19). Surface of pronotum dull, alutaceous; Colorado and Alberta .... insignis Casey
- Surface of pronotum shiny, polished; Algodones Dunes, Imperial Co., California (Fig. 316 d) .... algodonus, n. sp.
21(19). Female postcoxal line complete (Pullus type); area within postcoxal line of both sexes smooth, polished, punctures scattered; inland sand dunes, southern California .... hardyi, n. sp.
- Female postcoxal line incomplete (Scymnus type); area within postcoxal line of both sexes dull, alutaceous, punctation often dense, usually coarse; not occurring in southern California .... 22
22(21). Species known only from southern New Mexico; postcoxal line in both sexes equally incomplete .... ingenitus Casey
- Species not known from New Mexico; postcoxal line nearly complete in male, incomplete in female .... 23
23(22). Length less than 2.10 mm; female first abdominal sternum with punctures very fine, female postcoxal line widely incomplete (Fig.322 e) .... vittigerus (LeConte)
- Length more than 2.10 mm; female first abdominal sternum with punctures coarse, dense, female postcoxal line narrowly incomplete (Fig. 323 d) .... Hercules Belicek
24(15). Head of male dark brown with irregular yellow area adjacent to eye; male pronotum dark brown on anterior margin .... tristis (LeConte)
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- Head of male always yellow except vertex usually brown or black; male pronotum yellow on anterior margin (except arcuatus) .... 25
25(24). Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, without lateral projection in basal 1/3 (Fig. 295 c) .... 26
- Basal lobe of male genitalia broad, with lateral projection in basal 1/3 (Fig. 304 a) .... 27
26(25). Basal lobe of male genitalia longer than paramere (Fig. 295 c) .... comparatus Casey
- Basal lobe of male genitalia shorter than paramere (Fig. 296 a) .... mimus Casey
27(25). Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in basal 1/3 pronounced, abruptly rounded (Fig. 304 a) .... simulatus, n. sp.
- Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in apical 1/3 feeble, slightly angulate or feebly rounded .... 28
28(27). Basal lobe of male genitalia triangular in apical 2/3 (Fig. 306 a) .... bryanti Nunenmacher
- Basal lobe of male genitalia not triangular in apical 2/3 .... 29
29(28). Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in apical 1/3 feebly rounded (Fig. 305 a); Arizona .... pallescens Casey
- Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in apical 1/3 slightly angulate (Fig. 303 a); not known from Anzona .... arcuatus (LeConte)

comparatus group

Prosternum impunctate; male genitalia with basal lobe as long as, or longer than paramere, slender, lacking lateral projection in basal 1/3 (Fig. 295 c).

Hyperaspidius comparatus Casey Fig. 295 a-h; Map, Fig. 287
Hyperaspidius comparatus Casey, 1899, p. 1 30.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspidius juniperus Nunenmacher, 1944, p. 145. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.40 to 2.10 mm; width 1.0 to 1.50 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with indistinct yellowish brown maculation in basal I, or dark brown with anterior and lateral margins narrowly yellow;
pronotum of female yellowish brown with lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron with 2 broad, yellow vittae often connected at apex (Fig. 295 f-h), northern specimens with vittae narrow, widely disconnected at apex.
Postcoxal line complete (male) or narrowly incomplete (female), area within line alutaceous, punctation barely perceptible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 295 c-d.

Discussion.
The male genitalia are the only certain criteria I can find that allow H. comparatus to be recognized.
The color patterns present in this species are also found in several other species such as H. mimus and H. pallescens.
I have included specimens from New Mexico here because the genitalia appear to be identical with those of California specimens.
Since no specimens of H. comparatus have been seen from Arizona, it is possible that we are dealing with 2 species.
The holotype of H. juniperus Nunenmacher is a typical example of H. comparatus,
therefore I regard H. juniperus as a junior synonym of H. comparatus. The type of H. comparatus is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Of comparatus, Alameda Co., California; of juniperus, Tehachapi Pass, Kern Co., California.

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##Fig. 295 . Hyperaspidius sp. a. Antenna. b. Epipleuron. c-h. Hyperaspidius comparatus.
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Type depository.
Of comparatus, USNM (35215);
of juniperus, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 287 . BRITISH COLUMBIA: Radium. CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co.; Contra Costa Co., Pt. Molete Beach; Fresno Co., Fresno; Inyo Co., Owens Lake; Kern Co., Bakersfield, Tehachapi Pass; Kings Co.; Lassen Co., Spaulding; Los Angeles Co., Lancaster, Pasadena; Orange Co., Cypress; Paraiso Hot Springs; Riverside Co., Temecula; Santa Barbara Co., county record, San Miguel Island. NEW MEXICO: Bernallilo Co., Albuquerque; San Miguel Co., Las Vegas; Quay Co., Tuc

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 296 . Hyperaspidius mimus.
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umcari. UTAH: Iron Co., Buckskin Valley; Tooele Co., Skull Valley. WASHINGTON: Benton Co., Rattlesnake Ridge; Doris.

Hyperaspidius mimus Casey Fig. 296 a-g; Map, Fig. 297

Hyperaspidius mimus Casey, 1924, p. 169.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspidius carri Nunenmacher, 1948, p. 6. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspidius coloradensis Nunenmacher, 1948, p. 7. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.40 to 1.80 mm; width 1.0 to 1.20 mm.
Description as for H. comparatus (Fig. 296 e-g) except female pronotum sometimes with narrow, yellow anterior margin.
Male genitalia with basal lobe not longer than paramere (Fig. 296 ac).
Female genitalia as in Figure 296 d.

Discussion.
This species is very similar to H. comparatus, but has the basal lobe of the male genitalia no longer than the paramere.
Based on the specimens examined, it can be said that the distributions of H. comparatus and H. mimus do not overlap, or only narrowly so;
but collections from additional localities may eliminate this distinction. Hyperaspidius carri Nunenmacher and H. coloradensis Nunenmacher

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##Fig. 297 . Distribution. Hyperaspidius comparatus (dot); H. mimus (star); H. transfugatus (square); H. militaris (open circle).
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

are apparently identical in all respects to H. mimus, therefore I regard them as junior synonyms.

Type locality.
Of mimus, Boulder Co., Colorado; of carri^7 Medicine Hat, Alberta; of coloradensis, Colorado.

Type depository.
Of mimus, USNM (35217); of carri and coloradensis^7 CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 297 . ALBERTA: Cypress Hills, Medicine Hat. SASKATCHEWAN: Swift Current. COLORADO: Boulder Co.; Douglas Co., Sedalia; E1 Paso Co., Colorado Springs; Huerfano Co., La Veta; Lake Co., Leadville; Larimer Co., Fort Collins; Teller Co., Florissant; Weld Co., Pawnee National Grassland. IDAHO: Cassia Co., Burley; Twin Falls Co., Hansen, Murtaugh. MONTANA: Lewis and Clark Co., Helena. NEBRASKA: Scotts BluffCo., Scottsbluff. UTAH: Salt Lake Co., Salt Lake. WYOMING: Carbon Co., Medicine Bow.

arcuatus group

Prosternum impunctate or minutely punctured; male genitalia with basal lobe not longer than paramere, with feeble lateral projection in basal 1/3 (Fig. 298 a).

Hyperaspidius transfugatus Casey Fig. 298 a-e; Map, Fig. 297

Hyperaspidius transfugatus Casey, 1899,p. 131.—Leng, 1920,p 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200.—Wingo, 1952, p 26.

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##Fig. 298 . Hyperaspis transfugatus.
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Hyperaspidius pallidus Casey, 1924, p. 169.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200. New Syn
onymy.
Hyperaspidius horni Nunenmacher, 1934a, p. 19. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.10 mm, width 1.30 to 1.45 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum entirely yellowish brown.
Elytron yellow except sutural margin narrowly darkened (Fig. 298 e).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete (male), or widely incomplete (female) (Fig. 298 d), area within line alutaceous, punctation barely perceptible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 298 a-c.

Discussion.
The pale dorsal color and eastern distribution combined make this an easily recognized species.
Hyperaspidius pallidus Casey and H. horni Nunenmacher are junior synonyms of H. transfugatus.
The types of both H. transfugatus and H. pallidus are unique females (holotypes).
I have seen one "cotype" of H. horni labeled "Buena NJ/Coll. by C. Liebeck/Hyperaspidius horni Nun. Type"
which I here designate and label the lectotype.

Type locality.
Of trans^Sugatus, Mt. Tom, Massachusetts; of pallidus, Southern Pines, North Carolina; of horni, Buena, New Jersey (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of transfugatus (35221) and pallidus (35223), USNM; of horni, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 287 . MASSACHUSETTS: Plymouth Co., Marion; Worcester
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##Fig. 299 . Hyperaspis militaris. a. b. c. d. e.
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Co., Berlin. MINNESOTA: Jackson Co. NEW JERSEY: Atlantic Co., Buena. NORTH CAROLINA: Moore Co., Southern Pines.

Hyperaspidius militaris (LeConte) Fig. 299 a-e; Map, Fig. 297
Hyperaspis militaris LeConte, 1852, p. 133.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 231.
Hyperaspidius militaris: Crotch, 1873, p. 382.—Schwarz, 1878, p. 448.—Casey, 1899, p. 131.—Blatchley, 1917, p. 140.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.50 mm, width 1.50 to 1.80 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with obscure brownish yellow maculation in basal I; pronotum of female black with lateral border narrowly yellow.
Elytron yellow except broad sutural border brown or black, short vitta present on humerus (Fig. 299 e).
Postcoxal line widely incomplete in both sexes (Fig. 299 d)^7 area within line alutaceous, punctation barely perceptible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 299 a-c.

Discussion.
No known species of Hyperaspidius has the elytral pattern of H. mil-
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##Fig. 300 . Hyperaspidius twists. a. b. c. d.
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itaris. The only other species that may occur in the southeastern United States are H. nubilata, H. transfugatus, H. marginatus and H. flavocephalus,
all of which possess color patterns different from that of militaris.
The unique female holotype of H. militaris is labeled "(orange disc)/4655/Type 6726/Hyperaspis militaris Lec.".

Type locality.
Columbia, South Carolina.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 287 . ALABAMA: Barbour Co., Spring Hill. FLORIDA: Duval Co., Jacksonville; Gadsden Co., Mt. Pleasant; Lee Co., Fort Myers, Estero, Pinellas Co., St. Petersburg; Putnam Co., Crescent City; Volusia Co., Enterprise. SOUTH CAROLINA: Richland Co., Columbia.

Hyperaspidius tristis (LeConte), new combination Fig. 300 a-d; Map, Fig. 301
Hyperaspistristis LeConte, 1880,p. 188.—Casey,1899,p.128.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 85.
Hyperaspidius conspiratus Casey, 1899, p. 131.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 2.0 mm, width 1.0 to 1.50 mm.
Form elongate, oval, lateral margin of elytron definitely curved.
Head of male brown or yellowish brown with obscure yellow spot near eye; head of female dark brown.
Pronotum of both sexes dark brown with lateral margin narrowly yellow or yellowish brown.
Elytron typically dark brown with narrowly yellow lateral margin and apical Yellow spot (Fig. 300 d),
apical spot and yellow lateral margin often feebly connected, or elytron almost entirely immaculate.
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, punctation barely visible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 300 a-c.

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##Fig 301 . Distribution. Hyperaspidizus tristis (dot); H. ploribundus (star); H. arcuatus (square).
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Discussion.
The typical form of H. tristis is easily distinguished by the unique elytral color pattern.
However, reduction of this pattern occurs until only a small yellow area on the numeral angle remains.
There is also a tendency for a discal yellow vitta to form which I have seen culminated in a complete discal vitta
in 3 specimens from Alameda Co., California. The rounded elytral margins and the mostly dark male head and pronotum
will usually distinguish specimens of H. tristis that do not have the typical color pattern.
The other species with a dark male head is H. ploribundus which has the lateral margins of the pronotum and elytron obviously dis-

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continuous, and an oblong body form. There are 2 examples under H. tristis in the LeConte collection as stated by LeConte.
The first of these, a female labeled "Cal./ Hardy/494/Type 6722(red paper)/H. tristis Lee." is here designated and labeled the lectotype.
The second type specimen is a male of Hyperaspis oeulatieauda. There are 4 types of H. eonspiratus in the Casey collection.
The first specimen, a male, is here designated and labeled the lectotype, the other 3 as paralectotypes.
LeConte (1852) listed the type locality of tristis as "Col." (Colorado), but the specimen in his collection is clearly labeled "Cal." (California),
and I regard the published type locality to be erroneous.

Type locality.
Of tristis, California (lectotype here designated); of conspiratus, Paraiso Hot Springs, Monterey Co., California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
of tristis, MCZ; of conspiratus, USNM (35222).

Distribution.
Figure 301 . CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co.; Inyo Co., Saline Valley, Saratoga Spring, Death Valley; Kern Co., Tehachapi Pass, Fort Tejon; Kings Co.; Los Angeles Co., Altadena; Glendora; Modoc Co., Min Pass; Monterey Co., Paraiso Hot Springs; Riverside Co., Riverside; San Timoteo Co.; San Bernardino Co., Cactus Flat; Cajon Pass, Rte 395; Desert Springs; San Diego Co., Morena Lalce; San Francisco Co.; Tulare Co., Kaweah; Sequoia National Park.

Hyperaspidius ploribundus (Nunenmacher) Fig. 302 a-d; Map, Fig. 301
Hyperaspis ploribunda Nunenmacher, 1911, p. 74.
Hyperaspidius ploribunda: Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 86.—Nunenmacher, i944, p. 144. Hyperaspidius immaculatus Hatch, 1961, p. 155. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspidius arcuatus: Hatch, 1961, p. 155.—Belicek, 1976, p. 309 (not arcuatus LeConte).

Diagnosis.
Length 1.50 to 1.80 mm, width 1.10 to 1.40 mm.
Form oblong, outline of pronotum and elytron abruptly discontinuous, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved (Fig. 302 d).
Head and pronotum in both sexes typically dark brown, anterolateral angle of pronotum often yellowish brown.
Elytron reddish brown, often with humeral angle yellowish brown.
Postcoxal line usually nearly complete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, punctation barely perceptible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 302 a-c.

Discussion.
See comparative remarks under H. tristis. The few specimens examined show a rather wide geographic range with large gaps present.
It is possible that more than one species is involved, but, based on the available evidence, I can identify only one species.
I consider H. immaculate Hatch a junior synonym of ploribundus. There are 2 type specimens of H. ploribundus.
One of these, a male labeled "Goldfield/ Esmeralda Co., Nev. VI-29-07/Coll'd by F. W. Nunenmacher/Type. Hyperaspis ploribunda Nun."
is here designated and labeled the lectotype, the other specimen is labeled a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Of ploribundus, Goldfield, Esmeralda Co., Nevada (lectotype here designated);
of immaculatus, Redmond, Oregon.

Type depository.
Of ploribundus and immaculatus, CAS.

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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 302 . Hyperaspidius ploribundus.
#_____________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 301 . CALIFORNIA: Fresno Co; Inyo Co., Independence; Kern Co., Fort Tejon. IDAHO: Kootenai Co., Coeur d'Alene. NEVADA: Esmeralda Co., Goldfield. OREGON: Deschutes Co., Redmond.

Hyperaspidius arcuatus (LeConte) Fig. 303 a-e; Map, Fig. 301
Hyperaspis arcuata LeConte, 1852, p. 133.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 232.
Hyperaspidius arcuata: Crotch, 1873, p. 382.—Casey, 1899, p. 131.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspidius arcuatus: Belicek, 1976, p. 309.
Hyperaspidius rossi Nunenmacher, 1944, p. 145.—Hatch, 1961, p. 155. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 2.0 mm, width 1.20 to 1.50 mm.
Form oblong, outline of pronotum and elytron abruptly discontinuous, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male black with yellow lateral margin, or with anterior and lateral margins yellow.
Female not known.
Elytron black with basal and lateral margins yellow, yellow lateral margin reaching midpoint (Fig. 303 d),
or complete to apex, apex often with yellow spot, often with discal villa reaching apex (Fig. 303 e).

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 303 . Hyperaspidius arcuatus.
#__________________________________

Postcoxal line complete (male), area within line feebly alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 303 a-c.

Discussion.
Females were not available for examination, and all remarks refer to males.
The forms with incomplete elytral maculation are outstanding in appearance and readily recognized,
but the form with complete discal vittae resembles several other species of Hyperaspidius;
and male genitalia must be examined in these instances. The female type of rossi appears to be an example of H. arcuatus
and I consider rossi to be a junior synonym of arcuatus.
The unique male holotype of H. arcuatus is labeled "(gold disc)/4657/Type 6727 (red paper)/H. arcuata Lec.".

Type locality.
Of arcuatus, "mouth of Gila River, California"; of rossi, Oregon.

Type depository.
Of arcuatus, MCZ; of rossi, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 301 . CALIFORNIA: Imperial Co., Algodones Dunes; Bard; Gila River; Glamis, Olgiby; Riverside Co., Blythe; San Bernardino Co., 5 mi. N. Buckmans Sp., sand dunes 10 mi. NW Kelso; San Diego Co., Borrego. NEVADA: Washoe Co., Glendale. UTAH: Washington Co., St. George.

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Hyperaspidius simulates , new species
Fig. 304 a-d; Map, Fig. 307

Description.
Male, length 1.65 mm, width 1.10 mm.
Form somewhat oblong, outline of pronotum and elytron slightly discontinuous, lateral margin of elytron distinctly rounded.
Head yellow except vertex brown; pronotum brown with narrowly yellow lateral margin and broadly yellow anterior margin; elytron brown with broad
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#__________________________________
##Fig. 304 Hyperaspidius simulatus.
#__________________________________

lateral and discal vittae connected epically and posteriorly (Fig. 304 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter or less; prenatal punctures fine, separated by one or 2 times a diameter;
punctures on elytron slightly coarser than on pronotum, separated by 2 or 3 times a diameter.
Metasternum with coarse, confluent punctures laterally, punctures very fine, sparse medially.
Abdominal sterna with fine, dense punctures.
Postcoxal line complete, area within line alutaceous, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 304 a-c.

Variation.
Length 1.60 to 1.70 mm.
Apical border of brown area on pronotum may have a median, v-shaped indentation.

Holotype.
Male. CALIFORNIA: Etiwanda, San Bernardino Co., VII-27- 1972, Collector E. L. Paddock USNM(101333).

Paratypes.
Total 6 (Fig. 307 ). CALIFORNIA: same data as holotype. (USING (CDA).

There are no external characteristics that will, with certainty, distinguish this species from several other vitiate species of Hyperaspidius.
The character that must be seen is the large, rounded lateral projection on the basal lobe of the male genitalia which is unlike that of any other species examined.
I have restricted the specimens designated as type material to the type locality, however, there are other specimens I regard as this species from
the following localities. Arizona: Coconino Co., Page; Cochise Co; 7 mi. S. Picacho, Pinal Co.; Rillito River near Tucson. California: Kings Co.; Riverside; Tulare Co.
The specific name is from the Latin similis, referring to the similarity in dorsal color pattern to several other species of Hyperaspidius.

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 305 . Hyperaspidius pallescens.
#____________________________________

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Hyperaspidius pallescens Casey
Fig. 305 a-d; Map, Fig. 307

Hyperaspidius pallescens Casey, 1908, p. 420.—Leng, 1920, p. 212—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 2.10 mm, width 1.10 to 1.60 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron distinctly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with indistinct yellowish brown maculation; pronotum of female uniformly yellowish brown except lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron with 2 broad, yellow vittae not connected, or narrowly connected at apex (Fig. 305 d).
Postcoxal line complete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, punctation barely perceptible.
Male genitalia as in Figure 305 a-c.

Discussion.
Thus far H. pallescens is known only from Arizona. The male and female pronotal color pattern will distinguish this species from other
presently known Arizona species, and the feebly curved lateral projection on the basal lobe of the male genitalia is diagnostic.
The type of pallescens is a unique male (holotype).

Type locality.
Nogales, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35220)

Distribution.
Figure 297 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mountains; Huachucha Mountains, Miller Canyon; Pinal Co., Oracle; Santa Cruz Co., Nogales; Santa Rita Mountains, Madera Canyon.

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 306 . Hyperaspidius bryanti.
#_________________________________

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Hyperaspidius bryanti Nunenmacher
Fig. 306 a-d; Map, Fig. 307

Hyperaspidius bryanti Nunenmacher, 1948, p. 7.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.0 mm, width 1.10 to 1.45 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with basal 2/3 dark brown except lateral margin yellow; female pronotum dark reddish brown except lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron with lateral and discal vittae connected across base, extending to posterior 2/3, broadly separated from apical spot,
or with discal vitta reduced to discal spot (Fig. 306 d).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 306 a-c.

Discussion.
The form with the discal vitta on the elytron reduced to a spot is very distinctive, unlike any other species known from Arizona.
The typical form is less striking, but the widely separated apical spot is unusual.
The male genitalia are quite different from those of other species of Hyperaspidius in the triangular form of the basal lobe.

Type locality.
Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 307 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Dragoon. Coconino Co., Sedona. Pima Co., Tucson. Santa Cruz Co., Sonoita.
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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 307 . Distribution. Hyperaspidius simulates (open circle); H. pallescens (dot); H. bryanti (star);
## H. nanella (square), H. flavocephalus (circled star); H. blatchleyi (open star).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspidius nacelles , new species
Fig. 308 a-d; Map, Fig. 307

Description.
Male, length 2.0 mm, width I .15 mm.
Form oblong, outline of pronotum and elytron slightly discontinuous, lateral margin of elytron feebly rounded.
Head yellow except vertex yellowish brown; pronotum yellow with obscure brownish yellow maculation in basal 1/3;
elytron entirely yellow (fig. 308d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter or less; pronotal punctures slightly coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron coarser than on pronotum, separated by less than to twice a diameter.
Metasternum with fine, dense punctures laterally, nearly impunctate medially.
Abdominal sterna with fine, dense punctures.
Postcoxal line complete (male) or widely incomplete (female), area within line alutaceous, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 308 a-c.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: Brownsville, VII, Wickham, Hyperaspis? cinctus?, Wickham Collection USNM (101334).

Allotype.
Female. TEXAS: Prairie 10 mi NE Brownsville, 25.5.04, HS Barber Collector. (USNM).

Paratype.
Total 1 (Fig. 307 ). TEXAS: Burleson Co., 4/11/34, J.C. Gaines Collector (WHN).

The entirely pale elytron of this species distinguishes it from all other species except H. transfugatus which has no maculation on the pronotum
and is known only from east of the Mississippi River and Minnesota.
The specific name is from the Latin nanus, referring to the small size and generally insignificant appearance.

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 308 . Hyperaspidius nanelle.
#_________________________________

vittigerus group

Prosternum coarsely, often densely punctured;
male genitalia with basal lobe not longer than paramere, with strong, abrupt lateral angulation in basal 1/3 (Fig. 309 a).

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Hyperaspidius flavocephalus Blatchley
Fig. 309 a-d; Map, Fig. 307

Hyperaspidius flavocephalus Blatchley, 1 924, p. 167.—Korschefsky, 193 1, p. 199.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 mm, width 1.60 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron nearly straight.
Pronotum of male reddish yellow with irregular, obscure brown maculation in basal 1/3.
Elytron black except Numeral angle narrowly yellow on margin from base to just beyond callus (fig. 309d).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete, area within line alutaceous, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 309 a-c.

Discussion.
The male holotype is the only specimen of this species examined. I regard H. flavocephah^ls as a valid species,
but it is very similar in appearance to H. nubilatus and H. marginatus;
the male genitalia of each species are apparently distinctive, and the dorsal color patterns are also different for each species.
See remarks under H. blatchleyi, n. name. The holotype of H. flavocephalus is labeled "Dunedin,

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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 309 . Hyperaspidius flavocephalus.
#_______________________________________

Fla W.S.B. Coll. 3-27-18/822/Purdue Blatchley collection/Type(red paper)/Hyperas pid ius flavocephalus Blatch.".

Type locality.
Dunedin, Florida.

Type depository.
PU.

Distribution.
Figure 307 . FLORIDA: Pinellas Co., Dunedin.

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Hyperaspidius blatchleyi , new name
Fig. 310 a-e; Map, Fig. 307

Hyperaspidius flavocephalus Marshall, 1945, p. 177 (not flavocephalus Blatchley, 1924).

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.40 mm, width 1.30 to 1.60 mm.
Form rounded, oval, lateral margin of elytron definitely curved.
Head and pronotum yellow, pronotum

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 310 . Hyperaspidius blatchleyi.
#____________________________________

with median black area at base projecting forward at middle.
Elytron black with short, yellow vitta on lateral margin from humeral angle to middle (Fig. 31 Oe).
Surface of head alutaceous7 finely punctured, punctures separated by 2 or 3 times a diameter,
surface of pronotum strongly alutaceous, punctures larger than on head, separated by 2 or 3 times a diameter;
surface of elytron smooth, punctures coarse, larger than on pronotum, separated by 2 to 4 times a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured laterally, nearly impunctate medially.
Abdominal sterna densely, coarsely punctured; postcoxal line narrowly incomplete, area within line alutaceous, coarsely punctured (Fig. 310 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 310 a-c.

Type locality.
Berlin, Massachusetts.

Type depository.
Location of allotype unknown.

Distribution.
Figure 307 . MASSACHUSETTS: Berlin; Natick; Wayla^Dd.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 311 Hyperaspidius nubilatus.
#__________________________________

Discussion.
This species has been identified as H. flavocephalus Blatchley by previous authors. However, the male pronotal color patterns are quite different;
the body form of H. blatchleyi is rounded, that of H. flavocephalus is oblong. In addition, the male genitalia are distinctive for each species.
I name this species for W. S. Blatchley. Marshall (1945) discussed this species under the name H. flavocephalus Blatchley, and described an allotype and parallotypes.

Hyperaspidius nubilatus (Casey), new combination
Figs. 31 lam; Map, Fig. 314

Hyperaspis nubilata Casey, 1924, p. 166.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.
Hyperaspis asphalting Casey, 1924, p. 166.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 184.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 83. New Combination.

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#____________________________________
##Fig, 312. Hyperaspidius marginatus.
#____________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.70 mm, width 1.30 to 2.0 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male black or dark brown with nebulous black areas in basal, always with lateral margin narrowly yellow;
female pronotum entirely black except anterior angle obscurely yellowish brown.
Elytron black except humeral angle obscurely yellowish brown, or with yellow vitta extending from humeral angle to middle (Fig. 3 l 1 d, e),
occasional specimens with nebulus brown areas.
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete (male) or widely incomplete (female), area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 311 a-c.

Discussion.
This species most closely resembles H. flavocephalus (see comments under that species) and H. marginatus.
In H. marginatus the lateral margin of the elytron is yellow from the humeral angle to the apex.
In H. nubilatus the margin is either not yellow or yellow from the humeral angle to the midpoint.
The type of H. nubilatus is a unique female (holotype).
There are 8 types of H. asphalting, and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype and the remainder as paralectotypes

Type locality.
Of nubilatus and asphalting (lectotype here designated), Southern Pines, North Carolina.

Type depository.
Of nubilatus (35156) and asphaltina (35157), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 314 . FLORIDA: Duval Co., Jacksonville. GEORGIA: Grady Co., Beachton, Hutchison Place; Dodge Co., Chester. NORTH CAROLINA: Moore Co., Southern Pines

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 313 . Hyperasidius venustulus.
#___________________________________


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Hyperaspidius marginatus (Gaines), new combination
Fig. 312 a-d; Map, Fig. 314

Hyperaspis fimbriolata marginatus Gaines, 1933, p. 263.
Hyperaspis marginata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 58.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.75 to 2.40 mm, width, 1.30 to 1.75 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Head yellow or brownish yellow in both sexes.
Pronotum reddish brown with nebulous brown maculation in male and some females, other females with pronotum dark brown except lateral border broadly yellow.
Elytron dark brown or black with broad, yellow vitta on lateral margin from humeral angle nearly to apex (Fig. 312 d).
Postcoxal line in both sexes widely incomplete, area within line alutaceous, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 312 a-c.

Discussion.
The complete yellow vitta on the lateral border of the elytron will separate marginatus from any other species of Hyperaspidius.
The resemblance of H. marginatus to Hyperaspis fimbriolata is remarkable, and that resemblance is the reason H. marginatus was described as a subspecies of fimbriolata in Hyperaspis. Dobzhansky (1941) raised it to species level.

Type locality.
College Station, Texas.

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 314 . Distribution. Hyperaspidius nubilatus (dot); H. marginatus (star); H. venustulus (open circle);
##H. insignis (square); H. algodonus (circled star); H. wolcottt (open star).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (53746).

Distribution.
Figure 314 TEXAS: Brazos Co., College Station; Colorado Co., Columbus; Refugio Co., Refugio; Robertson Co., Calvert; San Patricio Co., Sinton, Welder Wildlife Refuge; Victoria Co., Victoria.

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Hyperaspidius venustulus (Mulsant)
Fig. 313 ; Map, Fig. 314

Hyperaspis venustula Mulsant, 1850, p. 671.—Crotch, 1873, p. 381 (as a synonym of Hyperaspis lugubris).—Crotch, 1874b, p. 235.—Weise, 1895a, p. 129.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 21.
Hyperaspidius venustulus: Gordon, 1974c, p. 210.

Diagnosis.
length 2.80 mm, width 1.85 mm.
Form elongate, lateral margin of elytron rounded in apical.
Pronotum yellowish red.
Elytron black with 4 yellow spots (Fig. 313 ).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, narrowly incomplete, area within line alutaceous, nearly impunctate.

Discussion.
I have seen only two specimens of this species, one of which is the female lectotype, and another female from Georgia.
The large size, elongate body, and dorsal color pattern make H. venustulus an outstanding species that is unlike any other North American species of Hyperaspini.

Type locality.
"Amer. bar., LeConte" (lectotype designated by Gordon, 1974c).

Type depository.
Dejean Collection (DLM).

Distribution.
Figure 314 . GEORGIA: Myrtle.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 315 . Hyperaspidius insignis. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________________


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Hyperaspidius insignis Casey
Fig. 31 Sa-f; Map, Fig. 314

Hyperaspidius insignis Casey, 1899, p. 131—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.25 to 3.20 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm.
Form oblong, lateral

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 316 . Hyperaspidius algodonus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________


margin of elytron feebly curved.
Head pale in both sexes.
Pronotum in both sexes yellow with reddish yellow maculation, often reddish yellow with reddish brown maculation.
Elytron black with complete yellow border on anterior and lateral margins, discal spot on apical sometimes connected to anterior border (Figs. 31 Se, I).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete in both sexes (Fig. 31 Sd), area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 31 Sa-c.

Discussion.
The pale pronotum and head in both sexes along with the usually large, robust body form distinguish H. insignis from other members of the vittigerus group.
No known species occurring in the same geographic area is similar in appearance.
There are 2 type specimens of H. insignis in the Casey collection, I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, and the other, a female, as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Colorado Springs, Colorado (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (3 5219).

Distribution.
Figure 314 . ALBERTA: Medicine Hat. COLORADO: Chaffee Co.,

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 317 . Hyperaspidius wolcotti. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________________

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Buena Vista; E1 Paso Co., Colorado Springs. OKLAHOMA: Woodward Co, Woodward.

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Hyperaspidius algodonus , new species
Fig. 316 a-d; Map, Fig. 314

Description.
Male, length 2.0 mm, width 1.40 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron straight.
Head and pronotum yellow, pronotum with faint, nebulous maculation in basal L.
Elytron black with complete yellow vitta on anterior and lateral borders connected to incomplete discal vitta (Fig. 316 d).
Punctures on head and pronotum extremely fine, barely perceptible, surface of pronotum smooth, polished;
punctures on elytron fine, distinct, separated by one to 3 times a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured laterally, nearly impunctate medially.
Abdominal sterna with fine punctures separated by 2 or 3 times a diameter.
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete, area within line alutaceous, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 316 a-c.

Holotype.
Male. CALIFORNIA: Imperial Co., Algodones Dunes, 7 mi SE Glamis, 25°55'20"N,114°59'14"W, Site 4, III-25-79 to IV-8-1979 (USNM 101335).
The holotype is the only example of this species I have seen. The dorsal color pattern is like that of H. insignis,
but the pronotal surface is smooth and polished in H. algodonus, dull and alutaceous in H. insignis. The specific name refers to the type locality.

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Hyperaspidius wolcotti (Nunenmacher)
Fig. 317 a-e; Map, Fig. 314

Hyperaspis wolcotti Nunenmacher, 1911, p. 73.
Hyperaspidius wolcotti: Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200.—Dob
zhansky, 1941, p. 86.—Nunenmacher, 1944, p. 144.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.60 mm, width 1.40 to 1.80 mm.
Form oblong, convex, somewhat rounded, lateral margin of elytron curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with black maculation in basal l; female pronotum black, lateral margin broadly yellow.
Elytron black with complete yellow vitta on lateral margin, irregular, incomplete discal vitta present (Fig. 317 d, e).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, densely, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 317 a-c.

Discussion.
The rounded, convex body form and dorsal color pattern will separate H. wolcotti from any species presently known from the same geographic area.
The species most similar to H. wolcotti is H. hercules, but the distribution patterns are widely disjunct.

Type locality.
Pine Barrens, Buffington, Indiana.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 314 . INDIANA: Lake Co., Buffington, Pine Barrens; Hessville. IOWA: Emme^n Co., Esthemlle. KANSAS: Riley Co.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 318 . Hyperaspidius oblongus. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________


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Hyperspidius oblongus Casey
Fig. 318 a-d, Map, Fig. 320

Hyperaspidius oblongus Casey, 1908, p. 421.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspidius trimaculatus: Casey, 1899, p. 130 (not trimaculatus L., 1767).

Diagnosis.
Length 1.70 to 2.30 mm, width 1.20 to 1.65 mm.
Form oblong, somewhat convex, lateral margin of elytron straight.
Pronotum of male yellow with nebulous brown maculation in basal; female pronotum black with lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron black with complete yellow vitta on anterior and lateral borders connected to incomplete discal vitta (Fig. 318 d).
Postcoxal line narrowly incomplete in both sexes, area within line alutaceous, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 318 a-c.
Discussion.
This species, H. shauli, and H. ingenitus are very similar in appearance with H. oblongus and H. ingenitus being extremely similar.
The pronotal punctures of H. ingenitus are definitely larger than the elytral punctures, the other two species have the elytral punctures larger than the prenatal punctures.
The body form of H.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 319 . Hyperaspidius ingenitus. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

shauli is distinctive because it is strongly dorsoventrally flattened and the elytra are parallel sided, while H. oblongus is somewhat convex in lateral view and does not appear extremely parallel sided.
It is possible that H. oblongus and H. ingenitus are nonspecific; but there are differences in the male genitalia that I consider significant, therefore I regard each as a valid species.
There are 4 type specimens of H. oblongus, I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
El Paso, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35214).

Distribution.
Figure 320 . TEXAS: Colorado Co., Columbus; Duval Co., San Diego; E1 Paso Co., E1 Paso.

Top

Hyperaspidius ingenitus Casey
Fig. 319 a-d; Map, Fig. 320

Hyperaspidius ingenitus Casey, 1899, p. 131.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 320 . Distribution. Hyperaspdius oblongus (star); H. ingenitus (open circle); H. shauli (square); H. vittigerus (dot).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 1.75 to 2.50 mm, width 1 10 to 1.60 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved (Fig. 319 d).
Description as for H. oblongus except area within postcoxal line coarsely, sparely punctured;
male genitalia as in Figure 319 a-c.
Discussion.
For comparison of H. ingenitus to similar appearing species, see comments under H. oblongus.
The type of H. ingenitus is a unique male (holotype).

Type locality.
Las Cruces, New Mexico.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 321 . Hyperaspidius shauli. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (35218).

Distribution.
Figure 320 . NEW MEXICO: Dona Ana Co., Las Cruces.

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Hyperaspidius shauli Nunenmacher
Fig. 321 a-d; Map, Fig. 320

Hyperaspidius shauli Nunenmacher, 1944, p. 145.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 2.0 mm, width 0.90 to 1.10 mm.
Form oblong, elongate, extremely parallel sided, strongly dorsoventrally flattened.
Pronotum of male yellow with nebulous brown maculation in basal;
female pronotum mostly yellow with median brown area.
Elytron brown with complete yellow vitta on lateral and anterior margins connected to complete or incomplete broad discal vitta (Fig. 321 d).
Postcoxal line complete in both sexes, area within line smooth, polished, with indistinct, coarse punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 321 a-c.

Discussion.
Some of the differences between H. shauli and similar species are discussed under H. oblongus.
In addition, the complete postcoxal line with area inside of the line smooth are characters not shared with H. oblongus or H. ingenitus.

Type locality.
Perryton, Texas.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 320 . TEXAS: type locality.

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#_________________________________________________________
##Fig. 322 . Hyperaspidius vittigerus. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
#_________________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspidius vittigerus (LeConte)
Fig. 322 a-d; Map, Fig. 320

Hyperaspis vittigera LeConte, 1852, p. 133.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 231.
Hyperaspidius trimaculata: Crotch, 1873, p. 382 (not trimaculata L., 1767).
Hyperaspidius vittigera: Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200. Hyperaspidius vittigerus: Wingo, 1952, p. 26.—Belicek, 1976, p. 309.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.50 to 2.05 mm, width 1.25 to 1.50 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with black maculation in

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basal; female pronotum dark brown or black, lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron black with complete yellow vitta on anterior and lateral borders, discal vitta incomplete or connected to lateral vitta at apex (Fig. 322 g).
Postcoxal line nearly complete (male) or widely incomplete (female) (Fig. 322 e, f), area within line alutaceous, finely, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 322 a-c.
female genitalia as in Figure 322 d.

Discussion.
The key characters and the differences in male genitalia are the only characteristics I can find to distinguish H. vittigerus from H. hercules (see comments under H. hercules).
Superficially H. vittigerus resembles H. mimus even more than it does H. hercules, but H. vittigerus and H. mimus are in different groups within the genus.
LeConte (1852) had more than one type specimen, but only a single male in his collection can now be identified as a type with certainty.
I here designate and label this specimen labeled "(green disc)/4656/Type 6725 (red paper)/H. vittigera LeC." as the lectotype.

Type locality.
"Missouri Territory" (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 310 . ALBERTA: Edmonton; Medicine Hat. COLORADO: El Paso Co., Colorado Springs; Larimer Co., Fort Collins; Weld Co., Pawnee National Grassland; Yuma Co., Wray. IDAHO: St. Anthony sand dunes. MONTANA: Petroleum Co., Winnett; Valley Co., Glasgow. NEW MEXICO: Roswell. NORTH DAKOTA: Grant Co., Lake Tschida. SOUTH DAKOTA: Hutchinson Co., Tripp. WYOMING: Teton Co., Grand Teton Park.

Top

Hyperaspidius hercules Belicek
Fig. 323 a-f; Map, Fig. 324

Hyperaspidius hercules Belicek, 1976, p. 308.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.10 to 4.0 mm, width 1.50 to 2.20 mm.
Form oblong, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Pronotum of male yellow with black maculation in basal;
female pronotum black, lateral margin narrowly, obscurely yellow.
Elytron black with complete yellow villa on anterior and lateral borders, discal vitta incomplete or narrowly connected to lateral villa atapex (Fig. 323 e, I).
Postcoxal line complete in male, narrowly incomplete in female (Fig. 323 d), area within line alutaceous, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 323 a-c.

Discussion.
Most specimens of this species are large (more than 3.5 mm long), but a few, usually males, are smaller and these are difficult to distinguish from vittigerus without examining the male genitalia.
The specimens of typical size are outstanding on that characteristic alone.

Type locality.
Medicine Hat, Alberta.

Type depository.
CNC.

Distribution.
Figure 324 . ALBERTA: Medicine Hat. CALIFORNIA: Eureka Valley. COLORADO: Denver Co., Denver. IDAHO: Cassia Co., Burley; Jefferson Co., Terreton; Twin Falls Co., Buhl, Twin Falls. MONTANA: Winnett. NEVADA: Churchill Co., Sand Mountain; Humboldt Co. UTAH: Emery Co., 22 mi. n. Hanksville; Tooele Co., Dugway Proving Ground. WYOMING: Goshen Co., Hell Gap Camp; Laramie Co., Cheyenne; Teton Co., Grand Teton Park.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 323 . Hyperaspidius hercules. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#____________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspidius andrewsi , new species
Fig. 325 a-e; Map, Fig. 324

Description.
Male, length 2.10 mm, width 1.40 mm.
Form elongate, slender, narrowed posteriorly, lateral margin of elytron feebly curved.
Head and pronotum yellow, pronotum with base narrowly black medially, 4 maculae present in basal I.
Elytron yellow with sutural margin narrowly black, narrow, black vitta present me-

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#______________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 324 . Distribution. Hyperaspidius hercules (dot); H. andrewsi (star); H. hardyi (square).
#______________________________________________________________________________________________

dially, widely separated from basal and apical margins (Fig. 325 d, e).
Punctures on head extremely fine, barely visible; pronotal punctures larger than on head, separated by 2 or 3 times a diameter;
surface of elytron dull, reticulate, punctures larger than on pronotum, separated by a diameter or less.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured laterally,, nearly impunctate medially.
Abdominal sterna densely, finely punctured; postcoxal line complete, area within line alutaceous, densely punctured;
apex of 6th sternum with lateral angle abrupt, emarginate medially.
Male genitalia as in Figure 325 a-c.

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 325 . Hyperaspidius andrewsi. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________________

Female, length 2.35 mm, width 1.65 mm.
Similar to holotype except head black; pronotum black except lateral % and small median spot near apex yellow;
6th abdominal sternum abruptly narrowed toward apex, apex rounded.

Variation.
Length 1.80 to 2.65 mm, width 1.20 to 1.80 mm.
The male pronotum may lack some or all of the maculae in the basal L,
and the female may have the median pronotal yellow spot either entirely lacking,
or expanded to reach apical margin.

Holotype.
Male. UTAH: Kane Co., Coral Pink Sand Dunes, VII-16-75, Fred G. Andrews, A. R. Hardy (USNM 101336).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 10 (Fig. 324 ). All with same data as holotype. (USNM) (CDA).

This species is the most striking and distinctive of all known species of Hyperaspidius.
The elongate, epically tapered body, straw yellow color, and strongly modified

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 326 . Hyperaspidius hardyi. a. b. c. d. e.
#_______________________________________________

6th sternum of both sexes are highly diagnostic. I name the species for one of the collectors of the type series.

Top

Hyperaspidius hardyi , new species
Fig. 326 a-e; Map, Fig. 324

Description.
Male, length 2.10 mm, width 1.65 mm.
Form rounded, convex, lateral margin of elytron definitely curved.
Head and pronotum yellow, pronotum with bilobed black area in basal, each lobe with yellow spot present.
Elytron yellow, narrow sutural margin and broad median vitta dark brown (Fig. 326 d, e).
Punctures on head extremely fine, barely perceptible; pronotal punctures larger than on head, separated by one to 3 times a diameter;
punctures on elytron equal in size to prenatal punctures except on brown median vitta, there becoming coarse, separated by one

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to 3 times a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured laterally, nearly impunctate medially.
Abdominal sterna coarsely punctured; postcoxal line complete, area within line shiny, polished, densely punctured.
Genitalia as in Figure 326 a-c.

Female, length 2.20 mm, width 1.75 mm. Similar to holotype except head brownish yellow, vertex dark brown;
pronotum dark brown except lateral 1/4 yellow, midline with faint yellowish brown vitta.

Variation.
Length 2.10 to 3.0 mm, width 1.65 to 2.0 mm.
The female head may be yellow except vertex black, and the female pronotum may have the black area reduced, as in the male.

Holotype.
Male. CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino Co., Cadiz Dunes, IV-25-78, Alan R. Hardy & F. G. Andrews, walking dunes at night (USNM 101337).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 6 (fig. 324). Five with same data as holotype; 1, 6 mi. N Palm Springs Calif., VII-8-54, G. H. Nelson, Snow Creek, on Ephedra californica. (USNM) (CDA) (WHN).

This species has the facies of a member of Hyperaspis rather than Hyperaspidius because of the round, convex body shape.
On that basis alone this species is quite distinctive, also, the coarse punctures on the elytron are confined to the median brown vitta,
which I have not observed in any other Hyperaspidius species. I name this species for one of the collectors of the type series.

Genus Helesius

Helesius Casey, 1899, p. 129.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 202.— Chapin, 1966, p. 280. Type-species; Helesius nubilans Casey, by subsequent des
ignation of Korschefsky, 1931.

Hyperaspini with body elongate, oval, dorsoventrally convex; dorsal surface glabrous.
Head and pronotum red, or head red, pronotum reddish brown; elytron brown or black.
Antenna 10-segmented (Fig. 327 a); antennal insertion concealed.
Eye entire.
Scutellum large, wider than long.
Epipleuron of elytron narrow, obliquely inclined toward outer margin, strongly excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices.
Prosternum with 2 parallel carinae not convergent anteriorly.
Posterior margin of metasternum abruptly descending between coxa and lateral margin.
Leg with femur and tibia compressed, apex of tibia thickened, excavated for reception of tarsal base (Fig. 327 b);
hind femur extremely broad; tarsal claw without tooth.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete, of Scymnus type (Fig. 327 c).
Apical abdominal sternum of male feebly emarginate. Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical, paramere rooted in phallobase (Fig. 328 a).
Female genitalia with compound spermathecal capsule (Fig. 327 d); coxal plate transverse.

This genus is distinctive in the North American hyperaspine fauna because the legs are compressed and the hind femur is extremely robust.
Also, the apex of each tibia is thickened and excavated.
The genitalia (male and female) are of the type possessed by the species in Section I of Hyperaspis,
and Helesius is more closely related to Hyperaspis than to any other genus of Hyperaspini.
There are 3 species presently described in Helesius, 2 of these are North American and one was described from Colombia.


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#____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 327 . Helesius sp. a. Antenna. b. Front leg. c. Postcoxal line. d Spermathecal capsule.
#____________________________________________________________________________________________

A total of 9 specimens have been examined; no host data is on record for any member of this genus.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Helesius

1. Punctures on head and elytron dense, Colorado, Montana .... nigripennis (LeConte)
- Punctures on head not apparent, barely perceptible, punctures on elytron fine, indistinct; Texas .... nubilans Casey

Top

Helesius nigripennis (LeConte)
Fig. 327 d; Map, Fig. 329

Scymnus nigripennis LeConte, 1878b, p. 453.
Helesius nigripennis: Casey, 1899, p. 129.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 202.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.45 to 3.0 mm, width 1.75 to 2.0 mm.
Head red. Pronotum red in lateral 1/3 with poorly defined reddish brown area medially.
Elytron black or dark brown.
Female genitalia as in Figure 327 d.

Discussion.
The type in the LeConte collection labeled "8000 ft., Florissant, Col., Aug. 17-22, 1877/Type 6724(red paper)/S. nigripennis Lec./is a Hyperaspis", is a holotype.
I have not seen a male of this species.

Type locality.
Colorado, Florissant, 8,000 feet.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 329 . COLORADO: Teller Co., Florissant. MONTANA: Lewis and Clark Co., Helena.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 328 . Helesius nubilans. a. b. c. d. e.
#____________________________________________

Top

Helesius nubilans Casey
Fig. 328 a-e; Map, Fig. 329

Helesius nubilans Casey, 1899, p. 129.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.80 to 3.0 mm, width 2.10 to 2.25 mm.
Head red.
Pronotum dark red in lateral 1/3 with poorly defined reddish brown area medially.
Elytron black or dark brown (Fig. 328 e).
Male genitalia as in Figure 328 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 328 d. Discussion.
All specimens of H. nubilans examined, with one exception, have been

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#_______________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 329 . Distribution. Helesius nignpennis (star); H. nubilans (dot).
#_______________________________________________________________________

collected in the Brownsville, Texas area.
The exception is a female (USNM) from San Antonio, Texas.
This specimen has an entirely red pronotum and is larger (3.5 mm long) than normal for H. nubilans.
There is a good possibility that the specimen represents an undescribed species, but a male is needed to ascertain this.
There are 2 female type specimens of H. nubilans in the Casey collection, I here designate and label one as the lectotype and the other a paralectotype.

Type locality
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35213).

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#___________________________________________________________________________________
##Distribution. Figure 329 . TEXAS: Bexar Co., San Antonio; Cameron Co., Brownsville.
#___________________________________________________________________________________

Genus Thalassa

Thalassa Mulsant, 1850, p. 511.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 209.—Gorham, 1894, p. 182.— Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Kowhefsky, 1931, p. 209.—Chapin, 1966, p. 280. Typespecies; Chilocorus pentaspilotus Chevrolat, by subsequent designation of Crotch, 1874b.

Hyperaspini with body rounded, convex; dorsal surface glabrous.
Head yellow in male, black or bluish black in female.
Antenna 11-segmented (Fig. 330 a); antennal insertion exposed.
Eye entire.
Epipleuron of elytron wide, strongly descending externally, deeply excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices.
Prosternum with 2 parallel, incomplete carinae. Posterior margin of metasternum abruptly descending between coxa and lateral margin.
Leg compressed, anterior tibia flattened, rounded or angulate at anterior part of outer margin; tarsal claw with large basal tooth (Fig. 330 b).
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete, of Scymnus type (Fig. 330 c).
Apical abdominal sternum in male feebly emarginate.
Male genitalia with basal lobe asymmetrical, paramere rooted in phallobase (Fig. 330 d).
Female genitalia with compound spermatheca, basal portion with appendix, coxal plate transverse (Fig. 331 b).

The only species of this genus known to occur north of Mexico is Thalassa montezumae Mulsant, which can be recognized on body form and dorsal color pattern.
The primary diagnostic characteristics of the genus as a whole are the strongly descending, deeply foveolate elytral epipleura^7 and the expanded tibial apices.
Thalassa is a New World genus containing 6 described species ranging from Arizona and Cuba to Brazil.
The only host record seen for Thalassa species is the soft scale, Toumeyella mirabilis (Cockerell).

Top

Thalassa montezumae Mulsant
Fig. 330 a-f, Fig. 331 a, b; Map, Fig. 332

Thalassa montezumae Mulsant, 1850, p. 512.—Crotch, 1873, p. 364.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 209.—Gorham, 1894, p. 183.—Leng, 1903, p. 211.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 209.

Diagnosis.
Length 4.50 to 5.80 mm, width 4.0 to 5.0 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Male pronotum bluish black with anterior and lateral margins narrowly yellow;
female pronotum entirely bluish black except anterolateral angle barely perceptibly yellow.
Elytron bluish black with reddish yellow spot in apical ' (Fig. 331 a).
***error
Male genitalia as in Figure 330 d-f.

Discussion.
Two type specimens of montezumae exist in the Crotch collection,
and I here designate one of these labeled "Mexico/Type/" as the lectotype, the other specimen as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
"Mexique" (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
UCCC.

Distribution.
Figure 332 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., San Bernardino Ranch; Douglas;

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 330 . Thalassa montezurnae. a. Antenna. b. Front leg. c. Postcoxal line. d-f. Male genitalia.
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Graham Mts.; Huachucha Mts.; Oslar; Nogales; Palmerlee; Ruby; Santa Rita Mts., Tucson; Wilcox. TEXAS: Brownsville; Harlingen.

Genus Hyperaspis Redtenbacher

Hyperaspis Redtenbacher,1844,p.8.—Mulsant,1850,p.649.—Costa, 1849,P.64.— Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 224.—Gorham, 1894, p. 191.—Wick

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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 331 . Thalassa montezumae. a. b.
#_____________________________________

ham, 1894, p. 299.—Casey, 1899, p. 120.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 521.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 177.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 1.—Wingo, 1952, p. 17.—Chapin, 1966, p. 280.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 39.—Belicek, 1976, p. 309. Type-species; Coccinella reppensis Herbst, by subsequent designation of Crotch, 1874b.

Oxynychus LeConte, 1850, p. 238.—LeConte, 1852, p. 130.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 649.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 239.—Chapuis, 1876, p. 258.—Weise, 1890, p. 489.— Casey, 1899, p. 116.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 200.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 78.— Bielawski, 1959, p. 54. Type-species; Oxynychus moerens LeConte, by monotypy. (Korschefsky, 1931, incorrectly listed Coccinella erythrocephalus F. as the typespecies of Oxynychus.)

Hyperaspis(Oxynychus): Mulsant, 1850, p. 694.—Mader, 1955, p. 850.—Miyatake, 1961, p. 154.—Kamiya, 1963, p. 79.

Hyperaspini with form elongate, oval, or rounded, dorsoventrally flattened or hemispherical; dorsum glabrous.
Head usually yellow in male, brown or black in female; elytron usually with pale maculation on dark background, rarely immaculate.
Antenna 10 or 11-segmented (Fig. 333 a, b); antennal insertion exposed.
Scutellum large, wider than long. Epipleuron of elytron narrow, not descending externally,
often medially grooved, distinctly excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices (Fig. 333 d).
Prosternum with 2 carinae convergent anteriorly (Fig. 333 c).

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 332 . Distribution. Thalassa montezumae.
#_____________________________________________

Posterior margin of metasternum abruptly descending between coxa and lateral mar^un.
Leg with femur and tibia slightly compressed; anterior tibia simple; tarsal claw with or without basal tooth.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete, of Scymnus (Scymnus) type (Fig. 333 e).
Apical abdominal sternum in male not or very weakly modified.
Male genitalia with median lobe asymmetrical, paramere rooted in phallobase (Fig. 334 a).
Female genitalia with compound spermathecal capsule (Fig. 334 d), basal portion with appendix; coxal plate usually transverse.
Most members of Hyperaspis are easily recognized by the key characters, however,

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 333 . Hyperaspis sp. a, b. Antennae. c. Prosternum. d. Epipleuron. e. Postcoxal lines. f. Front leg.
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

some of the species have the epipleural excavations reduced, and if not examined closely, may be confused with species of Hyperaspidius.
Hyperaspis is found worldwide, but the bunk of the species of this huge genus are neotropical,
with 103 species and subspecies occurring in America north of Mexico.

I have not been able to locate type specimens of H. horni Crotch and H. subsignata Crotch,
nor can their identity be determined from the original description, therefore they must remain unrecognized species.
H. annularis Boheman does not occur north of Mexico and is here deleted from the list of North American species.
Four species formerly placed in Hyperaspis, H. asphalting Casey, H. nubilata Casey, H. marginata Gaines,
and H. tristis LeConte, are transferred to Hyperaspidius.
Two species, H. microsticta Casey and H. triplicans Casey are transferred to Brachiacantha.
These reassignments are based on examination of primary types.

Host records indicate that species of Hyperaspis prey only on families of Homoptera,
and that many families within that order serve as hosts;
the families Pseudococcidae and Coccidae the most frequently attacked (El-Ali, unpubl. dissertation).
Specific host records are as follows: Scale insects; Amonostherium (=Erium) lichtensiodes (Cockerell),
Antonina graminis (Maskell), Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret), Bodenheimera racheli (Bodenheimer),
Ceroplastes sinensis (Del Guercio), Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn), Coccus hesperidum (L.),
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), Dactylopius coccus Costa, Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell), Dactylopius opuntiae

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(Cockerell), Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck), Dactylopius spp., Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell),
Dysmicoccus (=Pseudococcus) boninsis (Kuwana), Dysmicoccus (=Pseudococcus) ryani (Coquillett),
Eriococcus quercus (Comstock), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Icerya purchasi (Maskell),
"Inglisia" malvacearum (Cockerell), Lecanium spp., Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman),
Maconellicoccus (=Phenacoccus) hirsutus (Green), Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Pergande),
Metaceronema japonica (Maskell), Neopulvinaria ineretina (Khazhibeili),
Nipaecoccus (=Pseudococcus) aurilanatus (Maskell), Nipaecoccus (=Pseudococcus) filamentosus (Cockerell),
Nipaecoccus (=Pseudococcus) nipae (Maskell), Orthezia artemisiae (Cockerell), Orthezia urticae (Linn),
Orthezia spp., Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), Phenacoccus acericola (King), Phenacoccus colemani (Ehrhorn),
Phenacoccus gossypii (Townsend and Cockerell), Phenacoccus helianthi (Cockerell),
Phenacoccus pergandei (Cockerell), Physokermes insignicola (Craw), Planococcus (=Pseudococcus) citri (Risso),
Planococcus kenyae (LePelly), Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell), Protopulvinaria fukayai (Kuwana),
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Pseudococcus citriculus (Green),
Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti),
Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), Pseudococcus spp., Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley),
Pulvinaria aurantii (Cockerell), Pulvinaria citricola (Kuwana); Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood),
Pulvinaria hazae Kuwana, Pulvinaria hydrangeae (Steinweden), Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon),
Pulvinaria torreyae (Takahashi), Pulvinaria vitis (L.), Pulvinaria spp.,
Puto (=Pseudococcus) yuccae (Coquillett), Ripersia sp., Saccharicoccus (=Pseudococcus) sacchari (Cockerell),
Saccharicoccus (=Trionymus) sacchari, Selenaspidus (=Pseudaonidia) articulatus (Morgan),
Sphaerolecanium prunastri (Boyer de Fonscolombe), Spilococcus (=Pseudococcus) sequoiae (Coleman),
Takahashia japonica (Cockerell), Toumeyella liriodendri (Gmelin), Toumeyella mirabilis (Cockerell),
Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell), Toumeyella pini (King), Toumeyella pinicola (Ferris),
Trionymus insularis (Ehrhorn), Unaspis citri (Comstock). Aphids; Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis fabae (Scopoli),
Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, Aphis pomi Degeer, Cryptosiphum artemisiae (Buckton),
Cryptosiphum gallarum (Kaltenbach), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner),
Myzus malisuctus (Matsumura), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani),
Siphaflava (Forbes), Toxoptera citricidus (Kirkaldy).

The North American species of Hyperaspis were taxonomically treated by Dobzhansky (1941),
and the California species were recently the object of an excellent dissertation (unpubl.) by El-Ali at the University of California, Berkeley.
I have made extensive use of El-Ali's findings in preparing this section on Hyperaspis.

El-Ali was the first to realize that species of Hyperaspis possessed both 10 and 11-segmented antennae,
and he based his first major species grouping on this. He then proceeded to define 19 minor groupings,
modifying to a great extent Dobzhansky's (1941) grouping.
The groups I recognize here differ to some extent from those of E1Ali, principally for the following reasons:
(1) El-Ali did not have available to him many of the eastern species of Hyperaspis,
and on examining these I find that some of the criteria he used for group definition are rendered useless
because a species often possesses the external characteristics of one group and the internal characteristics of another,
(2) I believe that this type of informal grouping can be justified only

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as long as it serves a practical purpose, therefore, I have combined many of El-Ali's groups because the definitions were tenuous,
making them difficult to recognize and use. The major division based on 11 -segmented or 10-segmented antennae is certainly a valid one,
and I refer to these as Section I and Section II, respectively. Within each of these there are several groups based mainly on the type of genitalia and
somewhat on the body shape and color pattern.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Hyperospis

1. Antenna 11-segmented .... 2
- Antenna 10-segmented .... 53
2(1). Elytron with basal spot near scutellum (Fig. 373 d), spot sometimes connected to discal spot (Fig. 379 ) .... 3
- Elytron without basal spot near scutellum .... 7
3(2). Elytron with 4 or 5 spots .... 4
- Elytron with less than 4 spots, often appearing vittate .... 5
4(3). Pronotum mostly black, lateral border and/or anterior border yellow (Fig. 373 d) .... levrati Mulsant
- Pronotum yellow with irregular, median dark area (Fig. 395 e) .... longicoxitis Nutting
5(3). Elytron with irregular median vitta (connected spots) from base to apex (Fig. 382 d); known only from Mississippi .... esclavium Dobzhansky
- Elytron not as described above; species occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 6
6(5). Basal spot on elytron large, elongate oval, often connected to apical spot, discal spot absent (Fig. 393 d, e) .... fastidiosa Casey
- Basal spot on elytron small, often narrowly connected to small discal spot, discal spot often absent (Fig. 379 d, e) .... revocans Casey
7(2). Elytron entirely black or brown, immaculate: California .... Pluto Fall
- Elytron always with maculation; California and elsewhere .... 8
8(7). Elytron entirely red except narrow lateral border and broad basal border black (Fig. 353 d); known only from Florida .... nigrosuturalis Blatchley
- Elytron not as described above; Florida and elsewhere .... 9
9(8). Elytron with humeral spot or with lateral vitta beginning at humeral angle .... 10
- Elytron without numeral spot or vitta .... 15
10(9). Elytron with lateral vitta extending from numeral angle beyond midpoint .... 11
- Elytron with humeral spot or short vitta not extending beyond midpoint .... 12
11(10). Surface of elytron dull, alutaceous; male pronotum almost entirely yellowish red; discal and apical spots on elytron not connected .... lugubris (Randall)
- Surface of elytron shiny; male pronotum mostly black, or yellow with irregular, median black area; discal and apical spots on elytron often connected, lateral vitta often extending to apical spot (Fig. 393 d, e) .... fastidiosa Casey
12(10). Elytron with 4 yellow spots, discal spot with anterior border emarginate (Fig. 347 d) .... octonotata Casey
- Elytron with no more than 3 red or yellow spots, discal spot not emarginate (often absent) .... 13
13(12). Discal spot on elytron broadly connected to lateral spot (Fig. 368 d) excelsa Fall
- Discal spot on elytron present or absent, if present then not connected to lateral spot (Fig. 365 e, Fig. 367 d) .... 14
14(13). Female pronotum entirely black; male pronotum narrowly yellow on lateral and apical margin (Fig. 36 Se) .... lateralis Mulsant

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- Female pronotum with yellow spot on lateral margin; male pronotum broadly yellow laterally, narrowly yellow epically (Fig. 367 d) .... pinguis Casey
15(9). Apex of clypeus truncate elytron with 2 small, apical spots, usually confluent (Fig. 356 d); coastal localities from Virgina to Georgia .... gemina LeConte
- Apex of clypeus emarginate; elytron not as described above; not restricted to eastern coastal localities .... 16
16(15). Body form nearly rectangular, elongate; elytron with large, median yellow spot extending from lateral margin nearly to suture (Fig.364 d) eastern United States .... lewisi Crotch
- Body form oval or rounded, if somewhat rectangular then not from eastern U.S.; pattern on elytron not as described above; eastern United States and elsewhere .... 17
17(16). Elytron with 3 spots, one discal, one on lateral margin at or just posterior to midpoint, one at apex (Figs. 374d) .... 18
- Elytron with one to 4 spots, if 3 spots present, then not arranged as described above .... 24
18(17). Species not known to occur west or south of Kansas and Missouri .... 19
- Species known only from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona .... 20
19(18). Body form extremely convex, rounded (Fig. 374 d); New England to Minnesota, Kansas, and Missouri .... deludens, n. sp.
- Body form elongate, oblong (Fig. 376 ); known only from "Missouri" and New Jersey .... pratensis LeConte
20(18). Species occurring in Texas .... medialis Casey
- Species occurring in Arizona and New Mexico .... 21
21(20). Lateral spot on elytron posterior to middle (Fig. 38 id) ..... triangulum Casey
- Lateral spot on elytron at middle (Fig. 392 d) .... 22
22(21). Male pronotum with anterior margin black medially (Fig. 392 d); length 1.90 to 2.30 mm .... conspirans Casey
- Male pronotum with anterior margin yellow medially, length 2.20 to 2.80 mm
23(22). Form oval, not strongly convex; apical spot on elytron heart shaped (Fig. 391 d) .... gemma Casey
- Form rounded, strongly convex; apical spot on elytron round (Fig. 378 d) .... aemulator Casey
24(17). Elytron with single apical spot (Fig. 357 e) .... bigeminata (Randall)
- Elytron with one or more spots, if only one spot present, then not located at apex .... 25
25(24). Elytron with large, marginal red spot enclosing small yellow spot, and single apical spot (Fig. 385 d), apical spot may be absent, Utah .... uteana, n. sp.
- Elytron not as described above; Utah and elsewhere .... 26
26(25). Elytron with 2 small spots, one at apex, one on lateral margin in apical 1/3 (Fig. 372 e) .... chapini Dobzhansky
- Elytron not as described above .... 27
27(26). Elytron with 4 spots (Fig. 335 a); Brownsville, Texas .... weisei Schaeffer
- Elytron not as described above .... 28
28(27). Elytron with discal spot and 2 apical spots (Fig. 334 e) .... proba (Say)
- Elytron not as described above .... 29
29(28). Elytron with irregular median vitta extending from base to apex (Fig. 382 d); known only from Mississippi .... esclavium Dobzhansky
- Elytron not as described above; Mississippi and elsewhere .... 30

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30(29). Elytron with single yellow spot on lateral margin in apical I, spot often narrowly elongated posteriorly (Fig. 383 e); California .... osculans LeConte
- Elytron not as described above; California and elsewhere .... 31
31(30). Elytron with 2 spots, one discal, one apical .... 32
- Elytron with single spot in discal area or apical I, spot may be greatly expanded .... 37
32(31). Species occurring only in California Species not occurring in California ....
33(32). Body form convex, rounded (Fig. 386 d); anterior prenatal margin of male black .... mckenziei Nutting
- Body form broad, depressed (Fig. 341 d); anterior pronotal margin of male yellow .... jovialis Fall
34(32). Body form very elongate, oval (Fig. 345 d); mountains of northern New Mexico .... haematosticta Fall
- Body form rounded; not known from New Mexico .... 35
35(34). Body of female dorsoventrally flattened; basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection on left side in ventral view (Fig. 354 a) .... conviva Casey
- Body of female not dorsoventrally flattened; basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection on right side in ventral view .... 36
36(35). Basal lobe of male genitalia not strongly asymmetrical, apex rounded (Fig. 351 a) .... pistillata Watson
- Basal lobe of male genitalia strongly asymmetrical, apex truncate (Figs. 348a) .... signata signata (Olivier)
37(31). Species known only from California .... 38
- Species not occurring in California .... 39
38(37). Spot on elytron distinctly separated from lateral margin, often with small, subapical black spot enclosed (Fig. 341 d) .... jovialis Fall
- Spot on elytron touching or very narrowly separated from lateral margin (Fig. 342 e) .... leachi Nunenmacher
39(37). Anterior margin of prosternum crenate southern Arizona .... oculifera Casey
- Anterior margin of prosternum smooth; Arizona and elsewhere .... 40
40(39). Spot on elytron located in apical ' near apical margin (Fig. 370 d); Florida .... ornatella, n. sp.
***error
- Spot on elytron located in discal area, or if in apical I, then not approaching apical margin; Florida and elsewhere .... 41
41(40). Species known only from Arizona .... tuckeri Casey
- Species not occurring in Arizona .... 42
42(41). Body form very elongate, oval (Fig. 345 a); mountains of northern New Mexico .... haematosticta Fall
- Body form not extremely elongate; not known to occur in New Mexico .... 43
43(42). Length 2.0 mm or less; body extremely convex, rounded (Fig. 338 e); Brownsville, Texas .... globula Casey
- Length more than 2.0 mm; body not as described above; Texas and elsewhere .... 44
44(43). Species known only from Texas .... 45
- Species not occurring in Texas .... 46
45(44). Discal spot on elytron posterior to middle (Fig. 359 d) .... wickhamf Casey
- Discal spot on elytron on middle of disc .... signata bicentralis Casey
46(44). Female pronotum with yellow area on lateral margin; male pronotum with lateral yellow area occupying 1/5 or more of pronotunn .... 47

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- Female Pronotum entirely black; male Pronotum with lateral yellow area occupying 1/8 or less of Pronotum (except concaves male) .... 48
47(46). Discal spot on elytron on middle of disc, sometimes extended posteriorly (Fig. 337 d) .... rivularis Dobzhansky
- Discal spot on elytron posterior to middle (Fig. 346 d), occasionally greatly enlarged .... inedita Mulsant
48(46). Body of female dorsoventrally flattened; basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection on left side in ventral view (Fig. 354 a) .... conviva Casey
- Body of female not dorsoventrally flattened; basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection on right side in ventral view, or lacking lateral projection .... 49
49(48). Basal lobe of male genitalia with apical angles rounded (Fig. 351 a) .... pistillata Watson
- Basal lobe of male genitalia not as figured above .... 50
50(49). Paramere of male genitalia short, spatulate (Fig. 361 a) .... 51
- Paramere of male genitalia long, slender, not spatulate .... 52
51(50). Pronotum of male with anterolateral angle and apical margin broadly yellow (Fig. 361 a) .... concavus Watson
- Pronotum of male narrowly yellow on lateral and apical margins (Fig. 360 d) .... major Dobzhansky
52(50). Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, not strongly asymmetrical (Fig. 343 a) .... binotata (Say)
- Basal lobe of male genitalia broad, strongly asymmetrical (Fig. 348 a) .... signata signata (Olivier)
53(11). Head entirely pubescent .... 54
- Head glabrous except often with sparse pubescence on apical border of clypeus .... 55
54(53). Elytron immaculate, or with lateral spot not extending forward to humeral angle (Fig. 396 e); Arizona, Utah, southern California .... significans Casey
- Elytron always maculate, with the lateral spot usually extending forward to hum eral angle; Texas, New Mexico .... cruenta LeConte
55(53). Pronotum in both sexes with lateral yellow area large, more than 3/5 wider than long; elytron with 2 spots, discal and apical, connected or not, apical spot almost reaches hind margin of elytron .... 56
- Pronotum entirely black or with lateral yellow area twice as long as wide, if less than twice as long as wide, then elytron not as described above .... 58
56(55). Elytron with discal and apical spots connected (Fig. 387 e) .... connecters (Thunberb)
- Elytron with discal and apical spots not connected .... 57
57(56). Apical spot on elytron not approaching suture (Fig. 388 e); Texas .... rotunda Casey
- Apical spot on elytron reaching suture or nearly so (Fig. 390 d); Arizona .... dobzhanskyi n. sp.
58(55). Elytron immaculate .... 59
- Elytron with at least one spot or vitta .... 64
59(58). Species occurring in the southeastern United States .... 60
- Species occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 61
60(59). Body elongate, somewhat flattened; male pronotum with lateral 1/4 yellow (Fig. 410 d) .... uniformis Casey
- Body oval, not distinctly flattened; male Pronotum narrowly yellow on lateral margin .... binaria Casey
61(59). Head black in both sexes; Pronotum entirely black in both sexes; body slender, elongate (fig. 454d); Alberta, Colorado, Wyoming .... jasperensis Belicek

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- Head yellow in male; male Pronotum narrowly yellow laterally; body oval; not known from northern Rocky Mountains .... 62
62(61). Body dorsoventrally depressed, elongate oval (Fig. 452 d); epipleuron not deeply excavated for femoral apices; Arizona, Nevada .... simulans Casey
- Body convex, rounded; epipleuron deeply excavated for femoral apices; Arizona, Nevada, and elsewhere .... 63
63(62). Pronotum narrowly yellow laterally in both sexes; western Washington and Oregon .... immaculata Hatch
- Pronotum black in female, narrowly yellow on lateral margin in male; not known from western Washington and Oregon .... pleuralis Casey
64(58). Dorsal surface strongly alutaceous; elytron with postdiscal spot broadly connected to complete lateral vitta (Fig. 456 d); Illinois, Indiana, Kansas .... bolteri LeConte
- Species not as described above, or if so, then not occurring east of the Mississippi River .... 65
65(64). Elytron with marginal vitta extending from near scutellum around humeral angle to apex, small, elongate discal spot present, often expanded posteriorly to join marginal vitta (Fig. 457 d-i); Texas, Arizona .... trifurcata Schaeffer
- Elytron not as described above; Texas and elsewhere .... 66
66(65). Elytron with one basal spot in addition to lateral vitta or humeral spot .... 67
- Elytron without basal spot, with or without lateral vitta or humeral spot .... 69
67(66). Elytron with discal vitta (Fig. 443 d) .... consimilis LeConte
- Elytron with postdiscal spot .... 68
68(67). Basal spot on elytron triangular, nearer humeral spot or lateral vitta than scutellum (Fig. 435 d) .... disconotata Mulsant
- Basal spot on elytron round, nearer scutellum than humeral spot (Fig. 437 d) .... troglodytes Mulsant
69(66). Elytron vitiate in appearance, one discal and one marginal vitta present .... 70
- Elytron not appearing vitiate .... 74
70(69). Dorsal surface dull, strongly alutaceous; Illinois, Indiana .... brunnescens Dobzhansky
- Dorsal surface shiny, lacking alutaceous sculpture; Iowa and west .... 71
71(70). Elytron with discal and marginal vitta usually broadly joined at apex (Fig. 428 d)); California .... annexa LeConte
- Elytron with discal and marginal vittae not joined epically, or very narrowly so; not known from California .... 72
72(71). Male Pronotum black on anterior margin; occurring from Idaho east to Iowa, south to New Mexico .... quadrivittata LeConte
- Male Pronotum yellow on anterior margin; Idaho, Washington, Oregon, northern California .... 73
73(72). Basal lobe of male genitalia bisinuate on sclerotized side (Fig. 442 a) occurring principally from the Cascade Mountains to the Pacific Coast .... borealis Dobzhansky
- Basal lobe of male genitalia not bisinuate, emarginate in apical ' on sclerotized side (Fig. 434 a); occurring principally east of the Cascade Mountains .... oregona Dobzhansky
74(69). Color pattern on elytron consisting only of complete vitta on lateral margin .... 75
- Color pattern on elytron with or without complete vitta on lateral margin, if vitta present, then additional maculation also present .... 81
75(74). Pronotum impunctate, surface dull, strongly alutaceous; marginal vitta on ely-

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tron 1/4 or less the width of elytron; Pennsylvania to Florida, Mississippi .... fimbriolata Melsheimer
- Pronotum punctate, surface usually shiny, not strongly alutaceous; not confined to Atlantic and Gulf coast seaboards .... 76
76(75). Body form elongate, nearly parallel sided; apex of lateral vitta on elytron strongly separated from margin (Fig. 449 d); Arizona .... protensa Casey
- Body form oval or rounded; apex of lateral vitta on elytron narrowly separated from margin, if strongly separated then not occurring in Arizona; Arizona and elsewhere .... 77
77(76). Elytron with vitta usually occupying 1/2 of elytron at midpoint (Fig. 442 d); California .... cincta LeConte
- Elytron with vitta occupying 1/3 or less of elytron at midpoint; California and elsewhere .... 78
78(77). Basal lobe of male genitalia slender, rounded at apex, lateral projection rounded (Fig. 398 a); Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona .... sanctaeritae Dobzhansky
- Basal lobe of male genitalia broad, apex acute, lateral projection not as figured above; Arizona and elsewhere .... 79
79(78). Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection near apex, blunt (Fig. 401 a) .... inflexa Casey
- Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection near midpoint, rounded (Fig. 403 a) .... 80
80(79). Body form depressed dorsoventrally; marginal vitta on elytron occupying 1/4 of elytron, apex strongly separated from margin of elytron (Fig. 406 d); known only from San Diego, California .... limbalis Casey
- Body form convex; marginal vitta on elytron occupying 1/3 of elytron, apex narrowly separated from margin of elytron (Fig. 403 d); not known from San Diego ....caseyi n sp.
81(74). Species with single spot or short vitta on lateral margin of elytron in basal 2/3, spot never extended onto disc .... 82
- Species with one or more spots on elytron, if only one, then in apical % or extended onto disc from lateral margin .... 86
82(81). Species occurring in southeastern United States .... binaria Casey
- Species occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 83
83(82). Elytron with lateral vitta extending from humeral angle beyond midpoint .... 84
- Elytron with spot at numeral angle or at midpoint .... 85
84(83). Species occurring in southern Texas .... schaefferi, n. sp.
- Species occumng west and north of New Mexico .... dissoluta nevadica Casey
85(83). Body form convex, apex slightly truncate; elytron with spot slightly posterior to midpoint, (Fig. 413 e) .... pleuralis Casey
- Body form flattened dorsoventrally; elytron with spot slightly posterior to midpoint, or with very narrow, elongate spot at humeral angle .... simulans Casey
86(81). Large robust species; elytron with triangular humeral spot and spot at apex (Fig.421 d) .... nunenmacheri Casey
- Species not as described above .... 87
87(86). Elytron with marginal vitta from numeral angle beyond midpoint, and apical spot .... 88
- Elytron not maculate as described above .... 90
88(87). Female pronotum entirely black; male genitalia with strong lateral projection in basal (Fig. 419 a) .... dissoluta dissolute Crotch
- Female pronotum with lateral margin narrowly yellow .... 89

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89(88). Basal lobe of male genitalia bisinuate on sclerotized side (Fig. 442 a) .... borealis Dobzhansky
- Basal lobe of male genitalia not bisinuate, emarginate in apical ' on sclerotized side (Fig. 434 a) .... oregona Dobzhansky
90(87). Elytron with single spot on apical 1/3, may extend onto apical ' (also see senegalensis hottentota) .... 91
- Elytron with more than one macula or spot not on apical 1/3 .... 95
91(90). Spot on elytron obliquely elongate, near suture (Fig. 448 ); occurring in Great Lakes region .... moerens LeConte
- Spot on elytron not obliquely elongate; occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 92
92(91). Spot on elytron large, extending onto apical I, nearer lateral margin than suture (Fig. 429 d); Arizona .... arizonica Dobzhansky
- Spot on elytron small, not extending onto apical I; not occurring in Arizona .... 93
93(92). Spot on elytron narrow, elongate, nearer suture than apical margin of elytron borealis Dobzhansky
- Spot on elytron rounded or wedge-shaped, very near apical margin of elytron, distinctly removed from suture (Fig. 431 d) .... 94
94(93). Length 2.40 mm or less; spot on elytron less than 2 times as far from suture as from apical margin (Fig. 431 d); basal lobe of male genitalia not longer than paramere (Fig. 431 a) .... oculaticauda Casey
- Length 2.30 mm or more; spot on elytron usually more than 2 times as far from suture as from apical margin (Fig. 423 e); basal lobe of male genitalia longer than paramere (Fig. 423 a) .... postica LeConte
95(90). Discal spot on elytron broadly connected to lateral vitta or marginal spot (Fig. 417 d, g) .... 96
- Discal spot on elytron absent, or if present, then discrete .... 97
96(95). Female pronotum black; surface of pronotum shiny; elytron with fine, indistinct punctures, lateral vitta extending from humeral angle to just beyond midpoint (Fig. 417 e), or extending to apex of elytron (Fig. 417 g), or interrupted just before apex, leaving apical spot free .... taeniata LeConte
- Female pronotum yellow on lateral margin; surface of pronotum dull with apparent alutaceous sculpture; elytron with coarse, dense punctures, lateral yellow area not extending to numeral angle, or very narrowly so (Fig. 426 e) .... quadrioculata (Motschulsky)
97(95). Elytron without discal spot .... 98
- Elytron with discrete discal spot .... 102
98(97). Elytron with large, oblong apical spot very near apical margin, and one small spot on lateral margin (Fig. 433 d) .... querquesi Nutting
- Elytron with spot pattern not exactly as described above .... 99
99(98). Elytron with 3 discrete marginal spots, numeral spot large, triangular (Fig.433 d) .... 100
- Elytron with marginal vitta or with 2 or 3 marginal spots, if with 3 spots, then humeral spot reduced to narrow, elongate streak .... 101
100(99). Female pronotum entirely black; male pronotum with yellow area on lateral margin not extending to posterolateral angle .... psyche Casey
- Female pronotum yellow on lateral margin; male pronotum with yellow area on lateral margin extending to posterolateral angle (Fig. 426 d) .... quadrioculata (Motschulsky)
101(99). Basal lobe of male genitalia bisinuate on sclerotized side (Fig. 442 a) .... borealis Dobzhansky

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- Basal lobe of male genitalia not bisinuate, emarginate in apical 1/3 on sclerotized side (Fig. 434 a) .... oregona Dobzhansky
102(97). Humeral angle of elytron black .... 103
- Humeral angle of elytron yellow .... 104
103(102). Discal spot on elytron wedge-shaped, large lateral spot present medially (Fig. 445 d); body flattened dorsoventrally .... spiculinota Fall
- Discal spot on elytron rounded or elongate, lateral spot absent or extremely reduced (Fig. 426 d); body not flattened .... quadrioculata (Motschulsky)
104(102). Body form slender, nearly parallel sided (Fig. 441 d) .... 105
- Body form oval or rounded (Fig. 417 d) .... 107
105(104). Species occurring along the Atlantic seaboard to Florida and Alabama .... paludicola Schwarz
- Species occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 106
106(105). Lateral margin of elytron with complete vitta (Fig. 407 ); Arizona .... filiola Casey
- Lateral margin of elytron with vitta extending from humeral angle beyond midpoint, apical and discal spots present; Texas, South Dakota .... punctata LeConte
107(104). Female pronotum entirely black; basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in basal 2/3 (Fig. 411 a) .... 108
- Female pronotum with yellow area on lateral margin; basal lobe of male genitalia bisinuate (Fig. 439 a), or with broad emargination on sclerotized side (Fig. 425 a), or if with lateral projection, then projection near apex (Fig. 453 a) .... 110
108(107). Elytron with lateral vitta strongly widened opposite discal spot (Fig 417 d) .... taeniata LeConte
- Elytron with lateral spots or vitta, if vitta present, then emarginate opposite discal spot (Fig. 411 d) .... 109
109(108). Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in apical ' (Fig. 411 a) .... bensonica Casey
- Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in basal ' (Fig. 415 a) .... disrupta Dobzhansky
110(107). Surface of pronotum dull, with strong alutaceous sculpture .... 111
- Surface of pronotum shiny, polished, usually with alutaceous sculpture absent or visible only under high magnification .... 112
111(110). Lateral yellow area on pronotum as wide or nearly as wide as humeral spot on elytron (Fig. 439 d); punctures on elytron much larger than pronotal punctures .... undulata (Say)
- Lateral yellow area on pronotum narrower than humeral spot on elytron, often only as wide (Fig. 440 d); punctures on elytron slightly larger than on pronotum .... octavia Casey
***error
112(110). Species known only from Texas .... imitator, n. sp.
- Species occurring from Arizona and Montana to the Pacific coast .... 113
113(112). Elytron with discal spot wedge-shaped, narrow lateral vitta present from humeral angle onto apical 1/3 (Fig. 425 e); Idaho, Montana, Utah, Washington .... simulatrix Dobzhansky
- Elytron usually with discal spot round or elongate, rarely wedge-shaped, rarely with lateral vitta, pattern extremely variable (Fig. 426 d-f); California, Nevada ... quadrioculata (Motschulslky)

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Section I

The definition of this Section is mainly based on the 11-segmented antennae,
but there are some other criteria that apply to nearly all species in the Section as follows:
body shape usually rounded, convex; epipleuron of elytron broad, usually with median groove,
excavations for femoral apices very deep; base of abdominal sternum within the postcoxal arc
usually strongly depressed with transverse fold or suture evident. There are 4 species in the bigeminata group
in which the first abdominal sternum is similar to that described for Section II;
H. osculans, H. revocans, H. esclavium, and H. triangulum. These species also have the elytral epipleurae narrower
and less deeply excavated than the other species in Section I. I include 3 species with 10-segmented antennae in Section I,
H. rotunda, H. connectens, and H. dobzhanskyi, n. sp. These species have the male genitalia characteristic
of members of the bigeminata group and fit the criteria for Section I as outlined above.
I consider the 10segmented antennae of these 3 species to be an independent reduction without phyletic significance.

proba group

Body very convex, round;
female pronotum with large yellow area laterally;
male genitalia with paramere broad at base, tapered to slender, rounded process in apical 1/3, apex with tuft of short setae (Fig. 334 a);
female spermathecal capsule with appendix nearly as long as basal portion, or longer (Fig. 334 d).

Top

Hyperaspis proba (Say)
Fig. 334 a-e; Map, Fig. 336

Coccinella proba Say, 1826, p. 303.
Hyperaspis proba: Mulsant, 1850, p. 674.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 235.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Wickham, 1894, p. 304.—Casey 1899, p. 123.— Blatchley, 1910, p. 523.—Leng. 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.
Hyperaspis proba proba: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 22.
Hyperaspis proba var. trini^Ser Casey, 1899, p. 123.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 23.
Hyperaspis proba ab. trini^Ser Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 3.0 mm; width 1.60 to 2.50 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black and lateral yellow area smaller than in male.
Elytron with 3 yellow or red spots (Fig. 334 e).
Postcoxal line evenly curved, not quite reaching posterior margin of first abdominal sternum, area within line smooth, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 334 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 334 d.

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern of H. proba is very distinctive and apparently not variable, making this species one that is easily recognized.
The type of trinifer Casey is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Of proba, not stated; of trinifer, Las Vegas, New Mexico.

Type depository.
Of proba, type lost; of trini^Ser, USNM (35163).

Distribution.
Figure 336 . Maine to South Carolina, west to South Dakota and west Texas.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 334 . Hyperaspis probe. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffes
Fig. 335 a, b; Map, Fig. 336

Hyperaspis weisei Schaeffer, 1908, p. 1 26.—Leng,1920,p 212. \224 Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspis proba weisei: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 23.
Hyperaspis kunzii Schaeffer, 1905, p. 145 (not kunzii Mulsant, 1850).—Schaeffer, 1908, p. 127.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.25 mm, width 1.85 mm.
Form rounded, convex. Description as for proba except elytron with marginal spot behind humeral callus,
spot extending forward toward anterolateral angle (Fig. 335 a).
Female genitalia as in Figure 335 b.

Discussion.
Dobzhansky placed this species as a subspecies of H. proba with some reservations.
I have examined the female genitalia and find that both the spermathecal capsule and appendix differ considerably from those of H. proba.
Therefore I am


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#___________________________________
##Fig. 335 . Hyperaspis weisei. a. b.
#___________________________________

confident that H. weisei is a valid species, but is almost certainly a member of the proba group.
Schaeffer had 2 type specimens of this species, both females, one of which I here designate and label as the lectotype.
No other specimens have been examined.

#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 336 . Distribution. Hyperaspis proba (shaded, disjunct locality dotted), H. weisei (open circle); H. rivularis (star).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 337 . Hyperaspis rivularts. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 336 . TEXAS: Brownsville.

Top

Hyperaspis rivularis Dobzhansky
Fig. 337 a-d; Map, Fig. 336

Hyperaspis rivularis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 35.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.0 mm, width 1.90 to 2.50 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Color pattern as described for H. proba except elytron with single yellow or orange discal spot either round or elongate, often very large (Fig. 337 d).
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum and female genitalia as described for H. proba.
Male genitalia as in Figure 337 a-c.

Discussion.
Dobzhansky (1941) did not examine the male genitalia of this species and therefore placed it near H. bigeminata.
The male genitalia are of the proba type, but the female pronotal pattern is like that of many species in the bigeminata group.

Type locality.
Frankfort, Kentucky.

Type depository.
USNM (54205).

Distribution.
Figure 336 . ILLINOIS: "southern." KENTUCKY: type locality. MISSOURI: Cliffcave; St. Louis.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 338 . Hyperaspis globula. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

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Hyperaspis globula Casey
Fig 338 a-e; Map, Fig. 336

Hyperaspis globula Casey, 1899, p. 124.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 189.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 24.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.0 mm, width 1.40 to 1.60 mm.
Form rounded, convex Pronotum with large yellow area laterally, in male anterior border narrowly yellow, black in female.
Elytron with single yellow discal spot (Fig. 338 e).
Postcoxal line similar to that of H. proba, area within line polished, finely punctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 338 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 338 d.

Discussion.
The paramere of the male genitalia is not as strongly modified in H. globula as it is in H. proba and H. rivularis,
but they are similar enough to indicate a common origin. The female spermathecal capsule does not have the appendix
longer than the capsule proper, but it is nearly as long as the capsule and very robust;
both the capsule and appendix are definitely of the proba type. Hyperaspis globula and H. oculifera resemble each other externally,
but the elytral spots are located more posteriorly and the length is greater in H. oculifera.
There are 2 type specimens in the Casey collection, the first of these (female) is here designated and labeled as the lectotype,
and the other (male) as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35172).

Distribution.
Figure 336 . TEXAS: Brownsville.

tuckeri group

Body robust, broad, slightly flattened dorsoventrally;
male genitalia similar to proba group but with inner membrane of phallobase extending well out of phallobase (Fig. 339 a);
female spermathecal capsule with appendix much longer than basal portion.


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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 339 . Hyperaspis tuckers. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

This is a compact group of 3 species which are closely related to species of the proba group.
Examples of these species are extremely rare in collections,
their habits apparently are such that they are not taken by the usual collecting methods.

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Hyperaspis tuckeri Casey
Fig. 339 a-d; Map, Fig. 340

Hyperaspis tuckeri Casey, 1924, p. 162.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 36.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.0 mm, width 2.45 mm.
Form robust, elongate, broad.
Pronotum of male with lateral 1/4 yellow and apical margin broadly yellow.
Elytron with wide, elongate, red spot (Fig. 339 d).
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum as in H. proba except with some fine punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figsure339a-c.

Discussion.
The unique male type and one other specimen are all I have seen.
This is a striking species because of the large, red elytral spots and broadly yellow pronotal margins,
and does not closely resemble any other Arizona species (see remarks under H. jovialis).

Type locality.
Tucson, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35164).

Distribution.
Figure 340 ARIZONA: type locality, Globe.

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 340 . Distribution. Hyperaspis tuckeri (open circle); N. jovialis (dot); H. leachi (square).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis jovialis Fall
Fig. 341 a-f; Map, Fig. 340

Hyperaspis jovialis Fall, 1925, p. 311.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 80.
Hyperaspis californica Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 81. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis taeniata perpallida Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 44. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 2.80 mm, width 1.70 to 2.0 mm. Form robust, elongate,

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 341 . Hyperaspis Jovialis. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#_________________________________________________

broad.
Pronotum of male with lateral 1/4 yellow and apical margin either broadly yellow or with yellow median area (Fig. 34 ld-f);
pronotum of female entirely black except lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Color pattern on elytron variable from black with 2 orange spots (Fig. 341 e) to mostly orange with black border and enclosed black spot (Fig. 341 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
flattened along hind margin, outer 1/3 straight, area within line smooth, with some vague punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 341 a-c.
Female genitalia as figured for H. Ieachi.

Discussion.
This species, H. Ieachi, and H. tuckeri, are very similar in both external and internal characteristics.
On the basis of specimens examined, I presently regard them all as valid species,
but very few specimens exist in collections, and it is possible that all of these names are synonyms.
However, the extent of character variation

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 342 . Hyperaspis leachi. a. b. c. d. e.
#____________________________________________

cannot be determined at present. El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation) considered H. callfornica Dobzhansky a junior synonym of H. jovialis,
an opinion with which I agree. Hyperaspis taeniata perpallida Dobzhansky is a pale variant and junior synonym of H. jovialis.
The unique type (holotype) of jovialis is a female labeled "Kern Co. Cal./ Havilah VI-5-13/jovialis Type/M.C.Z. Type 24542/Fall collection."

Type locality.
Of jovialis, Havilah, Kern Co., California; of californica; Mount San Jacinto, California; of perpallida^7 Sacramento, Co., Grand Island, California.

Type depository.
Of jovialis^7 MCZ; of californica (54220) and perpallida (54206), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 340 . CALIFORNIA: Bishop; Claremont; Fresno Co; L. Arrowhead; San Bernardino Co., Forest Home; S. Jacinto Mts.; Tulare Co.; Ventura Co., Lockwood Valley; Yolo Co., Davis. NEVADA: Carlin. WASHINGTON: Soap Lake.

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Hyperaspis leachl Nunenmacher
Fig. 342 a-e; Map, Fig. 340

Hyperaspis leachi Nunenmacher, 1934, p. 19.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 31.

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Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.10 mm, width 1.80 to 2.60 mm.
Description as for H. jovialis except pronotum of male mostly black, lateral 1/5 and narrow apical margin yellow;
female pronotum black except lateral margin narrowly yellow;
elytron with large, discrete orange spot nearly reaching lateral margin (Fig. 342 e).
Male genitalia as in Figure 342 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 342 d.

Discussion.
Hyperaspis leachi is very similar to H. tuckeri and H. jovialis (see remarks under H. jovialis),
but can be separated from either of those species by the pronotal and elytral color pattern.
Males of both H. jovialis and H. tuckeri have the apical margin of the pronotum broadly yellow and the lateral 1/4 yellow.
Males of H. Ieachi have the apical margin narrowly yellow and the lateral 1/5 or less yellow.
The orange spot on the elytron nearly reaches the lateral margin in H. Ieachi,
but is clearly separate from the margin in both H. jovialis and H. tuckeri. Nunenmacher (1925) designated 2 primary types (male and female).
I here designated and label the male labeled "Riverside Co. Cal. III-25- 18 E. R. Leach Coll./male sign/ Hyperaspis leachi Nun." as the lectotype.
The female is designated as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Riverside Co., California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 340 . CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Independence; Kern Co.; San Bernardino Co., Hesperia; Jacumba; San Diego; Los Angeles Co.; Sonoma Co.; Tulare Co., Isabella.

binotata group

Male genitalia with paramere slender, slightly narrowed toward apex,
basal lobe slender, nearly parallel-sided, apex obliquely truncate (Fig. 343 a);
female spermathecal capsule rounded, appendix very small.

Hyperaspis inedita has the bigeminata pronotal color pattern in the female, but the male genitalia are of the binotata type.
All members of this group have the elytron black with one or two red or yellow spots except H. octonotata
which has 4 yellow spots on each elytron but possesses the binotata type of genitalia.

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Hyperaspis binotata (Say)
Fig. 343 a-d; Map, Fig. 344

Coccinella binotata Say, 1826, p. 302.
Hyperaspis binotata: Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Casey, 1899, p. 124.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 523.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 196.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 27.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.—Watson, 1960, p. 232.—Watson, 1969, p. 370.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 41.
Coccinella normata Say, 1826, p. 302.
Hyperaspis normata Crotch, 1873, p. 380.
Coccinella affinis Randall, 1838b, p. 50.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1051.
Hyperaspis leucopsis Melsheimer, 1847, p. 179.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.
Hyperaspis paspalis Watson, 1960, p. 233.—Watson, 1969, p. 370. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 4.50 mm, width 1.90 to 3.70 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow on lateral margin, often narrowly yellow on anterior margin; pronotum of female black.
Elytron black with single red spot (Fig.

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 343 . Hyperaspis binotata. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

343d), rarely with apical spot (see remarks under H. signata).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
briefly flattened along hind mar^lpn, area within line distinctly punctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 343 a-c.

Discussion.
Hyperaspis binotata is a common, widespread species recognized with certainty only if the male genitalia are examined.
I have examined the holotype and several paratypes of H. paspalis Watson, and am unable to separate H. paspalis from H. binotata.
The key character used by Watson to distinguish H. paspalis concerns the prosternal carinae which are supposed to be parallel,
not joining anteriorly in H. paspalis, convergent and joined anteriorly in H. binotata.
This character is variable in any long series of H.binotata, and even some of the paratypes of H. paspalis have convergent carinae.
The male genitalia are also somewhat variable and those of H. paspalis vary within the range exhibited by H. binotata.
Watson (1960) illustrated the male genitalia of H. paspalis in ventral view and those of H. binotata in dorsal view which,
because of the asymmetrical basal lobe, presents a somewhat confusing picture.

Type locality.
Of binotata and normata, not stated; of Adonis, "vicinity of Boston"; of leucopsis, Pennsylvania; of paspalis, Iron Bridge, Ontario.

Type depository.
Of binotata and normata, types lost; of Alibis, not located; of leucopsis, not located; of paspalis, CNC.

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#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 344 . Distribution. Hyperaspis binotata (shaded); H. haematosticta (star); H. inedita (dot); H. octorwtata (open circle).
#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 344 . Maine and Quebec to North Carolina, west to North Dakota and Louisiana. Peripheral locality; DeFuniak Spring, Florida.

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Hyperaspis haematosticta Fall
Fig. 345 a-e; Map, Fig. 344

Hyperaspis haematosticta Fall, 1907, p. 222.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 29.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.70 to 3.80 mm, width 1.90 to 2.70 mm.
Form elongate, convex. Pronotal color pattern as in H. binotata.
Elytron with single red discal spot or with discal spot plus apical spot (Fig. 345 d, e).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin,
outer 1/3 abruptly angled forward, area within line smooth with scattered coarse punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 345 a-c.

Discussion.
The combination of elongate body and elytral color pattern makes H. haematosticta
a reasonably distinctive species in the geographic region in which it occurs.
Fall had 3 types of this species but I have seen only a single female type labeled
"Santa Fe N.M. 8.97/haematosticta TYPE/head, front and sides of tho. pale/ M.C.Z. Type 24541 (red paper)/H.C. Fall Collection/Hyperaspis haematosticta Fall"
which I designate and label the lectotype.

Type locality.
Santa Fe, New Mexico (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 344 . ARIZONA: Chiricahua Mts.; Williams. NEW MEXICO: Las Vegas.

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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 345 . Hyperaspis haematosticta. a. b. c. d. e.
#___________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis inedita Mulsam
Fig. 346 a-d; Map, Fig. 344

Hyperaspis inedita Mulsant, 1850, p. 684.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 238.—Casey, 1899, p. 124.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.— Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 28.
Hyperaspis regalis Casey, 1899, p. 123.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 19 S.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 31. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis nigropennis Blatchley, 1924, p. 167.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 84. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis pinorum Casey, 1924, p. 162.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 28.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 43. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis centralis plagiata Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 34. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.65 to 3.0 mm, width 1.90 to 2.30 mm.
Form elongate oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, broad lateral area yellow.
Elytron with

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 346 . Hyperaspis inedita. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

single red spot of variable size, rarely immaculate (Fig. 346 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
flattened along margin, then evenly curved forward in outer 1/3,
area within line smooth with scattered, coarse punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 346 a-c.

Discussion.
The broadly yellow pronotal margin of the female causes this species to resemble members of the bigeminata and proba groups.
The elongate shape, pronotal color pattern, and geographic distribution will usually allow H. inedita to be recognized,
but genitalia should be examined when males are available. A single female of H. inedita exists in the Dejean collection labeled
"Amer. bor. LeConte," designated a lectotype by Gordon (1974c). Hyperaspis pinorum Casey is a junior synonym of inedita
as suggested by Dobzhansky ( 1941). There are 4 types of pinorum in the Casey collection;
and I here designate and label the first of these (male) as the lectotype and the remainder as paralectotypes.
The holotype of H. nigropennis is a female lacking elytral spots. Rarely does a specimen of H. inedita lack these spots,
but in all other characteristics H. nigropennis and H. inedita appear to be nonspecific,
therefore I consider H. nigropennis to be a junior synonym. Hyperaspis regalis is an example of H. inedita with greatly enlarged elytral spots.
The type is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of inedita, "L'Amerique septentrionale" (lectotype here designated); of regalis, Jacksonville, Florida; of pinorum, Southern Pines, North Carolina (lectotype here designated); of nigropennis, Dunedin, Florida; of centralis plagiata, 2.3 miles east of Piney Point, Maryland.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 347 . Hyperaspis octonotata. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Type depository.
Of inedita, DLM; of regalia (35165), pinorum (35173), and centralis plagiata (54204), USNM; of nigropennis, PU.

Distribution.
Figure 344 . FLORIDA: Gainesville; Lake City; Navarre; Perry. GEORGIA: Barnsville; Milner. LOUISIANA: Baton Rouge; Ouachita Parish; St. Tammany Parish. MISSOURI: Jackson Co., Lee Summit. NORTH CAROLINA: Southern Pines.

Top

Hyperaspis octonotata Casey
Fig. 347 a-d; Map, Fig. 344

Hyperaspis 8-notata Casey, 1899, p. 121.
Hyperaspis octonatata: Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dob
zhansky, 1941, p. 7.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 3.50 mm, width 1.90 to 2.80 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, lateral area broadly yellow.
Elytron with 4 yellow or red spots (Fig. 347 d), anterior margin of discal spot obliquely truncate or emarginate.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout.
Male genitalia as in Figure 347 a-c.

Discussion.
The color pattern alone is sufficient for recognition of H. octonotata,
the arrangement of the elytral spots and the shape of the discal spot are unique in the North American fauna.
The type in the Casey collection is a unique female (holotype).

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Type locality.
Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35148).

Distribution.
Figure 344 . ARIZONA: Benson; Cochise Co., Palmerly; Douglas; Graham Co.; Huachucha Mts.; Sta. Catalina Mts.; Tucson; Thatcher; Wilcox. CALIFORNIA: Ft. Tejon; Lebec; Los Gatos; Palo Alto; Redwood City; Santa Barbara; Santa Maria; Sequoia Nat. Pk.; Tulare Co. COLORADO: Canon City. TEXAS: Brownsville; Presidio; Sanderson. UTAH: St. George.

signata group

Female pronotum always entirely black; male genitalia with paramere slender,
slightly narrowed toward apex, basal lobe narrow at base, wide at apex,
apex truncate or obliquely truncate (Fig. 348 a);
female spermathecal capsule rounded, appendix very small (Fig. 348 d).
This group contains those members of Hyperaspis most difficult to separate from each other;
in most cases male genitalia must be examined to correctly identify a species.
The shape is mostly oval and convex; the dorsal color is black with one or 2 red or yellow spots on each elytron;
adequate external structural characters are lacking.

Top

Hyperaspis signata signata (Olivier)
Fig. 348 a-f; Map, Fig. 349

Coccinella signata Olivier, 1808, p. 1047.
Hyperaspis signata Mulsant, 1850, p. 683.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 234.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 122.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 196.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 28.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 41.
Hyperaspis taedata LeConte, 1880, p. l 87.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 197.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 20. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 4.0 mm, width 1.90 to 3.20 mm.
Form oval, convex. Pronotum of male with anterior and lateral margins narrowly yellow.
Elytron with one or 2 yellow or red spots (Fig. 348 e, f), rarely with discal spot enlarged to humeral angle.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved except outer 1/3 straight,
area within line polished with scattered, coarse punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 348 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 348 d.

Discussion.
This species is very similar to H. pistillata Watson.
The male genitalia are quite distinctive for both species, in addition,
the distal capsule of the femle spermathecae differ where the connecting ducts enter.
In H. signata the connecting duct and process of the capsule merge smoothly
while in H. pistillata the duct is noticeably more slender than the process of the capsule.
Hyperaspis signata is a common eastern species which has undoubtedly been mixed
with several other species in collections of any size for the past 100 years.
I have not seen the Olivier type material and therefore am not certain
of the exact identity of H. signata. However, I am arbitrarily assigning
the name H. signata to the species described here as did Dobzhansky (1941).
The type series of H. taedata consists of 2 specimens,
a female with the typical signata color pattern labeled "Baldwin June 1, Flal963/Type 6711/

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#________________________________________________________
##Fig. 348 . Hyperaspis signata signata. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#________________________________________________________

H. taedata LeC," and a male with an odd color pattern which I designate the lectotype labeled
"/Sand Pt. Fla./18.2/964." The color pattern of the lectotype is very unusual for this species.
A unique male in the USNM collection, also from Florida, has an identical color pattern
but is a specimen of H. binotata! In both instances the male

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 349 . Distribution. Hyperaspis signata signata (shaded, disjunct localities dotted); H. s. bicentralis; (star).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

genitalia are the criteria for placement, and I consider H. taedata a junior synonym of H. signata.

Type locality.
Of signata, "Elle se trouve la Caroline"; of taedata, Sand Point, Florida (lectotype here designated).

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#_________________________________________________________
##Fig. 350 . Hyperaspis signata bicentralis. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________________________

Type depository.
Of signata, type not seen; of taedata, MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 349 . Massachusetts to Florida, west to Wisconsin and east Texas. Peripheral localities; Beaver Dam and Marinette Co., Wisconsin.

Top

Hyperaspis signata bicentralis Casey, new status
Fig. 350 a-e; Map, Fig. 349

Hyperaspis bicentralis Casey, 1899, p. 124.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 184.
Hyperaspis bicentralis bicentralis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 32.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 3.25 mm, width 2.20 to 2.70 mm.
Description as for H. signata except average size smaller;
discal spot on elytron large, apical spot lacking (Fig. 350 e);
basal lobe of male genitalia longer and narrower (Fig. 350 a).
Female genitalia as in Figure 350 d.

Discussion. In view of the differences between H. signata and H. bicentralis listed above, I prefer to maintain H. bicentralis as a subspecies rather than a synonym of H. signata. Two specimens from College Station, Texas, have been examined which are intermediate between H. signata and H. bicentralis, therefore I regard H. bicen

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 351 . Hyperaspis pistillata. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

trails as a well characterized subspecies of H. signata.
The type of H. bicentralis is a unique female in the Casey collection (holotype).

Type locality.
Colorado River above Columbus, Austin, Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (35170).

Distribution.
Figure 349 . OKLAHOMA: Mountain Pk. TEXAS: Austin; Dallas, Kerrville; Lavaca Co.; Otey; Paris; Victoria.

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#__________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 352 . Distribution. Hyperaspis pistillata (shaded); H. nigrosuturalis (star).
#__________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis pistillata Watson
Fig. 351 a-e; Map, Fig. 352

Hyperaspis pistillata Watson, 1969, p. 369.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.75 to 4.0 mm, width 2.20 to 3.10 mm. Form oval, convex.

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 353 . Hyperaspis nigrosuturalis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________________

Pronotum of male with anterior and lateral margins yellow;
pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron with one or 2 yellow or red spots (Fig. 351 e), as in H. signata.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
more or less evenly curved, area within line smooth,
coarsely punctured except depressed apical portion strongly alutaceous.
Male genitalia as in Figure 351 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 351 d.

Discussion.
This species closely resembles H. signata; see comparative remarks under H. signata.

Type locality.
Dunedin, Florida.

Type depository.
UMMZ.

Distribution.
Figure 352 . Massachusetts to Florida and Louisiana.

Top

Hyperaspis nigrosuturalis Blatchley
Fig. 353 a-d; Map, Fig. 352

Hyperaspis nigrosuturalis Blatchley, 1918, p. 420.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Blatchley, 1930, p. 43.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 32.
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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 354 . Hyperaspis conviva. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 3.40 mm, width 2.70 mm.
Form oval, convex. Head of male yellow except vertex black, entirely black in female.
Pronotum of male with lateral margin narrowly yellow; pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron red except margins narrowly black (Fig. 353 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved except outer 1/3 slightly angulate, area within line rough, coarsely, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 3 S3a-c.
Female genitalia as figured for H. pistillata.

Discussion.
I have seen only the holotype and one other specimen of this distinctive species.
The male genitalia are very similar to those of H. pistillata,
but H. nigrosuturalis would not normally be associated with H. pistillata
because the dorsal color patterns are so different.

Type locality.
Lakeland, Florida.

Type depository.
PU.

Distribution.
Figure 352 FLORIDA: Luke Alfred.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 355 . Distribution. Hyperaspis conviva.
#____________________________________________

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Hyperaspis conviva Casey
Fig. 354 a-e; Map, Fig. 355

Hyperaspis conviva Casey, 1924, p. 163.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186.
Hyperaspis insolens Casey, 1924, p. 164.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.
Hyperaspis binotata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 27 (in part).
Hyperaspis congressis Watson, 1960, p.231.—Watson, 1969, p. 370. J. Chapin, 1974, p. 42. New Synonymy.

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Diagnosis.
Length 2.70 to 3.80 mm, width 2.0 to 2.60 mm.
Form elongate, oval, usually somewhat parallel sided and dorsoventrally flattened, particularly in female.
Color pattern as in H. signata (Fig. 354 d, e).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, somewhat flattened along margin.
Male genitalia as in Figure 354 a-c.
Female genitalia as described for H. signata.

Discussion.
This is the most easily recognized species in the signata group because of the dorsoventrally flattened,
elongate form which is characteristic of most females and many of the males.
The male genitalia are very peculiar because the asymmetry is reversed,
presenting nearly a mirror image of the H. signata genitalia.
The genitalia are also reversed in the abdomen, Iying on the right side of the abdomen (in ventral view from apex)
rather than the left side as they do in all other species of Hyperaspis that I have seen.
Hyperaspis conviva is extremely widespread, and partially because of this, has been named 3 times.
Dobzhansky (1941) placed H. conviva Casey and H. insolens Casey as junior synonyms of H. binotata.
Watson (1960) described H. congressis as a new species because he had not seen the type of either
H. insolens or H. conviva; I here place H. congressis as a junior synonym of H. conviva.
The types of both conviva (female) and insolens (male) are uniques (holotypes) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of conviva, Southern Pines, North Carolina; of insolens, Grayling, near Bay City, Michigan; of congressis, Savanne, Ontario.

Type depository.
Of conviva (35174) and insolens (35176), USNM; of congressis, CNC.

Distribution.
Figure 355 . MANITOBA: Beausejour; Fairford; Pine Falls; Reynolds; Sandilands Forest Reserve; Stead;
Victoria. ONTARIO: Agawa; Fort William; German; Gogama; Hawk Lake; Lost Bay; McIntosh; Savanne; Walford.
SASKATCHEWAN: Holbein; Hudson Bay; Prince Albert. ALABAMA: Mobile. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Washington; Woodridge.
FLORIDA: Pensacola; Tallahassee. LOUISLANA: East Baton Rouge Parish; Ouachita Parish; West Feliciana Parish.
MAINE: Mt. Katahdin. MARYLAND: Beltsville; Priest Br. MICHIGAN: Bay City; Roscommon.
NEW JERSEY: Clementon; Lakehurst; Pemberton; Riverton; Warren Co.; Westville.
NEW YORK: Brooklyn; Top of Mt. Whiteface; Seneca Co., Willard. NORTH CAROLINA: Tryon.
PENNSYLVANIA: Harrisburg. VIRGINIA: Gum Spring; Rosslyn; Wallops Id. WEST VIRGINIA: White Sulphur Springs.

bigeminata group

Male genitalia with paramere broad, almost spoon-shaped,
basal lobe deeply concave on one side, angulate on other side (Fig. 3 S6a),
female spermathecal capsule with appendix short (Fig. 357 d).

The bulk of the species in Section I belong to this group
which is well characterized by the type of male genitalia.

Top

Hyperaspis gemina LeConte
Fig. 356 a-d; Map, Fig. 358

Hyperaspis gemina LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 189.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 37.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 356 . Hyperaspis gamina. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 2.80 to 4.0 mm, width 2.10 to 3.0 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Apical margin of clypeus truncate.
Head yellow, pronotum with broad lateral area yellow in both sexes.
Elytron with 2 narrowly connected yellow spots at apex (Fig. 356 d).
Postcoxal line evenly curved, except outer 1/3 slightly angulate,
nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
area within line smooth, impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 356 a-c.

Discussion.
This rarely collected species is unusual in having the clypeal apex truncate and the head yellow in both sexes.
There are 2 types of H. gemina in the LeConte collection, one of these labeled
"Ga./Type 67 1 3(red paper)/H. gemina Lec.", I here designate and label as the lectotype.
The other specimen labeled "Tex." is designated and labeled as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Georgia (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 358 . NORTH CAROLINA: Bell Island; Wenona. SOUTH CAROLINA: Myrtle Beach. VIRGINIA: Cape Henry; Ft. Monroe.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 357 . Hyperaspis bigeminata. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis bigeminata (Randall)
Fig. 357 a-e; Map, Fig 358

Coccinella bigeminata Randall, 1838a, p. 32.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1050.
Hyperaspis bigeminata LaConte, 1852, p. 135.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 234.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Wickham, 1894, p. 304.—Casey, 1899, p. 1 22.— Blatchley, 1910, p. 523.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. l 85.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 36.— Wingo, 1952, p. 26.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 43.
Hyperaspis guexi Mulsant, 1850, p. 687.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.35 mm, width 2.0 to 2.70 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, broad lateral area yellow.
Elytron with single yellow or red apical spot (Fig. 357 e).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved, area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 357 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 357 d.

Discussion.
The apical position of the spot on the elytron is usually sufficient to distinguish H. bigeminata
from similar appearing species of Hyperaspis. A single

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#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 358 . Distribution. Hyperaspis gemina (circled dots; H. bigeminata (shaded; H. wickhami (circled star); H. major (star). \
#______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

male type of H. guexi exists in the Dejean collection labeled
"Ameri. bar., LeConte." I here designate and label this specimen as the lectotype.
The type of H. bigeminata has not been located and may be either lost or not recognizable.

Type locality.
Of bigeminata, Blue Mountains, Maine; of guexi, "Ameri. bor." (lectotype were designated).

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 359 . Hyperaspis wickhami. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Type depository.
Of bigeminata, not located; of guexi, DLM.

Distribution.
Figure 358 . Maine to Florida, west to Michigan and east Texas.

Top

Hyperaspis wickhami Casey
Fig. 359 a-d; Map, Fig. 358

Hyperaspis wickhami Casey, 1899, p. 124.
Hyperaspis centralis Mulsant: Bowditch, 1902, p. 207.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186.
Hyperaspis centralis wickhami: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 33.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.80 to 3.50 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and very broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, lateral area yellow.
Elytron

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#_______________________________________
##Fig 360 . Hyperaspis major. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________

with single large yellow or orange spot behind middle (Fig. 358 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved except outer 1/3 angulate,
area within line smooth, sparsely, feebly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 358 a-c.

Discussion.
This species most closely resembles H. bicentralis which also occurs in the same general region,
but the lateral area of the pronotum is broadly yellow in both sexes of H. wickhami
and narrowly yellow in the male and black in the female of H. bicentralis.
There are 6 types (all males) of H. wickhami in the Casey collection.
I here designate and label the first of these as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35171).

Distribution.
Figure 358 . TEXAS: Austin; Brownsville; Laredo; San Antonio; San Diego; Weslaco.
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#__________________________________________
##Fig 361 . Hyperaspis concavus. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis major Dobzhansky
Fig. 360 a-d; Map, Fig. 358

Hyperaspis bicentralis major Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 33.—Wingo, 1950 p. 26.
Hyperaspis congeminata Watson, 1969, p. 368. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.50 to 3.70 mm, width 3.0 to 3.10 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and narrow lateral area yellow; pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron with single yellow or red discal spot (Fig. 360 d), or with additional small apical spot.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout,
area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 360 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is not at all related to H. bicentralis as supposed by Dobzhansky (1941).
The male genitalia (which Dobzhansky did not examine) are dearly of the bigeminata type.
This is another species in which the genitalia are of one type and the external color pattern typical of another group.
Hyperaspis major will be confused with members of the binotata and signata groups,
especially H. signata and H. pistillata because the dorsal color pattern is of that type rather than

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 362 . Distribution. Hyperaspis concaves (dot); H. lugubris (circle); H. lewisi (sty).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________

the bigeminata type. Male genitalia must be examined in this instance.
Hyperaspis congeminata Watson is a junior synonym of H. major.
Watson (1969) remarked that H. congeminata resembled H. major,
but since Dobzhansky (1941) had not examined the male genitalia of H. major,
no genitalic comparison was possible.

Type locality.
Of major, Riverside, Illinois; of congeminata, Karber's Ridge, Illinois.

Type depository.
Of major, USNM (54203); of congeminata, INHS

Distribution.
Figure 358 . INDIANA: Hammond. ILLINOIS: Riverside. KANSAS: Manhattan.

Top

Hyperaspis concaves Watson
Fig. 361 a-d; Map, Fig. 362

Hyperaspis concaves Watson, 1969, p. 367.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 3.50 mm. width 2.0 to 2.75 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum of male black, anterior margin broadly yellow, broad lateral area yellow, apex of black area truncate;
pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron with single orange spot on disc (Fig. 361 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout,
area within line smooth with scattered fine punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 361 a-c.

Discussion.
Females of this species are not separable from females of most of the other 2-spotted species having entirely black pronota,
but the male pronotal pattern with reduced and epically truncate black areas is distinctive.

Type locality.
Summit of Mt. Washington, 6,293 feet, New Hampshire.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 363 . Hyperaspis lugubris. a. b. c. d. e.
#______________________________________________

Type depository.
UMMZ. Distribution. Figure 362 . NEW YORK: Ithaca; Top of Mt. Whiteface.

Top

Hyperaspis lugubris (Randall)
Fig. 363 a-e; Map, Fig. 362

Coccinella lugubris Randall, 1838b, p. 52.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1051.
Hyperaspis lugubris LeConte, 1852,p. 134.—LeConte, 1880,p. 188.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 233.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 21.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.— Belicek, 1976, p. 316.
Hyperaspis jucunda LeConte, 1852, p. 134 (not Mulsant, 1850).—Crotch, 1874b, p. 233.
Hyperaspis lecontei Crotch, 1874b, p. 233 (new name for jucunda LeConte).—Casey, 1899, p. 128.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 364 . Hyperaspis lewisi. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Hyperaspis separate Casey, 1924, p. 165—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 195.—Dobzhan
sky, 1941, p. 21.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.30 mm, width 1.60 to 2.40 mm.
Form elongate, oval, convex.
Pronotum of male reddish yellow, often with narrow black or darkened area in front of scutellum;
female head yellow, pronotum mostly black with yellow lateral margin, anterior margin often narrowly yellow.
Elytron with 3 spots, discal, apical, and lateral; lateral spot on margin from base to apical 2/3 (Fig. 363 d,e).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
flattened along hind margin, outer 1/3 straight, area within line alutaceous, finely, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 363 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is peculiar in that the male pronotum is usually entirely pale,
and the female pronotal pattern would be that of the male in most other North American species of Hyperaspis.
The elongate form, pronotal color pattern and arrangement of elytral spots is a combination not shared by any other species of Hyperaspis
from the eastern United States.
Hyperaspis venustula Mulsant, placed as a synonym of this species by Dobzhansky (1941),
was transferred to Hyperaspis by Gordon (1974c).

The type of jucunda is a unique (holotype) male labeled "(yellow disc)"/male sign/

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Type 6715(red paper)/H. lugubris (Rand.) jucunda Lee." The type of separata is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of lugubris, Cambridge, Massachusetts, of jucur^lda, "Illinois"; of separata, Natick, Massachusetts.

Type depository.
Of lugubris, type not located; of jucunda, MCZ; of separata, USNM (35201).

Distribution.
Figure 362 . COLORADO: Marshall. IOWA: Iowa City; Madison Co. KANSAS: Topeka. MINNESOTA: Itasca Park; Plummer. NEBRASKA: Scottsbluff. NEW YORK: West Point. NORTH DAKOTA: Grant Co., Lake Tschida. PENNSYLVANIA: Wind Gap.

Top

Hyperaspis lewisi Crotch
Fig. 364 a-d; Map, Fig. 362

Hyperaspis lewisii Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 30.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.
Hyperaspis maneei Casey, 1924, p. 163.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 30.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.0 to 3.80 mm, width 2.10 to 2.50 mm.
Form elongate, nearly parallel sided, not strongly convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and narrow lateral area yellow; pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron with large, yellow, discal spot extending from or near lateral margin nearly to suture (Fig. 364 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved except slightly flattened along hind margin, area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 364 a-c.

Discussion.
The elongate form and large yellow spot on each elytron cause H. Iewisi to be one of the most readily recognized species in the bigeminata group.
The type of H. maneei in the Casey collection is a unique female (holotype).
The Crotch type or types of H. Iewisi should be in the LeConte collection and indeed there are 2 specimens there under that name,
one of these labeled "type 8246." There are, however, certain discrepancies that make me doubt that either of these specimens are types.
Crotch's type locality was "United States", but both of these specimens are labeled "Tex." Crotch distinctly described a male specimen,
but both of these are females. Although there is no doubt that both the LeConte specimens are indeed H. Iewisi,
I do not believe that either of them are types.

Type locality.
Of lewisi, "United States," of maneei, Southern Pines, North Carolina.

Type depository.
Of lewisi, see preceding discussion; of maneei, USNM (35175).

Distribution.
Figure 362 . DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Washington. FLORIDA: De Funiak Spring. KENTUCKY: Louisville. MARYLAND: Great Falls. NEW YORK: Bear Mtn.; West Point.

Top

Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant
Fig. 365 a-h; Map, Fig. 366

Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant, 1850, p. 657.—Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Gorham, 1894, p. 195.—Casey, 1899, p. 122.—Nunenmacher, 1911, p.

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#________________________________________________________
##Fig. 365 . Hyperaspis lateralis. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
#________________________________________________________

73.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25.— Hatch, 1961, p. 156.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 40.—Belicek, 1974, p. 311.
Hyperaspis lateralis lateralis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 15.
Hyperaspis montanica Casey, 1899, p. 122.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Belicek, 1976, p. 311.

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Hyperaspis lateralis montanica Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 16.
Hyperaspis laevipennis Casey, 1899, p. 122.—Bowditch, 1902, p. 207.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 15.
Hyperaspis lateralis var. omissa Casey, 1879, p. 122. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis omissa Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.
Hyperaspis lateralis omissa: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 18.
Hyperaspis laterals var. Jlammula Nunenmacher, 1911, p. 72. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis pinguis ab. flammula: Leng,, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.
Hyperaspis lateralis flammula: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 17.
Hyperaspis wellmani Nunenmacher, 1911, p. 72.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.
Hyperaspis lateralis wellmani: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 18.—Belicek, 1976, p. 311.
Hyperaspis idae Nunenmacher, 1912, p. 450.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.
Hyperaspis lateralis idae Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 19.—Belicek, 1976, p. 312.
Hyperaspis lateralis nigrocauda Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 17. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 3.80 mm, width 2.10 to 3.0 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and narrow lateral area yellow; pronotum of female entirely black.
Color pattern of elytron variable (Fig. 365 d-h), but usually with an extended subhumeral spot as in Figure 365 e.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line polished, sparsely, finely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 365 a-c.

Discussion.
Most examples of this species can be recognized because the broad subhumeral spot on the elytron
extends from the base to approximately 2/5 the length of the elytron.
Those specimens not having this type of spot are difficult to identify without examining the male genitalia.
Many names have been proposed for the color variants of H. Iateralis,
but none of these are applied to well characterized geographic races.
In almost all instances a sizeable population of H. Iateralis contains 2 or more of these variants
as pointed out by Dobzhansky (1941) and El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation).
There is no doubt that the Florida and Louisiana specimens are H. Iateralis
even though they are widely disjunct from the normal distribution pattern.
In this case I suspect an accidental introduction, perhaps via commerce,
but no evidence is available as to the origin of the introduction.
Belicek (1976) synonymized H. montanica, H. wellmani, and H. idae with H. Iateralis,
but incorrectly stated that this had previously been done by Dobzhansky (1941).
I here consider H. omissa Casey, H. flamm ula Nunennmacher, and H. nigrocauda Dobzhansky to be junior synonyms of H. Iateralis rather than subspecies.
A single female type of H. Iateralis exists in the Sicard collection labeled
"Type/coll. MniszechAateralis Muls. Mexique Type." I here designate and label this specimen as the lectotype of lateralis.
There are 3 types of H. montanica in the Casey Collection, the first of which I here designate and label as the lectotype,
the others as paralectotypes. Hyperaspis laevipennis is represented in the Casey collection by a unique male type (holotype).
There are 2 type specimens of H. omissa, the first of which, a male, I designate and label as the lectotype,
the remaining specimen as a paralectotype. Nunenmacher had 3 type specimens of H. flammula,
I have seen 2 of these and designate a male labeled "Mon/ male sign/ Hyperaspis v. flammula Nun." as the lectotype.
Nunenmacher had 7 type

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#________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 366 . Distribution. Hyperaspis lateralis (shaded, disjunct localities dotted); H. ornatella (star).
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________

specimens of H. wellmani, I have seen 2 of these and designate a male labeled
"Goldfield/Esmeralda Co. Nev. VI.27.02/coll'd by F. W. Nunenmacher/Hyperaspis wellmani Nun."
as the lectotype. Nunenmacher had a type and one "cotype" of idae labeled
"Humboldt Co. Cal. IV.25.1 1/coll'd by F. W. Nunenmacher/male sign/ Hyperaspis idae Nun.'
Hatch (1961) used the name H. Iateralis ab. craterensis which has no standing because it was used as an aberration.

Type locality.
Of lateralis, "Mexique" (lectotype here designated); of montanica, Helena, Montana (lectotype here designated);
of laevipennis, Gilroy Hot Springs, Santa Clara Co., California;
of omissa, Canyon of Colorado River, Arizona (lectotype here designated);
of nigrocauda, Canon City, Colorado; of flammula, "Montana" (lectotype here designated);
of wellmani, Goldfield, Esmeralda Co., Nevada (lectotype here designated); of idae, Humboldt Co., California.

Type depository.
Of lateralis, PM; of montanica (35149), laevipennis (35150), omissa (35152), and nigrocauda (54202), USNM; of flammula, wellmani, and idae, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 366 . Montana to New Mexico, west to British Columbia and southern California. Peripheral localities; El Paso and Del Rio, Texas. Disjunct localities: DeLand, Florida; Caddo, East Baton Rouge, and Tensas Parishes, Louisiana.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig 367 . Hyperaspis pinguis. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis pinguis Casey
Fig. 367 a-d; Map, Fig. 369

Hyperaspis pinguis Casey, 1899, p. 122.—Bowditch, 1902, p. 207.—Korschefslcy 1931, p. 191.
Hyperaspis lateralis: Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Belicek, 1976, p. 311 (in part).
Hyperaspis lateralis lateralis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 15.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.30 to 3.50 mm, width 2.60 to 2.70 mm.
Description as for H. Iateralis except pronotum of male with broad lateral area yellow;
female pronotum with large, triangular lateral area yellow;
elytron with subhumeral spot large, reaching humeral callus (Fig. 367 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 367 a-c.

Discussion.
Bowditch (1902) first considered H. pinguis a junior synonym of H. Iateralis and Dobzhansky (1941) followed this placement.
I have examined the genitalia of the male type of H. pinguis and find that they are quite different from those of H. Iateralis.
Because of the genitalia and external differences listed above I regard H. pinguis as a valid species.
There are 2 types of H. pinguis in the Casey collection and I here designated and label the first of these (male) as the lectotype,
the second as a paralectotype.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 368 . Hyperaspis excelsa. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

Type locality.
Arizona (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35151).

Distribution.
Figure 369 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Douglas; Patagonia; Santa Catalina Mts.; Santa Cruz Co., Nogales; Tucson; Tucson Mts.

Top

Hyperaspis excelsa Fall
Fig. 368 a-e; Map, Fig. 369

Hyperaspis excelsa Fall, 1901, p, 232.—Leng, 1920, p. 21 1.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 20.

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Diagnosis.
Length 3.40 to 4.20 mm, width 2.60 to 3.50 mm.
Description as for H. Iateralis except elytron with subhumeral spot connected to large discal spot (Fig. 368 d),
apical spot sometimes present (Fig. 368 e).
Male genitalia as in Figure 368 ac.

Discussion.
This species may be a junior synonym of H. Iateralis,
but I have seen only 6 specimens of H. excelsa and prefer not to synonomize it at this time
without being able to judge the range of variability.
There are also minor differences in the male genitalia of the two species.
I have seen 2 type specimens of H. excelsa and designate and label a male bearing the label
"Pomona Cal 11.3.94/Type excelsa/ M.C.Z. Type 24540 (red paper) H. C. Fall collection" as the lectotype.
A female with the same locality data in the USNM collection is designated and labeled as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Pomona, California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 369 . CALIFORNIA: Anaheim; El Monte; Los Angeles;
Los Angeles Co., Camp Baldy; Mint Canyon; Pomona; San Antonio; San Bernardino Co., Fontana.

Hyperaspis pluto Fall
Map, Fig. 369

Hyperaspis pluto Fall, 1925, p. 311.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 85.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.50 to 3.75 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Male unknown.
Pronotum of female black except lateral margin narrowly reddish yellow.
Elytron entirely black.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line polished, sparsely, finely punctured.

Discussion.
The entirely black elytron and large size make H. pluto our most easily recognized species of Hyperaspis.
Only 4 examples have been seen, all of these females, therefore the placement of this species in the bigeminata group is tentative.
The holotype is a female labeled "S. Bdo. Mts. Cal. 6000 ft. 7-3- 17/pluto type/M.C.Z Type 24543 (red paper)/H. C. Fall Collection."

Type locality.
San Bernardino Mountains, California.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 369 . CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Westgard Pass Plateau.

Top

Hyperaspis ornatella , new species
Fig. 370 a-d; Map, Fig. 366

Description.
Male, length 2.60 mm, width 2.10 mm.
Form oval, somewhat rounded, slightly flattened dorsoventrally.
Head yellow.
Pronotum yellow with large, rectangular black area medially.
Elytron black with large, median yellow spot in apical % (Fig. 370 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter or less;
pronotal punctures slightly coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron coarser than on pronotum, separated by one to 2 times a diameter.
Metasternum finely punctured medially, punctures becoming coarse laterally.
Abdominal

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#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 369 . Distribution. Hyperaspis pinguis (dot); H. excelsa (open circle); H. pluto (star); H. aculifera (square); H. chapini (circled star).
#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

sterna coarsely punctured throughout, punctures separated by a diameter medially, nearly contiguous laterally.
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, area within line polished,
with sparse, coarse punctures.
Genitalia as in Figure 370 a-c.

Female, length 2.40 mm, width 1.80 mm.
Similar to holotype except head black;
pronotum with median black area extending to anterior margin.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 370 . Hyperaspis ornatella. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Variation.
Length 2.30 to 2.85 mm, width 1.70 to 2.10 mm.

Holotype.
Male. FLORIDA: Dade Co., Hialeah, 21-VII-71, C.E. Stegmaier, Jr. reared from aphids ex. Malphigia glabra L. (FSCA).

Allotype.
Female. FLORIDA: Key Vaca, 28-XII-55, H. V. Weems, Jr., at bidens pilosa. (FSCA).

Paratypes.
Total 20 (Fig. 366 ). FLORIDA: same data as holotype; same data as allotype;
Broward Co., Pompano Beach, 30-V-77 and 6-VII-77, R. Schimmel; Dade Co., 15-X-57, R. W. Swanson;
Dade Co., Miami, I-IX-67, J. C. Haley; Dania, 25V-62, D. P. B. McLean;
Lakeland City, 14-II-99, D. Culbert, on Juniperus chinensis, Plantation Key, 29-X-57, H. A. Denmark, Acalypha Wilkesiana;
South Miami, 19III-65, R. W. Swanson; no data. (FSCA) (USNM).

This species has essentially the same color pattern as H. oculifera Casey,
however, oculifera is strongly convex dorsolaterally,
the postcoxal line on the first abdominal sternum is rounded and does not reach the hind margin,
the average size is distinctly smaller than H. ornatella, and the anterior margin of the posternum is not toothed.
No other Florida species of Hyperaspis has a color pattern similar to H. ornatella.
This species may be an aphid predator because specimens of the type series from Dade Co., Hialeah, are labeled
"reared from aphids ex Malphigia glabra L.". The specific name is from the Latin ornamentum,
and refers to the distinctive color pattern.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 371 . hyperaspis oculifera. a. b. c.
#_________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis oculifera Casey
Fig. 371 a-d; Map, Fig. 369

Hyperaspis oculifera Casey, 1908, p. 415.—Leng, 1920, p 211—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 35.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.60 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, broad lateral area yellow.
Elytron with single yellow spot medially behind middle (Fig. 371 d).
Lateral 1/3 of anterior margin of prosternum with row of teeth descending in size from lateral margin.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved except slightly flattened along margin, area within line polished, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 371 a-c.

Discussion.
This little species is very distinctive because of the unusual toothed apical margin of the prosternum and the male genitalia which,
although of the bigeminata type, have the basal lobe quite divergent from the normal form.
The type of oculifera is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.
Dobzhansky (1941) was correct in comparing H. centralis Mulsant to oculifera.
They are definitely related and very similar,
but the male genitalia are distinctly different and centralis has the row of prosternal teeth reduced and shortened.
A male type of centralis exists in the Crotch collection (UCCC) labeled "Type(blue paper)/TYPE/centralis Muls."
I here designated and labeled this specimen as the lectotype.

Type locality.
Benson, Cochise Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (3 5177).

Distribution.
Figure 369 . ARIZONA: Nogales; Oracle; Pena Blanca Canyon, Pajarito Mts.; Pima Co., Pantano; Sabino Canyon; Santa Rita Mts.; Tombstone; Tucson.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 372 . Hyperaspis chaffing. a. b. c. d. e.
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Top

Hyperaspis chapini Dobzhansky
Fig. 372 a-e; Map, Fig. 369

HyperaspischapiniDobzhansky, 1941,p. 10.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.75 mm, width 1.50 to 2.10 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow,
pronotum of female with anterior margin black,
lateral yellow area reduced to narrow vitta.
Elytron with 2 yellow spots, one at apex and one on lateral margin behind middle (Fig. 372 e).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved except outer % slightly angulate7 area within line smooth,
distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 372 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 372 d.

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern of H. chapini is similar to several species in Section II, but unique in Section I.

Type locality.
Filer, Idaho.

Type depository.
USNM (54200).

Distribution.
Figure 369 . CALIFORNIA: Amedee. IDAHO: Amsterdam; Bliss; Burley; Hagerman; Kimama. UTAH:
Chad's Rch.; Delta. OREGON: Albert Lalce; Harney Co., Tencent Lake; Lake Co., Paisley.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 373 . Hyperaspis levrati. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis levrati (Mulsant)
Fig. 373 a-d; Map, Fig. 375

Cleothera levrati Mulsant, 1850, p. 613.
Hyperaspis levrati: Gorham, 1894, p. 192.—Schaeffer, 1905, p. 145.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 191.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 5.
Brachyacantha metator Casey, 1908, p. 413.
Hyperaspis metator Casey, 1910, p. 109.—Leng, 1911, p. 8.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 5.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 3.0 mm, width 1.70 to 2.40 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female with anterior margin black, lateral yellow area smaller than in male.
Elytron with 4 or 5 spots, normally 4 but subhumeral spot often divided (Fig. 373 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved, area within line smooth, feebly, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 373 a-c.
Female genitalia as in chapini.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern of H. Ievrati is unique in the North American fauna except for some specimens of H. revocans,
however, the latter species is consistently smaller and less robust with different male genitalia.
The type of Brachyacantha metator is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

There are 2 "types" of levrati in the BMNH, but Mulsant (1850) stated that his specimens were in the Dupont and Hope collections.
The BMNH specimens, labeled "Named by Mulsant" are very likely to be type material, but I have not designated a lectotype in this case.

Type locality.
Of levrati, "Mexique", of metator, Del Rio, Texas.

Type depository.
Of levrati, BMNH?, of metator, USNM (35153).

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 374 . Hyperaspis deludens. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 375 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Palmerly, Santa Rita Mts.; Tucson. COLORADO: Canon City. TEXAS: Del Rio.

Top

Hyperaspis deludens , new species
Fig. 374 a-d; Map, Fig. 375

Hyperaspis pratensis auct. (not pratensis LeConte, 1852).—Wingo, 1952, p. 25 (in part).
Hyperaspis pratensis pratensis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 1 1 (in part).

Description.
Female, length 2.60 mm, width 2.10 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Head black; pronotum black with large yellow area on lateral margin;
elytron black with 3 yellow spots, discal, apical and marginal (Fig. 374 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by 3 or 4 times a diameter;
punctures on elytron coarse, larger than on head, separated by slightly more than a diameter.
Metasternum with very coarse, almost confluent punctures becoming slightly finer medially.
Abdominal sterna with fine, dense punctures except first sternum with coarse, sparse punctures.
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly curved except outer 1/3 straight, area within line alutaceous, impunctate.

Male. Similar to holotype except head yellow;
length 2.40 mm, width 2.0 mm; genitalia as in Figure 374 a-c.

Holotype.
Female. ILLINOIS: "Southern", 6/890, Collection H. Soltau (USNM 101338).

Allotype.
Male. OHIO: (state record), Collection H. Soltau (USNM).

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 375 . Distribution. Hyperaspis levrati (dot); H. deludens (open circle); H. pratensis (circled star); H. medialis (star); H. aemulator(square).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paratypes.
Total 2 (Fig. 375 ). New York: Mosholu. OHIO: Hocking Co., IV-2638, D. J. + J. N. Knull (CAS).

This species has been confused with H. pratensis LeConte because they have the same unique arrangement of elytral spots.
However, H. pratensis is larger and has the elongate, convex form of some species of Brachiacantha as pointed out by LeConte (1852).
The very round form and 3 spotted elytron make H. deludens a distinctive species.
The specific name means to deceive, referring to the deceptive resemblance to H. pratensis.

Top

Hyperaspis pratensis LeConte
Fig. 376 ; Map, Fig. 375

Hyperaspis pratensis LeConte, 1852, p. 134.—LeConte,1880,p.188.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 234.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Schaeffer, 1908, p. 126.— Blatchley, 1910, p.523.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Wingo, 1952, p. 25 (in part). Hyperaspis pratensis pratensis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 11 (in part).

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 mm, width 2.85 mm.
Form elongate, slightly oval, convex.
Pronotum with broad yellow area laterally.
Elytron with 3 large yellow spots (Fig. 376 ).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
evenly rounded except outer 1/3 straight, area within line smooth, finely, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia unknown.

Discussion.
This species has the habitue of some species of Brachiacantha, differing

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#________________________________
##Fig. 376 . Hyperaspis pratensis.
#________________________________

greatly from most other species of Hyperaspis in this respect (see remarks under H. deludens, n. sp.).
Dobzhansky (1941) placed Hyperaspis triplicans Casey and H. triplicans microsticta Casey as junior synonyms of H. pratensis,
but examination of the types shows that both belong in the genus Brachiacantha.
The holotype of pratensis is a unique female labeled "green disc/TYPE 6714(red paper)/H. pratensis Lec."

Type locality.
Missouri.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 375 . NEW JERSEY: Hoptacong. MASSACHUSETTS: Beach Bluff.

Top

Hyperaspis medialis Casey
Fig. 377 a-d; Map, Fig. 375

Hyperaspis medialis Casey, 1899, p. 123.—Schaeffer, 1905, p. 145.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 196.
Hyperaspis pratensis medialis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 11.
Hyperaspis sexverrucata: Leng, 1920, p. 211.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.00 to 2.50 mm, width 1.60 to 1.80 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval, convex.
Dorsal color pattern as described for H. pratensis except yellow spots on elytron longer (Fig. 377 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line smooth, impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 377 a-c.

Discussion.
Dobzhansky (1941) regarded medialis as a subspecies of pratensis (deludens),
but I cannot agree with this placement, I have seen H. medialis only from Brownsville and Alpine, Texas,
and pratensis (deludens) from no farther south or

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#__________________________________________
##Fig 377 . Hyperaspis medialis. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

west than Missouri. The male genitalia are distinctive in both species as well as the size of the elytral spots and body shape.
Therefore I consider H. medialis a valid species.
There are 5 types of H. medialis in the Casey collection and I here designate and label the first of these (male) the lectotype,
the remainder as paralectotypes.
Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).
Type depository.
USNM (35160).
Distribution.
Figure 375 . ARIZONA: Molino Basin; S. Catalina Mts. TEXAS: Alpine; Brownsville.

Top

Hyperaspis aemulator Casey
Fig. 378 a-d; Map, Fig. 375

Hyperaspis aemulator Casey, 1908, p. 41 3.—Leng, 1920, p. 21 1. p. 184. ·Korschefsky, 1931,

Hyperaspis pratensis aemulator Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 12.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 2.80 mm, width 2.0 to 2.30 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval.
Dorsal color pattern similar to H. medialis (Fig. 378 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. medialis.
Male genitalia as in Figure 378 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is very similar to H. medialis externally except that it is uniformly longer.
Dobzhansky (1941) consider aemulator to be a subspecies of pratensis (deludens),
but the male genitalia of aemulator are distinct from those of either

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 378 . Hyperaspis aemulator. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

pratensis (deludens) or medialis, therefore I consider H. Emulator a valid species.
The unique type (holotype) is a female in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Nogales, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35159).

Distribution.
Figure 375 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Palmerly, Huachucha Mts.; Santa Rita Mts.

Top

Hyperaspis revocans Casey
Fig. 379 a-e; Map, Fig. 380

Hyperaspis revocans Casey, 1908, p. 419.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 195.
Hyperaspis revocans revocans: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 6.
Hyeraspis revocans occidentalis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 6. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
2.0 to 2.40 mm, width 1.50 to 1.80 mm.
Form evenly convex.
Head yellow in both sexes.
Pronotum of male yellow with large, black, semicircular spot on base;
pronotum of female black with yellow anterior and lateral margin.
Color pattern of elytron variable; marginal vitta broad,
complete or narrowly interrupted near apex,
basal and discal spots present or one or both absent, often connected where both present (Fig. 379 d, e).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
slightly flattened along margin, area within line smooth, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 379 a-c.

Discussion.
The paired basal spots of the elytra, especially when united with the discal spots, make H. revocans easily recognizable.
The occasional specimen that

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 379 . Hyperaspis revocans. a. b. c. d. e.
#______________________________________________

lacks both spots or has only the discal spot is more difficult to place without examining male genitalia.
Hyperaspis occidentalis is a junior synonym of revocans and cannot be maintained even as a subspecies.
Both typical revocans and typical occidentalis occur together at St. George, Utah,
and the male genitalia of both forms are identical. The type of revocans is a unique (holotype) male in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of revocans, St. George, Utah; of occidentalis, Kettleman City, California.

Type depository.
Of revocans, USNM (35206); of occidentalis, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 380 . ARIZONA: Hot Springs. CALIFORNIA: Imperial Co., Fort Yuma; Indio; Kern Co.;
Kings Co.; San Bernardino Co., Sacramento Spring at Klinefelter. NEW MEXICO: Mesilla Pk. UTAH: St. George.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 380 . Distribution. Hyperaspis revocans (dot); H. triangulum (open circle); H. esclavium (star).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis triangulum Casey
Fig. 381 a-d; Map, Fig. 380

Hyperaspis triangulum Casey, 1899, p. 123.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 71.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.50 mm, width 1.60 to 1.90 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum in both sexes with lateral margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron with 3 yellow spots (Fig. 381 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, angulate in outer 1/3, area within line densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 381 a-c.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 381 . Hyperaspis triangulum. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern of H. triangulum is quite distinctive, especially among members of Section I.
Dobzhansky (1941) associated this species with quadrioculata which is in Section II.
The type of H. triangulum is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Benson, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35202).

Distribution.
Figure 380 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Johnson; Huachuca Mts.; Santa Catalina Mts.;
Tucson. CALIFORNIA: Contra Costa Co., Richmond. TEXAS: Davis Mts.; Finlay.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 382 . Hyperaspis esclavium. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis esclavium Dobzhansky
Fig. 382 a-d; Map, Fig. 380

Hyperaspis esclavium Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 82.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.60 mm, width 1.70 to 2.0 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum of male with anterior margin and basal lateral area yellow; pronotum of female with anterior margin black, large lateral area yellow.
Elytron with 4 yellow spots, spots often partially connected (Fig. 382 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 382 a-c.

Discussion.
The only specimens seen have been the type series.
This species is either extremely localized and rare, or the specimens comprising the type series were introduced or the offspring of an introduction.
I suspect that the latter possibility is the most likely, and that a breeding population of the species may no longer occur in the United States.

Type locality.
Biloxi, Mississippi.

Type depository.
USNM (54221).

Distribution.
Figure 380 . MISSISSIPPI: Biloxi

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 383 . Hyperaspis osculans. a. b. c. d. e.
#______________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis oscularzs LeConte
Fig. 383 a-e; Map, Fig. 384

Hyperaspis osculans LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 125.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.- Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 49.
Hyperaspis biornatus Nunenmacher, 1934a, p. 18. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis biornata biornata: Dobzhansky, 1 941, p. 52.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 3.10 mm, width 2.0 to 2.40 mm.
Form broadly rounded, somewhat convex.
Pronotum of female black except anterolateral angle reddish brown or with narrow yellow margin.
Elytron with single red or yellow marginal spot, spot often extended to apex (Fig. 383 d, e).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 383 a-c.

Discussion.
This species and H. pleuralis have similar color patterns and can be confused unless genitalia or antennae are examined.
Hyperaspis osculans is larger

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#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 384 . Distribution. Hyperaspis osculans (dot); H. uteana (open circle), H. mckenziei (circled star); H. connecters (star).
#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

and usually has a larger spot on the elytron. Hyperaspis biornata Nunenmacher has the spot on the elytron extended posteriorly as in Figure 383 e.
I have seen several examples of H. osculans that have traces of this posterior extension and are intermediate in this respect between typical H. osculans
and H. biornata. The male genitalia of these forms are not separable and I consider biornata a junior synonym of osculans.
The unique holotype male of biornata is labeled "Livermore Hills. VI33/Alameda Co. Cal/male sign / Hyperaspis biornatus Nun.".
LeConte had more than one type specimen of osculans, therefore I here designate and label a female in his collection labeled
"Cala./Type 071 2(red paper)/H. osculans Lee." as the lectotype. Two other specimens are present with the lectotype,
but I do not know whether they were part of the original series or not.

Type locality.
Of osculans; California (lectotype here designated); of biornata, Livermore Hills, Alameda Co., California.

Type depository.
Of osculans, MCZ; of biornata, MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 384 . CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Niles Canyon; Bass Lake; Contra Costa Co., Mt. Diablo; Eldorado Co.; Ft. Tejon;
Fresno Co., Stevenson Creek; Glenn Co., Black Butte; Kaweah; Lebec; Los Angeles Co., Tanbark Flat; Marin Co.; Monterey Co.;
Napa Co., Pope Valley; Riverside; San Benito Co., Panoche Pass; Big Bear Lake; San Bernardino Mts.; Pinon Flat; San Jacinto Mts.;
Santa Barbara; San Luis Obispo Co., La Panza; Sequoia Nat. Park; Shasta Co., Cayton; Siskiyou Co.; Sonoma Co., Eldridge.

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 385 . H. uteana. a. b. c. d. e.
#____________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis uteana , new species
Fig. 385 a-e; Map, Fig. 384

Description.
Male, length 2.40 mm, width 1.85 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Pronotum with irregular yellow area on lateral margin, apical margin with narrow, transverse, yellow vitta not touching apical margin,
not joining lateral yellow area.
Elytron black with large, orange, median spot on lateral margin extending onto disc, orange spot with small, yellow area near lateral border (Fig. 385 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by a diameter;
punctures on elytron equal in size to pronotal punctures, separated by one or 2 times a diameter.
Metasternum with coarse punctures laterally, becoming finer medially.
Abdomen with basal 2 sterna coarsely punctured, punctures separated by less than to 3 times a diameter;
apical 4 sterna with punctures moderate in size, dense, nearly contiguous.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line polished, sparsely punctured.
Genitalia as in Figure 38 Sa-c.

Female, similar to male except head black; length 2.60 mm, width 2.0 mm;
pronotum without anterior yellow vitta, elytron as in male except with apical yellow spot (Fig. 385 e)

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 386 . Hyperaspis mckenziei. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Holotype.
Male. UTAH: White Valley, Millard Co., Date 7-22-40. Collection R. W. Fautin (USNM 101339).

Allotype.
Female. UTAH: same data as holotype except date "8-13-40." USNM.

The presence of a yellow spot within the orange spot on the elytron, if consistent,
will separate H. uteana from any other described species of North American Hyperaspis.
The male genitalia are most similar to those of H. mckenziei.
The specific epithet refers to the state in which the type series was collected.

Top

Hyperaspis mckenziei Nutting
Fig. 386 a-d; Map, Fig. 384

Hyperaspis mckenziei Nutting, 1980, p. 264.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 mm, width 1.75 mm.
Form rounded; convex.
Pronotum of male broadly yellow laterally; pronotum of female narrowly yellow.
Elytron with large discal spot and small apical spot (Fig. 386 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line polished, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 386 a-c.

Discussion.
The convex, rounded form and elytral color pattern are unlike any other species of Hyperaspis from southern California.
The limited type series were the only specimens seen, and this is unusual considering that California has been relatively well surveyed for Coccinellidae.
The type specimens were collected in 1934, and it is possible that habitat destruction has eliminated H. mckenziei entirely.

Type locality.
Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 384 . CALIFORNIA: Riverside Co., Palm Springs.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 387 . Hyperaspis connectens. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

connectens group

Members of this group possess the type of male and female genitalia characteristic of members of the bigeminata group, but have 10-segmented antennae.
I consider the reduced number of antennal segments to be an independent reduction in this instance, without phyletic significance.
Both H. rotunda and H. dobzhanskyi are convex species with deeply excavated epipleurae; H. connecters is not convex and without deeply excavated epipleurae.
It is possible that 2 groups should be established here, but at least for the present I prefer to use one group
because all 3 species are quite similar in all other respects.

Top

Hyperaspis connectens (Thunberg)
Fig. 387 a-e; Map, Fig. 384

Coccinella connecters Thunberg, 1808, p. 157.
Hyperaspis connecters: Mulsant, 1850, p. 662.—Weise, 1904, p. 361.—Kowhefsky, 1931, p. 186.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 25.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 41.
Hyperaspis lengi Schaeffer, 1905, p. 144. - 1908, p. 126.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 25.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 3.0 mm, width 2.0 to 2.30 mm.
Form oval, not strongly convex.
Pronotum of male and female black with broad lateral yellow area.
Elytron with 2 yellow spots usually connected (Fig. 387 e), but sometimes discrete.
Postcoxal

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line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line coarsely, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 387 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 387 d.

Discussion.
The normal color pattern of this species is distinctive, causing it to be readily recognized.
The range of H. connectens is broad, extending through Mexico to Nicaragua and to several islands in the Carribbean in addition to the United States localities.
I have seen a male and a female type of H. Iengi Schaeffer and here designate and label the male labeled
"Type/Esperanza Rch, Brownsville, Tex, VIII-25/ Cotype No. 4255 1 U.S.N.M. (red paper)/ Hyperaspis lengii Schaeffer type"
as the lectotype, and the female as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Of connectens, "Habitat in insula St. Eustachii"; of lengi, Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of connecters, not located; of lengi, USNM (42551).

Distribution.
Figure 384 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Palmerly; Globe; Mesa; Phoenix; Tucson; Yuma. CALIFORNIA: Kings Co., Hanford. FLORIDA: Gainesville.
LOUISIANA: (Parishes) Ascension, Avoyelles, Catahoula, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Evangeline, Iberville, Lafayette, Livingston,
Pointe Coupee, Rapides, St. Helena, St. James, St. John, St. Landry, St. Martin, Vermilion, West Baton Rouge, West Feliciana.
TEXAS: Brownsville; Edinburg; Harlingen; San Benito.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 388 . Hyperaspis rotunda. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

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Hyperaspis rotunda Casey
Fig 388 a-e; Map, Fig. 389

Hyperaspis rotunda Casey, 1899, p. 123.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 26.
Hyperaspis rotundata: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 195 (error).

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.80 mm, width 1.80 to 2.0 mm.
Form rounded, strongly convex.
Pronotum of male and female black with broad lateral yellow area.
Elytron with 2 yellow spots, apical spot transverse (Fig. 388 e).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum,
flattened along margin, area within line polished, finely, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 388 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 388 d.

Discussion.
The almost globular form and elytral color pattern are fairly distinctive for this species.
The type of H. rotunda in a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (35162).

Distribution.
Figure 389 . TEXAS: Brownsville; St. Thomas.

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#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 389 . Distribution. Hyperaspis rotunda (star), H. dobzhanskyi (open circle); H. gamma (dot); H. conspirans (square).
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis dobzhanskyi , new species
Fig. 390 a-d, Map, Fig. 389

Description.
Male, length 2.45 mm, width 190 mm.
Form oval, not strongly convex.
Dorsal color pattern as illustrated for H. rotunda except apical spot on elytron nearly reaching elytral suture (Fig. 390 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 390 . Hyperaspis dobzhanskyi. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________

diameter; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by one or 2 times a diameter;
punctures on elytron feebly impressed, coarser than on pronotum laterally, becoming slightly finer medially.
Abdominal sterna with fine, dense punctures except first sternum with coarse, sparse puncture.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, area within line coarsely punctured.
Genitalia as in Figure 390 a-c.
Female, similar to holotype except head black; length 2.55 mm, width 2.0 mm

Holotype.
Male. ARIZONA: Phoenix (USNM 101340).

Allotype.
Female. ARIZONA: Sacaton. (USNM).

Paratype.
Total 1 (Fig. 389 ). ARIZONA: Tucson. (USNM).

The type series of H. dobzhanskyi is composed of those Arizona specimens seen by Dobzhansky (1941) and included with the specimens of H. rotunda from Texas.
Both the male genitalia and the body form of H. dobzhanskyi differ from those of H. rotunda.
Therefore, I consider it another species and name it for T. Dobzhansky

gemma group

Male genitalia with basal lobe of the bigeminata type, but paramere not spoon shaped, strongly narrowed in apical ' (Fig. 391 a);
***error
pronotum with large yellow areas, elytron with 3 yellow spots, spots sometimes confluent.
The 3 species in this group are very closely related, making the gemma group one of the most closely knit units of North American Hyperaspis.

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#________________________________________
##Fig. 391 . Hyperaspis gemma. a. b. c. d.
#________________________________________

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Hyperaspis gemma Casey
Fig. 391 a-d; Map, Fig. 389

Hyperaspis gemma Casey, 1899, p. 123. - 1908, p. 414.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 189.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 13.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.80 mm, width 1.80 to 2.20 mm.
Form oval, convex.
Male head with base of vertex black, female head entirely black.
Pronotum of male yellow with basal black area not reaching anterior margin;
pronotum of female black with large yellow area laterally.
Elytron with 3 yellow spots, anterior margin of apical spot emarginate (Fig. 391 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin,
outer 1/3 angulate, area within line smooth, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 391 a-c.

Discussion.
The type of this distinctive species is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.
All members of this group are similar in external appearance,
but the seemingly minor differences in color patterns are constant and are reinforced by genitalic differences.

Type locality.
El Paso, Texas.

Type depository.
USNM (35155).

Distribution.
Figure 389 . ARIZONA: Bright Angel Camp; Chiricahua Mts.; Ft. Grant; Hot Springs; Huachuca Mts.; Montezuma Pass; Onion Saddle; Oracle; Pinal; Mt. Williams.
CALIFORNIA: Riverside Co., Blythe; San Diego Co., Hemet Reservoir; San Jacinto Mts. NEW MEXICO: Las Vegas; Silver City. TEXAS: Alpine.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 392 . Hyperaspis conspirans. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________

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Hyperaspis conspirans Casey
Fig. 392 a-d; Map, Fig. 389

Hyperaspis conspirans Casey, 1908, p. 414.—Leng, 1920, p 211.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 12.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.30 mm, width 1.50 to 1.80 mm.
Form oval, convex. Male head with base of vertex black, female head entirely black.
Pronotum of male black with broad lateral area yellow;
pronotum of female similar to male except yellow area slightly reddened.
Elytron with 3 yellow spots, anterior margin of apical spot usually emarginate (Fig. 392 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. gemma.
Male genitalia as in Figure 392 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is usually smaller than H. gemma and the male pronotum is mostly black; in H. gemma the male pronotum is mostly yellow.
The type is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Nogales, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35 16 1).

Distribution.
Figure 389 . ARIZONA: Chiricahua Mts.; Cochise Co., Palmerly; Huachuca Mts.; Montezuma Pass; Oracle; Prescott; Tucson.
TEXAS: Brewster Co., Chisos Mts.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 393 . Hyperaspis fastidiosa. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis fastidiosa Casey
Fig. 393 a-e; Map, Fig. 394

Hyperaspis fastidiosa Casey, 1908, p. 414.—Korschefsky, 193 1, p. 188.—Belicek, 1976, p. 312.
Hyperaspis fastidiosa fastidiosa: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 14.
Hyperaspis fastidiosa septentrionis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 15.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.10 to 2.80 mm, width 1.50 to 1.90 mm.
Form oval, not strongly convex.
Male head with base of vertex black, female head entirely black or brown with yellow clypeus.
Pronotum of male yellow with black quadriolobed basal spot; spot often reduced to transverse band;
pronotum of female black with large yellow area laterally.
Elytron with 3 large yellow spots, marginal spot elongate from base to beyond middle (Fig. 393 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. gemma.
Male genitalia as in Figure 393 a-c.

Discussion.
The elongate marginal spot on the elytron along with the less convex form distinguish H. fastidiosa from the other members of this group.
The color form described as septentrionis (Fig. 393 e) by Dobzhansky is not geographically constant.
It occurs in widely overlapping areas with typical fastidiosa, and often they are both

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 394 . Distribution. Hyperaspis fastidiosa (open circle); H. longicoxitis (square); at. significans (star); H. cruenta (circled star).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

present in the same series, therefore I regard septentrionis as a junior synonym of fastidiosa.
The type of H. fastidiosa is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of fastidiosa, San Diego Co., California; of septentrionis, Murtaugh, Idaho.

Type depository.
Of fastidiosa (35154) and septentrionis (54201), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 394 . ALBERTA: Medicine Hat. ARIZONA: Douglas; Flag

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staff; Ft. Yuma; Fredonia; Holbrook; Hot Springs; Kaibab; Peach Springs; Phoenix.
CALIFORNIA: Ft. Tejon; Imperial Co., Ft. Yuma; Potholes; Inyo Co., Big Pine; Bishop; Independence; Westgard Pass; Kern Co.; Kings Co.;
Los Angeles Co., Soledad; Olancha; Palm Springs; Ventura Co., Santa Paula.
IDAHO: Amsterdam; Bliss; Buhl; Burley; Cassia Co., SE Malta; Castleford; Declo; Gooding; Hazelton; Moscow; Nampa; Paul.
NEVADA: Carson City; Esmeralda Co.; Reno. OREGON: Durkee; Harney Co., Tencent Lake; Hermiston; Redmond; Umatilla.
UTAH: American Fork; Delta; St. George. WASHINGTON: Benton Co., Hanford Works.
WYOMING: Sublette Co., Pinedale; Grand Teton Park; Yellowstone Park.

longicoxitis group

Pronotal color pattern yellow with dark brown macula medially;
elytron with 5 spots; female coxal plate elongate, triangular (Fig. 395 d);
male genitalia with paramere of bigeminata type.

Hyperaspis longicoxitis is the only member of this group known to occur, or have occurred, in North America.
The species is native to the West Indies, and specimens have been seen from Trinidad and Dominica.
The occurrence of H. Iongicoxitis in southern California is probably the result of an unrecorded biocontrol release,
and whether or not the species is presently established is open to question since no specimens have been seen since 1955.

Top

Hyperaspis longicoxitis Nutting
Fig. 395 a-e; Map, Fig. 394

Hyperaspis longicoxitis Nutting, 1980, p. 260.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 3.0 mm, width 2.20 to 2.40 mm.
Form oval, somewhat rounded.
Pronotum yellow with dark brown pattern medially.
Elytron yellowish brown with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 395 e).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, area within line polished, nearly impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 395 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 395 d.

Discussion.
This species has a pronotal color pattern and female coxal plates unique in the North American fauna.
If it is established in the United States, specimens can be easily recognized.

Type locality.
Jacumba, San Diego Co., California.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 394 . Type locality.

Section II

Hyperaspis species with 1 0-segmented antenna; body shape elongate, or oval, usually not strongly convex;
epipleuron of elytron narrow, without median groove, excavation for femoral apex shallow or extremely shallow;
base of abdominal sternum within postcoxal arc flat, not depressed, without transverse fold or suture.
As stated in the discussion of Section I, 3 species with 1 0-segmented antennae are not included in Section II
because they are obviously allied to the bigeminata group of Section I.

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#__________________________________________________
##Fig. 395 . Hyperaspis longicoxitis. a. b. c. d. e.
#__________________________________________________

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#_________________________________________________
##Fig. 396 . Hyperaspis significant. a. b. c. d. e.
#_________________________________________________

significans group

Female pronotum narrowly yellow laterally or entirely black except anterolateral angle obscurely paler;
head of male usually red instead of yellow; head pubescent in both sexes; male genitalia with paramere slender, basal lobe with small lateral projection.

Top

Hyperaspis signifzcans Casey
Fig. 396 a-e; Map, Fig. 394

Hyperaspis significans Casey, 1908, p. 416.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Kowhefsky, 1931, p. 197.
Hyperaspis taeniata significans: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 45.
Hyperaspis concurrens Casey, 1908, p. 416.—Leng, 1920, p. 21 1.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis taeniata var. concurrens: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 46.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.65 mm, width 1.70 to 2.10 mm.
Form oval.
Male

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pronotum narrowly yellow laterally; female pronotum narrowly yellow or entirely black except anterolateral angle obscurely pale.
Elytron entirely black or with single spot of varying size on lateral margin (Fig. 396 e).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, coarsely, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 396 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 396 d.

Discussion.
The form of this species with maculate elytra (significans) and the form with immaculate elytra (concurrens) often occur together without intergrades.
When this happens there are no genitalic differences, therefore I regard them as synonymous and the name concurrens cannot be maintained in even subspecific status.
There are 4 types of significant in the Casey collection and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.
There are 3 types of concurrens in the Casey collection and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Of significant and concurrens, St. George, Utah (lectotypes here designated).

Type depository.
Of significans (35181) and concurrens (35182), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 394 . ARIZONA: Bright Angel; Pinal Co., Florence; Hot Springs; Maricopa Co., Sunflower; Phoenix; Tucson.
CALIFORNIA: Claremont; Coachella Valley; Covina; Los Angeles Co.; Mojave; San Bernardino; San Diego Co. NEW MEXICO: Mesilla Park. UTAH: St. George.

Top

Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte
Fig. 397 a-d; Map, Fig. 394

Hyperaspis cruenta LeConte, 1880, p.187.—Leng, 1920, p.212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 187.
Hyperaspis cruentata: Casey, 1899, p. 128. (error).
Hyperaspis taeniata rufescens Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 47. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 2.65 mm, width 2.0 to 2.10 mm.
Form oval.
Pronotum of male narrowly reddish yellow laterally; pronotum of female obscurely reddish brown laterally.
Elytron with single marginal spot of varying size (Fig. 397 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. significans.
Male genitalia as in Figure 397 a-c.

Discussion.
This species was mistakenly redescribed as H. taeniata rufescens by Dobzhansky (1941).
The subspecies Dobzhansky called H. taeniata cruenta is a species that I rename elsewhere.
Hyperaspis significans and H. cruenta are very similar in external appearance,
but the male genitalia of the 2 species are sufficiently different so that I cannot justify synonymizing H. significans.
There are 2 types in the LeConte collection, one of which, labeled "Dallas, Texas/Type 6709(red paper)/H. cruenta Lee.",
I here designate and label as the lectotype, the other specimens as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Of cruenta, Dallas, Texas (lectotype here designated); of rufescens, El Paso, Texas.

Type depository.
Of cruenta, MCZ; of rufescens, USNM (54209).

Distribution.
Figure 394 . NEW MEXICO: Mesilla Park TEXAS: Devil's River; Brewster Co., Rio Grande.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 397 . Hyperaspis cruenta. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

fimbriolata group

Female pronotum entirely black; body form oval, sometimes convex;
color pattern of elytron composed of either a complete marginal vitta,
or spots derived from a reduction of the vitta (except immaculate form of pleuralis);
basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in anterior, or median.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 398 . Hyperaspis sanctaeritae. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

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Hyperaspis sanctaeritae Dobzhansky
Fig. 398 a-d; Map, Fig. 399

Hyperaspis sanctaritae Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 60.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.30 mm, width 1.40 to 1.50 mm.
Form oval, somewhat convex.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow laterally; female unknown.
Elytron black with strong, complete lateral vitta (Fig. 398 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line smooth, sparsely, finely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 398 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is inseparable from the other species in this group having the same color pattern except by comparison of male genitalia.
I have seen other specimens from the type locality of H. sanctaeritae, but none of these have been this species;
the type series are the only specimens examined except for a single specimen from Nogales, Arizona.

Type locality.
Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (54213).

Distribution.
Figure 399 . ARIZONA: Nogales; Santa Rita Mts.

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#________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 399 . Distribution. Hyperaspis sanctaeritae (open circle); H. fimbriolata (star); H. inflexa (dot).
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer
Fig. 400 a, b; Map, Fig. 399

Hyperaspis fimbriolata Melsheimer, 1847, p. 180.
Hyperaspis rufomarginata Mulsant, 1850, p. 661.—Gordon, 1974c, p. 210 New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis fimbriolata atlantica Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 55. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.35 to 2.60 mm, width 1.80 to 2.0 mm.
Form oval, somewhat convex.
Pronotum of male with complete yellow area laterally; surface strongly alutaceous, impunctate.
Elytron black with narrow, complete vitta (Fig. 400 b); surface distinctly alutacous, strongly punctured.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, ungulate,
flattened along hind margin of sternum, area within line alutaceous, impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 400 a.

Discussion.
This species has long been misidentified by coccinellid workers (see discussion under H. inflexa),
but an examination of the types has resulted in the correct application of the name H. fimbriolata.
Part of the problem has been the

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#________________________________________
##Fig. 400 . Hyperaspis fimbriolata. a. b.
#________________________________________

scarcity of specimens of the true H. fimbriolata in collections,
and it now appears that this species is restricted to more or less coastal areas from Pennsylvania to Florida and Mississippi.
The male genitalia are distinctive and, in addition, the heavily alutaceous,
impunctate pronotum distinguishes this species from other species having the same color pattern.
I designate and label a male in the MCZ collection labeled "Melsh, fimbriolataJ"red paper"/fimbriolata" as the lectotype,
and a female labeled "a" as a paralectotype.
The subspecies atlantica Dobzhansky is identical to the type in all respects and cannot be maintained as a valid subspecies for any reason.

Type locality.
Of fimbriolata, Pennsylvania (lectotype here designated); of rufomarginata, "I'Amerique boreale" (lectotype designated by Gordon, 1 974c);
of atlantica, Capron, Florida.

Type depository.
Of fimbriolata, MCZ; of rufomarginata, DLM; of atlantica, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 399 . FLORIDA: Crescent City; Capron. MISSISSIPPI: Waveland. NEW YORK: White Plains. VIRGINIA: Ft. Monroe.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 401 . Hyperaspis inflexa. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis inflexa Casey
Fig. 401 a-f; Map, Fig. 399

Hyperaspis inflexa Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 190.
Hyperaspis fimbriolata inflexa: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 56.
Hyperaspis serena Casey, 1908, p. 417.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 195.
Hyperaspis fimbriolata serena: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 55.
Hyperaspis fimbriolata(of authors, not Melsheimer, 1847): LeConte, 1852,p. 134.— Crotch, 1873, p. 379 (in part).—Casey, 1899, p. 126 (in part).—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188 (in part).—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.—Belicek, 1976, p. 313 (in part).
Hyperaspis fimbriolata fimbriolata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 54 (not fimbriolata Melsheimer, 1847).

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Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.85 mm, width 1.40 to 2.10 mm.
Form oval, somewhat convex.
Male pronotum with narrow lateral area and often narrow anterior border yellow.
Color pattern of elytron variable, basic pattern black with broad, complete, lateral vitta, vitta varying in width and shape,
often broken to form isolated apical spot, or extending only from numeral angle to midpoint (Fig. 401 d-f).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along hind margin of sternum,
area within line feebly alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 401 a-c.

Discussion.
Because of the variable color pattern of the elytron, wide distribution,
and the close morphological similarity in other respects of H. inflexa to H. sanetaeritae and H. caseyi, n. sp.,
it is imperative that male genitalia be examined in order to identify the species.
The basal lobe of the male genitalia of H. inflexa consistently has the lateral projection blunt and in the apical half.
The name fimbriolata Melsheimer has been invariably applied to this species by authors since Melsheimer's original description
(see discussion under H. fimbriolata). That name refers to another species, therefore I use the next available name, H. inflexa,
which Casey used to describe a form of what was then considered to be H. fimbriolata. The male genitalia do not vary significantly,
and the different color patterns of H. inflexa do not occur in a pattern that permits the use of discrete subspecies,
therefore, I do not follow the classification proposed by Dobzhansky (1941) where this species is concerned.
There are 2 types of inflexa, both females, in the Casey collection, one of which I designate and label as the lectotype,
the other as a paralectotype. The unique type (holotype) of serena is also a female.

Type locality.
Of inflexa, Bismarck, North Dakota (lectotype here designated); of serena, Pennsylvania.

Type depository.
Of inflexa (35192) and serena (35193), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 399 . ALBERTA: Bassano Dam; Cypress Hills; Edmonton; Jenner; Medicine Hat. BRITISH COLUMBIA: Vernon.
ARIZONA: Douglas; Globe; Pinal Mts.; Santa Catalina Mts.; St. Cruz Co., Nogales; Tombstone.
CALIFORNIA: Anaheim; Azusa; Berkeley; Coronado; Fresno Co., Salma; Long Beach; Riverside; San Diego; Santa Monica.
COLORADO: Glenwood Springs; Golden; Salida Co. IDAHO: Cassia Co., Malta; Hayden's Lake; Jefferson Co., Terreton.
ILLINOIS: Willow Springs. MASSACHUSETTS: Framingham. NEW JERSEY: Emerson. NEW MEXICO: Albuquerque; Deming; Jemez Mts.
NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mt. NORTH DAKOTA: Grant Co., Lake Tschida; Mandan; McHenry Co. OKLAHOMA: Tulsa.
PENNSYLVANIA: South Philadelphia. TENNESSEE: Cleveland. TEXAS: Austin; Flatonia. WASHINGTON: Palouse.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 402 . Hyperaspis concta. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis cincta LeConte
Fig. 402 a-d; Map, Fig. 404

Hyperaspis cincta LeConte, 1858, p. 89.—Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 231.—LeConte, 1880, p. 189.—Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 56.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.60 mm, width 1.40 to 2.0 mm.
Description as for H. inflexa except elytron with marginal vitta wider, as in Figure 402 d.
Male genitalia as in Figure 402 a-c.

Discussion.
The male genitalia of H. cincta do not differ from those of H. inflexa to any significant degree,
no more than the variation to be found within a series of either species.
I can find no external differences between these 2 species other than the width of the lateral vitta on the elytron.
Both species may occur at some of the same localities without color intergrades, at least none that have been examined.
If intergrades do occur with any degree of frequency, I would favor the establishment of either subspecies or a single valid species.
I do not have this evidence, therefore I maintain 2 species names here,
and express serious doubt as to whether this is an accurate reflection of the actual situation.
The type of H. cincta is apparently not in the LeConte collection and could not be located elsewhere.

Type locality.
Santa Isabel, California.

Type depository.
Type not located.

Distribution.
Figure 404 . CALIFORNIA: Contra Costa Co., Antioch; Fresno Co., Coalinga, Mendota, Selma; Kern Co., Wasco; Los Banos; Los Angeles;
Modesto; Riverside Co., Cabazon; San Diego Co., E1 Cajon, Mt. Laguna; Tulare Co.; Visalia. UTAH: Salt Lake.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 403 . Hyperaspis caseyi. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis caseyi , new species
Fig. 403 a-d; Map, Fig. 404

Description.
Male, length 2.30 mm, width 1.85 mm.
Form oval, somewhat convex.
Pronotum narrowly yellow on apical and lateral border.
Elytron black with complete, irregular, lateral vitta (Fig. 403 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron equal in size to pronotal punctures, separated by one or two times a diameter.
Metasternum with coarse punctures laterally, becoming slightly finer medially.
Abdomen with basal 3 sterna coarsely punctured, punctures separated by less than to 3 times a diameter;
apical 3 sterna finely, indistinctly punctured.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly rounded, area within line coarsely punctured.
Genitalia as in Figure 403 a-c.
Female, similar to male except head black; length 2.70 mm, width 2.0 mm.
Variation.
Length 1.90 to 2.70 mm, width 1.50 to 2.0 mm.
The width ofthe elytral vitta varies slightly, and a series from Palisade, Colorado,
has the same dorsal color pattern as figured for H. taeniata.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: Thurber, 25/8/05, R. C. Howell coll. (USNM 101341).

Allotype.
Female. ARIZONA: Huachucha Mts. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 65 (Fig. 404 ). ARIZONA: 2, state record, Morrison, coil. Hubbard & Schwarz. Chiric. Mts., 7.6, Collection Hubbard & Schwarz;
Chiricahua Mts, VI29-08; Chiricahua Mts, Alt. 6200, 20 June 1928, AA Nichol;
Chiricahua Mts., 859700 ft., Aug. 5-1927, Flys Peak, Cochise Co., JA Kushe Collector; Chiricahua Mts.,
13 June 1956, OL Cartwright. H. Mts. (Huachucha Mts.), VI-16. Sacaton, 6.14.09,

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 404 . Distribution. Hyperaspis cincta (dot), H. caseyi (open circle), H. schaefferi (star); H. Iimbalis (open star).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

CN Ainslie Collector. S. Rita Mts., 6.6, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz. Tucson, III-27, 1935, Bryant 47;
Tucson, June 20,1937, Bryant 47. Williams, 19.7, Barber & Schwarz.
COLORADO: Colo., 2112, Wickham Collection. Colorado Springs, 4.4.91, Colo. Spgs., 11.10, Collection H. Soltau;
Colorado Springs, June 15-30, '96, 6,000-7,000 ft. H. F. Wickham. Florence, 12.10, Collection H. Soltau. Palisade, IX027-'29, WA Shands. Pueblo;
Pueblo, 7.10, Collection H. Soltau. NEW MEXICO: Deming, July

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11-12,4300 4400 ft. Wickham. Las Vegas, 12.8, Barber & Schwarz Coll. Magdalena, Strickler.
TEXAS: Alpine, May 2, 1927, JO Martin Collector. Brewster Co., Chisos Mts., VI, 10-12-06. Chisos Mts., VIII'6, JW Green Collector;
Chisos Mts., VII-21, JW Green Collector. El Paso, VI-7; 3, El Paso, IV.27.1927. JO Martin Collector;
E1 Paso, July 8-9, 3700-3800 ft., Wickham. Perryton, VIII-14-37, R. E. Shaul.
UTAH: Milford, July 7, Wickham. St. George, July, Wickham.
WASHINGTON: Walla Walla, 4-1941, H. P. Lanchester. Touchet, 4-1-38, H. P. Lanchester. (CAS) (CDA) (USNM).

Except for the male genitalia, this species is not separable from H. inJlexa, and has been called H.fimbriolata by all previous authors.
Three specimens from Palisade, Colorado, have the H. taeniata color pattern,
and I suspect that the typical H. dissoluta and H. nevadica pattern will also be found in H. Masai.
The male genitalia of H. caseyi are most similar to those of H. Schaefer I, n. sp., from south Texas.
The presence of complete elytral vittae in H. caseyi, and the incomplete vittae of H. Schaefer I will separate these 2 species at present,
but this character may prove to be inconstant. The Washington state examples of this species are clearly questionable,
but I cannot associate them with any other species treated herein.
Hyperaspis caseyi is named for Thomas Casey in recognition of his revision of the North American Coccinellidae (1899).

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 405 . Hyperaspis schaefferi.
#_________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis schaefferi , new species
Fig. 405 a-d; Map, Fig. 404

Hyperaspis taeniata cruenta Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 48 (not cruenta LeConte, 1880).

Description.
Male, length 2.50 mm, width 2.0 mm.
Form broadly oval, moderately convex.
Description as for H. caseyi except lateral vitta on elytron incomplete (Fig. 405 d);
postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum reaching hind margin, flattened along hind margin.
Genitalia as in Figure 405 a-c.

Female, similar to holotype except head and pronotum black.

Variation.
Length 2.20 to 2.75 mm, width 1.70 to 2.20 mm.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: Esper Rch (Esperanza Ranch), Brownsville, Tex., VII.30 (USNM 101342).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype except date VII.28. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 8 (fig. 404). TEXAS: Brownsville, Esperanza Ranch, VIII.13, VII.30, VII.28; Columbus, 1.9, 17.6, 14.6, Coll. Hubbard & Schwarz;
Goliad, 18.4, EA Schwarz Collector. (USNM).

This is the species described as cruenta LeConte by Dobzhansky (1941).
I have seen the type of H. cruenta and it is not this species;
therefore, I provide the name H. schaeffferi, honoring Charles Schaeffier who collected most of the specimens in the type series.
The color pattern of H. schaefferi is very similar to that of H. nevadica,

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#___________________________________________
##Fig. 406 . Hyperaspis limbalis. a. b. c. d.
#___________________________________________

but, in addition to the genitalic differences, the anterior margin of the male pronotum is black in H. nevadica,
and the yellow area of the elytron not as wide as in H. schaefferi (see comments under caseyi).

Top

Hyperaspis limbalis Casey
Fig. 406 a-d; Map, Fig. 404

Hyperaspis limbalis Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Korschefsky, 193 1, p. 19 1.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 54.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.50 mm, width 1.50 to 1.80 mm.
Form elongate, oval, depressed.
Elytron black with narrow lateral vitta from base nearly to apex, apex of vitta narrowed from lateral margin of elytron (Fig. 406 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 406 a-c.

Discussion.
Hyperaspis limbalis was considered a junior synonym of "fimbriolata" (inflexa) by Dobzhansky (1941),
but the male genitalia are not those of H. inflexa, in addition, the elongate,
depressed form and the elytral vittae removed from the elytral border epically are characters at variance with H. inflexa and H. caseyi, n. sp.
I have seen only the male type (Casey collection) and a single female of this species, both from San Diego.

Type locality.
San Diego, California.

Type depository.
USNM (3 5186).

Distribution.
Figure 404 . CALIFORNIA: type locality.

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#______________________________
##Fig. 407 . Hyperaspis filiola.
#______________________________

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Hyperaspis filiola Casey
Fig. 407 ; Map, Fig. 409

Hyperaspisfiliola Casey, 1908, p. 419.—Leng, 1920, p. 212—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 18 8.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 68.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 mm, width 1.50 mm.
Form elongate, nearly parallel sided, subdepressed.
Female pronotum entirely black.
Elytron with complete marginal vitta and elongate, oval discal spot (Fig. 407 ).
Postcoxal line not approaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, coarsely punctured.

Discussion.
The correct placement of H. filiola is open to question because I have seen only the female type.
The slender body form is very similar to that of H. punctata and H. paludicola as noted by Dobzhansky (1941),
however, the female pronotum is entirely black, and therefore I tentatively place it in the fimbriolata group near H. Iimbalis.
In any case, it is a very distinctive little species which should be recognized without difficulty if the color pattern proves to be consistent.
The type in the Casey collection is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Nogales, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35205).

Distribution.
Figure 409 . ARIZONA: type locality

Top

Hyperaspis binaria Casey
Fig. 408 a-d, Map, Fig. 409

Hyperaspis binaria Casey, 1924, p. 165.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 185. Hyperaspis taeniata binaria Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 49.

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#__________________________________________
##Fig. 408 . Hyperaspis binaria. a. b. c. d.
#__________________________________________

Hyperaspis taeniata cruentoides Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 48. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 3.0 mm, width 2.0 to 2.40 mm.
Form elongate, oval, slightly flattened dorsoventrally.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow on lateral and anterior margins; pronotum of female black.
Elytron immaculate or with elongate yellow spot of varying size on lateral margin (Fig. 408 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, outer 1/3 ungulate, area within line alutaceous, impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 408 a-c.

Discussion.
Specimens of this species are extremely rare in collections, and males particularly so.
The type of H. taeniata cruentoides is a male, but the abdomen has been removed and with it the genitalia,
so they are not available for comparative purposes.
I am establishing this synonymy mainly on the basis of the similarity in external characteristics because only one male was available for study.
However, the size, type of dorsal punctation, and the postcoxal lines are the same for both binaria and cruentoides,
therefore I regard cruentoides as a junior synonym. The type of H. binaria is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Of binaria, Southern Pines, North Carolina; of cruentoides, Bartow Junction, Florida.

Type depository.
Of binaria (35180) and cruentoides (54210), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 409 . FLORIDA: type locality; Ft. Walton.
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#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 409 . Distribution. Hyperaspis filiola (circled star); H. binaria (star); H. uniformis (square); H. bensonica (dot); H. psyche (open dot).
#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis uniformis Casey
Fig. 410 a-d; Map, Fig. 409

Hyperaspis uniformis Casey, 1924, p. 162.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 38.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.70 mm, width 2.75 mm.
Form elongate, oval, dorsoventrally flattened.
Male pronotum black medially, lateral 1/4 and narrow anterior border reddish yellow.
Elytron immaculate (Fig. 410 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, impunctate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 410 a-c.

Discussion. The combination of large size, large yellow areas on the pronotum,

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 410 . Hyperaspis uniforms.
#_______________________________

and the elongate, dorsoventrally flattened form make H. uniformis an outstanding species in the eastern North American fauna.
The affinities are obviously with H. binaria, but they are quite different species.
Casey described H. uniformis from 2 male specimens, the second of which is H. binaria rather than H. uniformis.
This is an extremely rarely collected species, I have seen only 2 examples.

Type locality.
Southern Pines, North Carolina.

Type depository.
USNM (3 5 189).

Distribution.
Figure 409 . FLORIDA: Nassau Co., Fernandina Beach. NORTH CAROLINA: Southern Pines.

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#____________________________________________
##Fig. 411 . Hyperaspis bensonica. a. b. c. d.
#____________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis bensonica Casey
Fig. 411 a-d; Map, Fig. 409

Hyperaspis bensonica Casey, 1908, p. 418.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Casey, 1924, p. 166.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 184.
Hyperaspis bensonica bensonica: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 8.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.90 to 2.90 mm, width 1.50 to 2.35 mm.
Form oval, somewhat rounded, convex.
Pronotum of male with lateral and anterior margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron with discal spot and lateral vitta, vitta sometimes interrupted to form apical spot and/or humeral and apical spots (Fig. 411 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, apical 1/3 angulate, area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 411 a-c.

Discussion.
The external appearance of H. bensonica is identical to that of some examples of H. disrupta,
but the male genitalia are so different that I have placed them in separate groups even though the females are apparently inseparable.
As usual in both the fimbriolata and taeniata groups, male genitalia must be examined to determine species.
See also comments under H. psyche and H. disrupta. The type of H. bensonica is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Benson, Cochise Co., Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35205).

Distribution.
Figure 409 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Benson; Globe; Santa Catalina Mts.; St. Cruz Co., Nogales; Tucson.
CALIFORNIA: Palm Springs; Riverside Co., Riverside; San Bernardino Co., Kelso Dunes; Vidal; San Jacinto Mts.; Pinon Flat. TEXAS: Davis Mts.

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#_________________________________________
##Fig. 412 Hyperaspis psysche. a. b. c. d.
#_________________________________________

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Hyperaspis psyche Casey
Fig. 412 a-d; Map, Fig. 409

Hyperaspis psyche Casey, 1899, p. 125.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 60.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.85 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval, moderately convex.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow laterally.
Elytron with 3 spots on lateral margin (Fig. 412 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line smooth, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 412 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 412 d.

Discussion.
The combination of a black pronotum in the female and the elytron with 3 marginal spots will usually enable this species to be recognized,
however, I am not certain that H. psyche and H. bensonica should be maintained as 2 valid species.
The male genitalia of H. psyche are extremely similar to those of H. bensonica, but each genitalia examined differed slightly from the next in both of these species,
therefore I cannot make a definite statement of synonymy based on genitalia. Normally the color patterns will separate these species,
but I have seen examples of "psyche" from Fort Tejon and Lebec, California, which show traces of the discal spot of H. bensonica
and an example of "bensonica" from Portal, Arizona, in which the discal spot is lacking but the marginal vitta is not broken.
For the present I prefer not to alter the existing classification in this case.
There are 2 female types of H. psyche in the Casey collection, one of which I designate and label as the lectotype, the other as a paralectotype.

***No page ###504

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 414 . Distribution. Hyperaspis pleuralis.
#______________________________________________

Hyperaspis pleuralis var. aterrima: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 51.
Hyperaspis barri Hatch, 1961, p. 161. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.95 to 2.85 mm, width 1.40 to 2.15 mm.
Form oval, slightly truncate at apex.
Pronotum of male with narrow lateral or anterolateral area yellow.
Elytron entirely black or with single red or yellow spot of varying size on lateral margin (Fig. 413 e).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching posterior margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line smooth, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 413 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 413 d.
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Discussion.
This species most nearly resembles H. significans and occurs in the same general region with that species.
The presence of a maculate form and an immaculate form is a parallel situation to that discussed under H. significans,
except in this case occasional intergrades occur. There are 11 types of pleuralis in the Casey collection,
and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.
There are 5 types of H. aterrima in the Casey collection and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype,
the remainder as paralectotypes. Hyperaspis barri Hatch is a junior synonym of H. pleuralis.
Hyperaspis falli Nunenmacher is also a junior synonym of H. pleuralis.
There are supposed to be 2 type specimens and I have seen one of these, a male labeled
"Esmeralda Co., Nev. VI-10-08/Coll'd by F. W. Nunenmacher/male sign/Hyperaspis falli. Type",
which I designate and label as the lectotype.

Type locality.
Of pleuralis, El Paso, Texas (lectotype here designated); of aterrima, St. George, Utah (lectotype here designated);
of barri, Snake River, Mt. Home, Idaho; of falli, Esmeralda Co., Nevada (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of pleuralis (35178) and aterrima (35183), USNM; of barri, CAS; offalli, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 414 . ARIZONA: Eloy; Yuma Co., Hope; Hot Springs; Littlefield; Oracle; Phoenix; Portal; Tucson; Williams; Winslow; Yuma.
CALIFORNIA: Amedee; Baker; Death Valley; Fresno; Fresno Co., Coalinga; Imperial Co.; Indio; Inyo Co., Little Lake, Lone Pine; Inyo Mts.; Kern Co.; Lebec;
Los Angeles Co.; Merced Co., Dos Palos; Mojave; Sonoma Co., Occidental; Palm Springs; Saltdale; San Diego Co. NEVADA: Glendale; Mesquite; Overton.
NEW MEXICO: Cloudcroft; Dona Ana Co.; Deming; La Luz; Lordsburg; Mesilla Park. OREGON: Harney Co.; Wasco.
TEXAS: Finlay; El Paso; Pecos Co., Ft. Stockton; Pt. Isabel. UTAH: Hurricane; St. George; Salt Lake.

taeniata group

Female pronotum entirely black; body form oval (except rounded, convex in H. disrupta);
color pattern of elytron with marginal vitta usually incomplete;
basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in basal.

As indicated in the species discussions following, this group as conceived here is composed of species with variable, overlapping color patterns.
The genitalia are not as distinctive as in most other groups of Hyperaspis, and I have doubts as to whether the classification proposed here is correct;
studies of the biology and immature stages are needed to test this classification.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 415 . Hyperaspis disrupta. a. b. c. d. e.
#______________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis disrupta Dobzhansky
Fig. 415 a-e; Map, Fig. 416

Hyperaspis bensonica disrupta Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 9.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.60 to 1.80 mm, width 1.45 to 1.50 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Male pronotum with anterior and lateral border narrowly yellow.
Elytron with discal and apical spots, lateral vitta entire to midpoint, or broken into 2 spots (Fig. 415 e).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, deeply, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 415 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 415 d.

Discussion.
Because of the different type of male genitalia, I consider H. disrupta a valid species rather than a subspecies of H. bensonica (see comments under H. bensonica).
Some examples of H. taeniata have the discal spot on the elytron free as in H. disrupta and H. bensonica.
Both of the latter species are more convex and rounded than H. taeniata, and the lateral vitta on the male pronotum is narrower.

Type locality.
Kern County, California.

Type depository.
CAS.

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 416 . Distribution. Hyperaspis disrupta.
#_____________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 416 . ARIZONA: Coconino Co. CALIFORNIA: Coalinga; Hesperia; Inyo Co., Westgard Pass Platau; Kern Co.; Lebec;
Pasadena; Pinnacles Nat. Park; Ventura Co.; San Joaquin Co., Lodi; S. Luis Obispo Co. COLORADO: Glenwood Springs.
NEW MEXICO: Jemez Mts.

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#____________________________________________________
##Fig. 417 . Hyperaspis taeniata. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
#____________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis taeniata LeConte
Fig. 417 a-g; Map, Fig. 418

Hyperaspis taeniata LeConte, 1852, p. 134.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 234.—Casey, 1899, p. 125.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 197.
Hyperaspis taeniata taeniata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 43.
Hyperaspis taeniata var. pallidula Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 45. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis taeniata var. pallescens Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 46. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis taeniata bipunctata Malkin, 1955, p. 29. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 3.0 mm,, width 1.70 to 2.20 mm.
Form oval, moderately convex.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow on lateral border.
Elytron with large yellow spot on lateral margin, spot extending onto disc medially, variable (Fig. 417 d-g), discal spot occasionally free.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, outer 1/3 angulate, area within line smooth, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 417 a-c.

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 418 . Distribution. Hyperaspis taeniata (open circle); H. dissolute dissoluta (dot); H. dissoluta nevadica (open star),
## intergrades between H. taeniata and H. dissoluta nevadica (star).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern is reasonably constant in specimens from southern California, becoming more variable in specimens from Arizona and Utah.
However, the variation in color occurs within populations and also over a broad geographic area,
thus not permitting a breakdown into subspecies as proposed by Dobzhansky (1941).
The male genitalia also do not vary in a pattern to indicate subspecies, therefore I regard all forms as a single species (see comments under H. dissoluta).
The type of H. taeniata is a unique female (holotype) labeled "(gold disc)/

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#______________________________________________________
##Fig. 419 . Hyperaspis dissoluta dissoluta. a. b. c. d.
#______________________________________________________

4665/Type 6708 (red paper)/H. taeniata LeC.". Hyperaspis taeniata bipunctata Malkin cannot be maintained as a subspecies because this form occurs at some of the same localities with other variations of H. taeniata.

Type locality.
Of taeniata, San Diego, California; of pallidula, Kern Co., California, of pallescens, Hualapai Mountains, Arizona;
of bipunctata, Garriby Creek, Contra Costa Co., California.

Type depository.
Of taeniata, MCZ; of pallidula, USNM (54207); of pallescens, and bipunctata, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 418 . ARIZONA: Coconino Co.; 5 ml W of the Gap. CALIFORNIA: Cajon Pass; Claremont; Kern Co., Isabella, Short Cyn., Inyokern; Little Rock;
Mojave; Palmdale; Palm Springs; Pinon Flat; Poway; Redondo; Riverside Co., Riverside; San Diego; San Jacinto Mts; Santa Clara Co., Verdemont.
UTAH: Milford; Millard Co., Garrison; Ogden; Provo; Toole Co., Dugway Pr. Gd.

Top

Hyperaspis dissoluta dissoluta Crotch
Fig. 419 a-d; Map, Fig. 418

Hyperaspis dissoluta Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 187.—Belicek, 1976, p. 315.
Hyperaspis dissoluta dissoluta: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 58.
Hyperaspis coloradana Casey, 1908, p. 417.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 186. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis dissoluta coloradana: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 59.
Hyperaspis nupta Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 56 (as synonym of cincta LeConte). New Synonymy.
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Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.75 mm, width 1.40 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval, moderately convex.
Pronotum of male with lateral border narrowly yellow, anterior border black or narrowly yellow.
Elytron with lateral vitta and apical spot (Fig. 419 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved, area within line distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 419 a-c.

Discussion.
Normally H. d. dissoluta can be recognized by the dorsal color pattern, however, specimens of H. d. dissoluta and H. taeniata occur which have the same color pattern.
This does not occur in a geographic pattern, but only sporadically, and these specimens are difficult to name because the male genitalia are very similar.
Examples of H. fimbriolata and H. inflexa which have the lateral vitta on the elytron broken in the apical 1/3 are also difficult to separate from H. d. dissoluta,
but here the male genitalia are distinctive. I cannot maintain the name coloradana even as a subspecies of dissoluta
because the male genitalia of the 2 forms are identical and suppressed differences (body size and elytral color pattern) do not show any sort of geographic stability.
Hyperaspis nupta Casey is also a junior synonym of dissoluta rather than of cincta LeConte as supposed by Dobzhansky (1941).
The type of H. dissoluta should be in the MCZ collection but could not be located. The type of H. coloradana is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection.
There are 2 male types of H. nupta in the Casey collection, one of which I here designate as the lectotype, the other as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Of dissoluta, California, of coloradana, Boulder, Colorado; of nupta, Hoopa Valley, Trinity River, Humboldt Co., (Fort Gaston), California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
of dissoluta, not located; of coloradana, USNM (35187); of nupta, USNM (35188).

Distribution.
Figure 418 . CALIFORNIA: Bakersfield; Carmel; Contra Costa Co.; Davis; Kaweah; Kern Co., Edison; Kings. Riv. Cn.; Lakeport; Los Angeles Co.; Mariposa Co; Modesto; Oakland; Palo Alto; Piedmont; Sacramento; San Joaquin Co., Lodi; San Mateo; Sequoia Nat. Park; Tehama Co., Red Bluff; Tulare Co., Lindsey; Victorville; Tuolumne Co.
IDAHO: Ada Co., Boise; Hot Creek Falls. OREGON: Curry Co., Cape Sebastian St. Pk.; Lake Co., Paisley; Redmond.
WASHINGTON: Benton Co., Hanford Works; Grand Coulee; Moses Canyon; Ellensberg; Yakima R. Canyon; Neppel; Vantage Ferry; Wenatchee.

Top

Hyperaspis dissoluta nevadica Casey, new combination
Fig. 420 a-d; Map, Fig. 418

Hyperaspis nevadica Casey, 1899, p. 125.—Leng, 1920, p. 21 1.—Kowhefsky, 1931, p. 192.
Hyperaspis taeniata nevadica: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 44.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 3.10 mm, width 1.70 to 2.10 mm.
Form oval, moderately convex.
Pronotum of male narrowly yellow on lateral border.
Elytron with single, yellow, elongate spot on lateral margin (Fig. 420 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, briefly flattened along margin, outer 1/3 ungulate, area within line smooth, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 420 a-c.

Discussion.
I consider H. nevadica a subspecies of H. dissoluta rather than a sub

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#_____________________________________________________
##Fig. 420 . Hyperaspis dissoluta nevadica. a. b. c. d.
#_____________________________________________________

species of H. taeniata as did Dobzhansky (1941). In addition to the genitalic differences, H. nevadica is more slender in body form than H. taeniata,
the postcoxal line is angulate and the elytral color pattern is constant. These subspecies are also justified by the geographic distribution.
The type in the Casey collection is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Washoe Co., 4,400 ft., Reno, Nevada.

Type depository.
USNM (3 5179).

Distribution.
Figure 418 . ARIZONA: Bright Angel. CALIFORNIA: Amedee; Inyo Co., Lone Pine. IDAHO: Bliss; Boise City; Buhl; Burley; Castleford; Declo; Gooding;
Hammett; Jerome; Oakley; Paul; Twin Falls. UTAH: Chad's Ranch. WASHINGTON: Vernita; Wenatchee.

nunenmacheri group

Female pronotum black;
area within postcoxal line densely, coarsely punctured;
basal lobe of male genitalia much shorter than paramere, apex obliquely truncate.
The single species in this group, H nunemacheri, would superficially appear to belong in the postica group,
but the male genitalia are not of the postica type, and the female pronotum is entirely black;
therefore, I propose a separate group for this species.

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#_______________________________________________
##Fig. 421 . Hyperaspis nunenmacheri. a. b. c. d.
#_______________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis nunenmacheri Casey
Fig. 421 a-d; Map, Fig. 422

Hyperaspis nunenmacheri Casey, 1908, p. 417.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 40.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.70 to 3.50 mm, width 2.0 to 2.40 mm.
Form elongate, broadly oval, somewhat convex.
Pronotum of female entirely black.
Elytron black with 2 yellow spots, one Numeral, one apical (Fig. 421 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line densely, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 421 a-c.

Discussion.
The combination of large size, dorsal color pattern, and the dense, coarse punctation within the postcoxal line is unique within North American Hyperaspis.
This species would appear to belong in the postica group, but the male genitalia are not of the postica type and the female pronotum is entirely black.
Therefore, I place H. nunenmacheri in a monotypic group. The holotype is a unique female in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Riverside, Califomia.
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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 422 . Distribution, Hyperaspis nunenmackeri
#________________________________________________

Type depository.
USNM (35196).

Distribution.
Figure 422 . CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Lake Anza; Contra Costa Co; Eldorado Co; Folsom; Inyo Co., Independence, Mazurka Canyon; Los Angeles;
Mann Co.; Mt. Wilson; Plumas Co.; Ribbonwood; Jan Jacinto Mts.; Riverside Co., Thomas Camp; San Diego Co., Morena Lake, Mt. Laguna;
San Francisco; San Mateo Co.; Santa Clara Co.; Santa Cruz Co., Ben Lomond; Santa Rosa; Sonoma Co., Rio Nido; Occidental.
OREGON: Ashland; Jackson Co., Colestin; Valley Falls; Chewaucan River.

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postica group

Pronotum of both male and female narrowly yellow on lateral margin;
body form elongate, oval, somewhat flattened dorsoventrally;
basal lobe of male genitalia with border emarginate, emargination variable, extending from apex to apical 1/4 or basal 5/6.

This group is the most difficult in the taxonomic sense of all the groups of Hyperaspis.
After examining the genitalia of more than 300 specimens,
I have maintained the same basic classification here as that of Dobzhansky (1941) and El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation).
However, I am reasonably certain that biological studies will alter this classification to some degree,
and this is an area where such studies are needed to provide information that cannot be obtained from examination of museum specimens.

Top

Hyperaspis postica LeConte
Fig. 423 a-e; Map, Fig. 424

Hyperaspis postica LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 38.—Hatch, 1961, p. 160.—Belicek, 1976, p. 312.
Hyperaspis elliptica Casey, 1899, p. 126.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 39.—Hatch, 1961, p. 160.—Belicek, 1976, p. 313. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis elliptica var. angustula Casey, 1899, p. 127.
Hyperaspis angustulata (misspelling): Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188.
Hyperaspis essigi Malkin, 1955, p. 29. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 3.10 mm, width 1.70 to 2.25 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron with single apical spot varying in size and shape (Fig. 423 e).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, outer 1/3 angulate, area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia variable as in Figure 423 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 423 d.

Discussion.
Hyperaspis postica most nearly resembles H. oculaticauda which is a consistently smaller species.
Male genitalia (see comments under H. oculaticauda) must be examined to positively distinguish examples of these 2 species from each other.
When male genitalia of a few specimens of H. postica are examined, it appears that more than one species is involved, however, when dozens of genitalia are examined,
the division lines can no longer be maintained because intergrades are always present.
Therefore what I call H. postica here is either a single species with highly variable male genitalia, or is a mixture of 2 or more mostly allopatric species.
In the latter event both elliptica Casey and essigi Malkin may be valid, but for the present I regard both as junior synonyms of postica.
LeConte (1880) had more than one type specimen of H. postica, but did not state how many.
There are now 15 specimens in his collection and I cannot determine which of these other than the lectotype are really type material
so I do not designate any paralectotypes. I designate and label as the lectotype a female labeled "Cal./Hardy/Type 6716 (red paper)/H. postica LeC."
The Casey types of both elliptica and angustula are unique females (holotypes).

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#_____________________________________________
##Fig. 423 . Hyperaspis postica. a. b. c. d. e.
#_____________________________________________

Type locality.
Of postica (lectotype here designated) and elliptica, California; of angustula, Mendocino Co., California; of essigi, Yosemite, California.

Type depository.
Of postica, MCZ; of elliptica (35195) and angustula (35194), USNM; of essigi, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 424 . British Columbia to southern California.
Peripheral localities: Medicine Hat, Alberta; Grand Canyon, Hualapai and Prescott, Arizona; Steamboat Springs, Colorado.

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#______________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 424 . Distribution. Hyperaspis postica (shaded, disjunct localities dotted), H. simulatrix (star).
#______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentota Mulsant
Map, Fig. 424

Hyperaspis hottentota Mulsant, 1850, p. 686.—Crotch, 1 874b, p. 236.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 183.
Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentota: Fursch, 1972, p. 8.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.40 to 3.90 mm, width 2.40 to 3.0 mm.
Form rounded, somewhat oval, convex dorsoventrally.
Male pronotum black with lateral 1/3 yellow, apical margin yellow; elytron black with yellow apical spot.
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout.
Basal lobe of male genitalia with lateral projection in basal 1/2.

Discussion.
This African species has an elytral color pattern nearly identical to that of H. postica,
however, the pronotum has the lateral 1/3 yellow and the apical margin of the male yellow.
In postica the pronotum is yellow in the lateral 1/4 and the apical margin is black in both sexes.
In addition, H. hottentota is nearly rounded in form and very convex, H. postica is elongate and comparatively flattened dorsoventrally.
The color pattern of H. hottentota is most similar to that of H. bigeminata in the bigeminata group.
Two species of scales attacking ice plant (a ground cover used for highway landscaping) in California precipitated a search for natural enemies.
One of the resulting introductions was H. hottentota from South Africa,
the species now "has only a tenuous foothold in northern California" (Tassan et al., 1982).
To be specific, this means the San Francisco Bay area (K. Hagen, pers. comm.).

Type locality.
Africa, Caffraria (lectotype designated by Fursch, 1972).

Type depository.
NREA.

Distribution.
Figure 424 . CALIFORNIA: San Francisco Bay area.

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 425 . Hyperaspis simulatrix. a. b. c. d. e.
#________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis simulatrix Dobzhansky
Fig. 425 a-e; Map, Fig. 424

Hyperaspis simulatrix Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 72.—Belicek, 1976, p. 315.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.70 mm, width 1.60 to 1.85 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron with yellow marginal vitta from base to apical 3/5, apical spot transversely oval, discal spot elongate, angulate (Fig. 425 e).
Postcoxal line extending to hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, outer 1/3 angulate, area within line alutaceous, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 425 a-c.
Female genitalia as in Figure 425 d.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern of H. simulatrix is similar to that of H. quadrioculata (fidelis form) and H. spiculinota, both of which have allopatric distributions.
The male genitalia are practically identical to those of H. postica, but the female genitalia of the 2 species are distinctive for each,
and H. postica never has a marginal vitta or an apical spot on the elytron.

Type locality.
Oakley, Idaho.

Type depository.
USNM (54216).

Distribution.
Figure 424 . OREGON: Harney Co., Tencent Lake. WASHINGTON: Smyrna.

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Top

Hyperaspis quadrioculata (Motschulsky)
Fig. 426 a-f; Map, Fig. 427

Exochomus quadrioculata Motschulsky, 1845b, p. 383. Hyperaspis undulata var. 4-oculata: Crotch, 1873, p. 381.
Hyperaspis quadrioculata: Crotch, 1874b, p. 231.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.
Hyperaspis quadrioculata quadrioculata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 68.
Hyperaspis notatula Casey, 1899, p. 121.—Casey, 1908, p. 413.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis quadrioculata notatula: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 69.
Hyperaspis fidelis Casey, 1908, p. 418.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis quadrioculata scotti Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 70. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis quadrioculata fidelis: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 70.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.70 to 4.0 mm, width 1.50 to 2.25 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Color pattern on elytron variable as in Figure 426 d-f.
Postcoxal line not reaching first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 426 a-c.

Discussion.
The variable color pattern of this species has caused several names to be proposed, either as species, or subspecies of H. quadrioculata.
The name fidelis Casey was proposed for the color pattern in Figure 426 e, which intergrades with the pattern of notatula (Figure 426 d) frequently
and at so many localities that it is apparent thatfidelis must be a junior synonym.
The patterns of typical quadrioculata (Fig. 426 f) and notatula do not intergrade as frequently nor at as many localities,
but the distribution of both forms and their intergrades indicates that they cannot be maintained as subspecies,
therefore notatula becomes a synonym of quadrioculata. The form called quadrioculata scotti by Dobzhansky I also regard as a junior synonym of quadrioculata.
Most of the localities from which I have seen scotti are also localities where "notatula" occurs,
and the scotti color pattern intergrades with that of notatula in most instances.
There are also other unnamed color forms such as in a series from Fort Tejon, California,
which has the typical "notatula" pattern except that the discal spot on the elytron is missing in most of the specimens,
however, 3 of these specimens show distinct traces of the discal spot.
A series from Mill Creek, San Bernardino Mts., has most examples lacking the numeral spot of "notatula"7 and were identified as triangulum Casey,
but 4 examples have a small humeral spot present (this is the intermediate form discussed by El-Ali below).
El-Ali (unpubl. dissertation) hybridized the forms discussed here and found that crosses attempted produced progeny.
His results are excerpted as follows:

"1) the quadrioculata form had an F generation which were all quadrioculata-like with regard to elytral spots.
In subsequent generations the same results were obtained.

2) the scotti form had an F generation which were all scotti-like in appearance. Most progeny had the humeral spot reduced or disappeared.
Marginal and discal spots enlarged and merged together. Subsequent generations gave only this scotti-form.

3) the notatula form had an F generation of different elytral patterns: the largest

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#______________________________________________________
##Fig. 426 . Hyperaspis quadrioculata. a. b. c. d. e. f.
#______________________________________________________

number of individuals and the notatula-like elytral pattern, followed by the individuals that had the intermediate form of elytral pattern,
and a few individuals were like the quadrioculata-form.
Some of the notatula-like forms and the intermediate forms had the discal and marginal spots large, but not connected.
Selection of these types and crossing them manifested in their progeny a few individuals that were scotti-like
and some individuals showed maculations of the previously mentioned forms of the F generation.
4) the intermediate form of the F generation produced individuals having the

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 427 . Distribution. Hyperaspis quadrioculata (shaded, disjunct locality dotted).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________

patterns of notatula, quadrioculata, scotti and some of the intermediate elytral form. The notatula and the intermediate forms were the most numerous."
The type specimens of fidelis (female) and notatula (male) are unique (holotypes) in the Casey collection. The type of quadrioculata has not been located.

Type locality.
Of quadrioculata, type not examined; of notatula, Reno, Nevada; of fidelis, Los Angeles, California; of scotti, San Joaquin Co., California.

Type depository.
Of quadrioculata, not located; of notatula (35209), and Jidelis (35199), USNM; of scotti, CAS. Distribution. Figure 427 . CALIFORNIA: central and southern.

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#_____________________________
##Fig. 428 . Hyperaspis annexa.
#_____________________________

Top

Hyperaspis annexa LeConte
Fig. 428 a-d; Map, Fig. 430

Hyperaspis annexa LeConte, 1852, p. 133.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Crotch, 1873, p. 381.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 232.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 184.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 74. Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.75 mm, width 1.40 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval, flattened dorsoventrally.
Male pronotum usually widely yellow on anterior margin, but often narrowly yellow, occasional black.
Elytron black with 2 yellow vittae on disc and lateral margin (Fig. 428 d).
Postcoxal line reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, outer 1/3 angulate, area within line alutaceous, indistinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 428 a-c.

Discussion.
The distinctive vitiate appearance of most examples of H. annexa makes it one of the most easily recognized species of Hyperaspis.
However, I suspect that H. annexa and H. quadrioculata may not be specifically different.
The male genitalia of H. annexa are essentially identical to those of H. quadrioculata, and I have seen intergrading color patterns in 2 instances.
The lectotype of H. annexa has the apical margin of the pronotum entirely black, the only instance of this observed, all other males having a distinct,
usually broad, yellow apical margin. A series from Mill Creek, San Bernardino Mts., exhibits all degrees of intergradation of the elytral pattern
from the annexa type to the quadrioculata type (notatula form). Thus far these are the only 2 obvious instances of apparent intergradation,
therefore I prefer to consider H. annexa a valid species for the present, but point out the distinct possibility it may be synonymous with H. quadrioculata.
Hyperaspis annexa was associated in a group with H. quadrivitta by Dobzhansky, however they have little in common except a vitiate dorsal appearance.
LeConte (1852) states that he had a

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#________________________________
##Fig. 429 . Hyperaspis arizonica.
#________________________________

pair of types, and there are 2 specimens now in his collection. I here designate and label the male labeled "gold disc/male sign/Type 6718(red paper)H. annexa Lec."
as the lectotype, and the female bearing only a gold disc as the paralectotype.

Type locality.
San Francisco, California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 430 . CALIFORNIA: Cajon Pass; Compton; Fillmore; Kern Co., Tehachapi Pass; La Canada; Mt. Wilson; Paraiso Hot Springs; Pasadena;
Riverside; San Bernardino; San Diego Co.; San Francisco Co.; San Mateo Co.; Santa Maria; Santa Paula; Tulare Co., Isabella.

Top

Hyperaspis arizonica Dobzhansky
Fig. 429 a-d; Map, Fig. 430

Hyperaspis biornata arizonica Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 53.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 3.0 mm, width 1.70 to 2.20 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron black with large orange spot on outer margin in posterior 1/2 (Fig. 429 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, densely, coarsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 429 a-c.

Discussion.
The single large spot occupying most of the posterior 1/2 of an elytron makes H. arizonica an easily recognizable species.
This species may resemble some color forms of H. taeniata, but females of the latter species have entirely black pronota.

Type locality.
Bright Angel, Arizona (Grand Canyon Nat. Park).
Type depository.
USNM (54211).
Distribution.
Figure 430 . ARIZONA: Bnght Angel, South Rim Grand Canyon. CALIFORNIA: Bishop.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 430 . Distribution. Hyperaspis annexa (dot); H. arizonica (star); H. oculaticauda (open circle); H. oregona (square);
## H. immaculate (circled star); H. querquesi (open star).
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis oculaticauda Casey
Fig. 431 a-d; Map, Fig. 430

Hyperaspis oculaticauda Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 41.—Hatch, 1961, p. 160.
Hyperaspis errata Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 188.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 41.—Hatch, 1961, p. 160. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis subdepressa Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 197.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 42. New Synonymy.

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 431 . Hyperaspis oculaticauda.
#___________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.40 mm, width 1.40 to 1.80 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron black with single, apical spot (Fig. 431 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. postica.
Male genitalia as in Figure 431 a-c.

Discussion.
This species is a minature edition of H. postica, having the same dorsal color pattern and same general type of male genitalia.
It is much smaller than H. postica, the maximum observed length of H. oculaticauda being 2.40 mm, the minimum observed length of H. postica being 2.30 mm.
The basal lobe of the male genitalia of H. oculaticauda is laterally emarginate in the apical 1/2, the basal lobe in A. postica is emarginate in apical 2/3 or 3/4.
Hyperaspis effeta Casey is a junior synonym of H. oculaticauda, the original description was based on a teneral male.
I also regard H. subdepressa as a junior synonym of H. oculaticauda although the elytral punctation is slightly coarser than typical H. oculaticauda.
The type series of H. oculaticauda is composed of a male and 4 females. I here designate and label the male as the lectotype, and the females as paralectotypes.
The type of H. effeta (male) and the type of H. subdepressa (female) one uniques (holotypes).

Type locality.
Of oculaticauda, Humboldt or Siskiyou Co., California (which county not stated) (lectotype here designated);
of Theta, Placer Co., California, of subdepressa, Alameda Co., California.
Type depository.
Of oculaticauda (3 5 197), Theta (3 5 1 9 1), and subdepressa (3 5 190), USNM.
Distribution.
Figure 430 . CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Livermore, Bay Farm Is.; Cisco; Eldorado Co., Eldorado; Lassen Co., Hallelujah Junction; Modoc Co., Lake City;
Marin Co., Lagunitas; Monterey Co., Carmel; Nevada Co., Boca; Pleasanton; Sacramento; Shasta Springs; Sierra Co., Sierraville; Trinity Co., Carrville; Tuolumne

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 432 . Hyperaspis immaculate.
#_________________________________

Co., Chipmunk Flat, Strawberry; Yreka NEVADA: Reno; Washoe Co., Pyramid.
OREGON: Baker Creek; Curry Co., Cape Sebastian St. Pk.; Jackson Co., Siskiyou Summit; Klamath Falls; Geary Ranch; Lakeview; McMinnville; Woods.

Top

Hyperaspis immaculata Hatch
Fig. 432 ; Map, Fig.430

Hyperaspis immaculata Hatch, 1961, p. 161.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron entirely black.
Pronotum narrowly yellow in both sexes.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout,
area within line alutaceous, impunctate or with fine, nearly imperceptible punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 432 (sipho lost).

Discussion.
The only species with entirely black elytra with which H. immaculate could be confused is H. pleuralis which is not known to occur in western Washington and Oregon
where H. immaculata is found. In addition, the body form of H. pleuralis is more rounded and convex than that of H. immaculate.

Type locality.
Olympic Hot Springs, Washington.

Type depository.
USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 430 . OREGON: Alston Mt.; McMinnville.

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#________________________________
##Fig. 433 . Hyperaspis querquesi.
#________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis querquesi Nutting
Fig. 433 a-d; Map, Fig. 430

Hyperaspis querquesi Nutting, 1980, p. 263.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.55 to 2.70 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron black with large, apical yellow spot and small lateral spot on margin behind middle (Fig. 433 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous,
impunctate or with fine, nearly imperceptible punctures.
Male genitalia as in Figure 433 a-c.

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern is like that of H. postica except for the small lateral spot,
and like that of the form of H. quadrioculata having the lateral spot except for the presence of a discal spot.
The male genitalia of H. querquesi are unlike either of these species because the lateral emargination of the basal lobe is in the apical 1/2, as in H. oculaticauda.

Type locality.
Bird Observation Station, Marin Co., California.

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 430 . CALIFORNIA: Mendocino Co., Inglenook Fen.

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#______________________________
##Fig. 434 . Hyperaspis oregona.
#______________________________

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Hyperaspis oregona Dobzhansky
Fig. 434 a-f; Map, Fig. 430

Hyperaspis oregona Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 76.—Hatch, 1961, p. 157.—Belicek, 1976, p. 314.
Hyperaspis lanei Hatch, 1961, p. 159. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.60 mm, width 1.50 to 1.78 mm.
Form elongate, oval.
Elytron black with oblique discal vitta, transverse apical spot, and narrow marginal vitta extending from base to apical 3/4 (Fig. 434 f),
maculation often reduced to remnant of discal vitta or loss of discal vitta (Fig. 434 d, e).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along hind margin, outer 1/3 angulate, area within line alutaceous, feebly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 434 a-c.

Discussion.
Typical examples of this species resemble examples of H. quadrivittata, from which H. oregona differs in having the elytral vittae not approaching the elytral base,
and the marginal vittae not reaching the apical spots. Hyperaspis lanei Hatch has male genitalia nearly identical to those of oregona
and I consider lanei a color variant of H. oregona, therefore a junior synonym.
The tendency toward the disappearance of the discal vittae in any long series of typical H. oregona is apparent,

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and the complete loss of these vittae would result in the form described as lanei (Fig. 434 d).
Hyperaspis oregona has previously been placed in a group with H. quadrivittata, but the male genitalia indicate that H. oregona belongs in the postica group.

Type locality.
Of oregona, Harney Co., Oregon; of lanei, Bead Lake, Washington.
Type depository.
Of oregona, CAS; of lanei, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 430 . ALBERTA: Banff. BRITISH COLUMBIA: Creston; Fernie; Royal Oak. CALIFORNIA: Mono Co., Bridgeport; Siskiyou Co., Bartle.
IDAHO: Cassia Co., Rock Creek Can.; Centerville; Hayden's L. OREGON: Blue Mts.; Cottonwood Creek; Harper.
WASHINGTON: Ellensberg; Yakima R. Canyon; Entiat; Granger; Moxee; Neppel; Pullman; Soap Lake; Wenatchee. WYOMING: "Nat. Park."

disconotata group

Female pronotum entirely black;
form rounded, convex; base of first abdominal sternum within postcoxal line depressed, with transverse suture;
male genitalia of the undulata type without bisinuate lateral margin of basal lobe.
The affinities of the 2 species included in this group appear to be with members of the undulata group,
but the female pronotum is entirely black and the basal lobe of the male genitalia is not bisinuate,
therefore I do not include them in the undulata group.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 435 . Hyperaspis disconotata.
#__________________________________

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Hyperaspis disconotata Mulsant
Fig. 435 a-d; Map, Fig. 436

Hyperaspis disconotata Mulsant, 1850, p. 653.—Crotch, 1873, p. 380.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 187.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.
Hyperaspis disconotata disconotata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 61.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 2.80 mm, width 1.75 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval, moderately convex.
Elytron with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 435 d), median basal spot oblique and close to humeral spot.
Postcoxal line distinctly removed from hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened parallel to hind margin,
area within line dull, strongly alutaceous, barely perceptibly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 435 a-c.

Discussion.
This species and H. troglodytes have been variously considered as synonyms or varieties of each other by authors.
Dobzhansky (1941) considered H. troglodytes to be a subspecies of H. disconotata based on a presumed difference in distribution.
I have seen both H. disconotata and H. troglodytes from the same locality, Sherborn, Massachusetts.
Hyperaspis disconotata is elongate, moderately convex in form, the pronotal punctures are very fine, indistinct in some specimens,

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#________________________________________________
##Fig. 436 . Distribution. Hyperaspis disconotata.
#________________________________________________

and the 2 basal spots on each elytron almost touch. Hyperaspis troglodytes is rounded, convex in form, the pronotal punctures are distinct,
and the 2 basal spots on each elytron do not approach each other. For these reasons I consider both species valid.
There are 2 female types in the LeConte collection, one of which, labeled "(pale blue disc, clipped)/4660/H. disconotata Muls.",
I here designate and label as the lectotype. The other specimen bearing only a pale blue, clipped disc, I designate a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Lake Superior (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 436 . ALBERTA: Edmonton. QUEBEC: Duparquet. MASSACHUSETTS: Northboro, Sherborn. MINNESOTA: Duluth; Gamson. NEW YORK: Mt. Marcy. WISCONSIN: Oneida Co.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 437 . Hyperaspis troglodytes.
#__________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis troglodytes Mulsant
Fig. 437 a-d; Map, Fig. 438

Hyperaspis troglodytes Mulsant, 1853, p. 91.—Casey, 1899, p. 127.—Lang, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.
Hyperaspis disconotata troglodytes: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 62.
Hyperaspis discreta LeConte, 1880, p. 187.—Casey, 1899, p. 127.
Hyperaspis troglodytes ab. discreta: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.
Hyperaspis novascotiae Chapin, 1955, p. 153. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.75 mm, width 1.60 to 2.40 mm.
Form rounded, convex.
Color pattern of elytron as described for H. disconotata except basal spots on elytron widely separated (Fig. 437 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. disconotata.
Male genitalia as in Figure 437 a-c.

Discussion.
The external differences between H. troglodytes and H. disconotata have been discussed under the latter species.
In addition, the male genitalia are distinct in each case. I have not located a type of H. troglodytes.
The type of H. discreta is a unique (holotype) male labeled "Cambr. 20.2.74/Type 6710 (red paper)/H. discreta LeC."
The male holotype of novascotiae lacks the median basal spot and the genitalia are slightly different than those of troglodytes,
but I regard it as synonymous with troglodytes. Hyperaspis troglodytes is so rare in collections that the possible range of variation cannot be assessed.

Type locality.
Of troglodytes, United States; of discrete, Cambridge, Massachusetts; of novascotiae, Bridgewater, Crescent Beach, Nova Scotia.

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#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 438 . Distribution. Hyperaspis troglodytes (star); H. undulata (dot), H. octavia (open star); H. paludicola (open circle).
#_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Type depository.
Of troglodytes, type not located; of discreta, MCZ, of novascotiae, CNC.

Distribution.
Figure 438 . CONNECTICUT: New Haven. INDIANA: Orange Co. IOWA: Mt. Pleasant. MASSACHUSETTS: Berlin; Framingham; Sherborn.
MINNESOTA: Fillmore Co.; Houston Co.; Mille Lacs Co.; Plummer. PENNSYLVANIA: Mt. Alta.

undulata group

Female pronotum narrowly yellow on lateral border; form elongate or rounded; male genitalia with basal lobe bisinuate on lateral margin.
The bisinuate basal lobe of the male genitalia is the striking characteristic of this group.
The body form is generally elongate, sometimes depressed, in general more convex than in members of the quadrivittata group.

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 439 . Hyperaspis undulata.
#_______________________________

Top

Hyperaspis undulate (Say)
Fig. 439 a-d; Map, Fig. 438

Coccinella undulata Say, 1824, p. 92.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1049.
Hyperaspis undulata: Crotch, 1 873 7 p. 38 1 .—Wickham, 1894, p. 304.—Weise, 1895a, p. 128.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 521.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 65.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 43.— Belicek, 1976, p. 314.
Hyperaspis maculifera Melsheimer, 1847, p. 179.—LeConte, 1880, p. 189. HyperaspiselegansMulsant, 1 8 5 0, p. 6 5 8 .—LeConte, I 8 5 2, p. 134.—LeConte, 1880, p. 187.
Hyperaspis elegans var. guttifera Weise, 1895a, p. 128.
Hyperaspis undulata ab. guttifera: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 199.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.80 to 2.75 mm, width 1.50 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, oval, moderately convex.
Elytron black with complete, irregular, lateral villa (Fig. 439 d), or with vitta broken to form apical spot.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout.
Male genitalia as in Figure 439 a-c.

Discussion.
With the exception of H. Octavia, H. undulate is readily recognized by the dorsal color pattern over most of the area in which it occurs.
There is no good

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external character that will distinguish H. undulata from H. Octavia, but H. Octavia is usually larger,
the body form less elongate, and the surface of the pronotum less strongly alutaceous than in H. undulata.
The type of undulata no longer exists and the type of maculi^Sera could not be located.
The type of elegans Mulsant is a female labeled "Amer. bar., LeConte" which I designate and label as the lectotype.

Type locality.
Of undulata, "Missouri"; of maculi^Sera, Pennsylvania; of elegans, "I'Amerique boreale"; of gutti^Sera, not stated.

Type depository.
Of undulate, type lost; of maculifera, type not located; of elegans, DLM; of gutti^Sera, not located.

Distribution.
Figure 438 . ALBERTA: Calgary; Coaldale; Medicine Hat. BRITISH COLUMBIA: Creston; Lulu Is; Sumas; Summerland; Wynndel. ONTARIO: Muskota Co., Gull Lake; Pr. Edw. Co.
CONNECTICUT: Lakeville. COLORADO: Eckert. ILLINOIS: Macon Co.; Urbana. INDIANA: Dunes Park Beach. IOWA: Ames. KANSAS: Atchison; Manhattan; Mission.
LOUISIANA: Cameron Parish; Orleans Parish; Webster Parish. MARYLAND: Upper Marlboro. MASSACHUSETTS: Ashburnhas; Framingham; Natick; Northboro.
MICHIGAN: Birmingham; Charlevoix Co.; Keweenaw Co.; East Lansing; Rochester; Royal Oak; Washtenaw Co. MINNESOTA: Clay Co., Buffalo River. NEW JERSEY: Haddon Hts.
NEW YORK: Geneva; Long Beach; Onondaga Co.; Seneca Co., Willard. NORTH DAKOTA: Billings Co.; Bottineau Co.; Grant Co., Lake Tschida;
Lake Tewaukon; Richland Co., Mirror Pool; Wahpeton. OHIO: Champaign Co.; Green Co., John Bryan St. Pk.; Highland Co., Rocky Ford L; Licking Co.
OREGON: Klamath Falls; Redmond. PENNSYLVANIA: Mt. Alta. TENNESSEE: Chattanooga. UTAH: Provo. WASHINGTON: Benton Co., Hanford Works. WISCONSIN: Dane Co., Madison.

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#______________________________
##Fig. 440 . Hyperaspis Octavia.
#______________________________

Hyperaspis Octavia Casey
Fig. 440 a-d; Map, Fig. 438

Hyperaspis Octavia Casey, 1908, p. 419.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193. Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 65.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.80 mm, width 1.70 to 2.10 mm.
Form broadly oval, convex.
Elytron black with pattern variable from that described for H. undulata to having the lateral vitta broken into 3 spots (Fig. 440 d).
Postcoxal line as described for H. undulata.
Male genitalia as in Figure 440 a-c.

Discussion.
This species will normally be confused only with H. undulate (see comments under H. undulate).
There are 3 types of H. Octavia in the Casey collection, one male and 2 females.
I here designate and label the male as the lectotype, the females as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Vicksburg, Mississippi (lectotype here designated)

Type depository.
USNM (35204).

Distribution.
Figure 438 . QUEBEC: St. Hilaire. MICHIGAN: Detroit; Oaldand Co.

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 441 . Hyperaspis paludicola.
#_________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis paludicola Schwarz
Fig. 441 a-d; Map, Fig. 438

Hyperaspis paludicola Schwarz, 1878, p. 362.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 193.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 66.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.70 to 2.10 mm, width 1.10 to 1.40 mm.
Form elongate, nearly parallel sided, depressed.
Elytron black with narrow, complete lateral vitta and one discal spot (Fig. 441 d).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, barely perceptibly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 441 a-c.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern is identical to that of typical H. undulata, but the parallel sided depressed form of H. paludicola is quite different from the oval,
moderately convex appearance of H. undulata. These 2 species are apparently allopatric. I have seen 5 type specimens of paludicola labeled "Type",
of these I select and label a male labeled "Capron Fla. 3.4/Coll Hubbard & Schwarz/Type No. 4519 U.S.N.M." as the lectotype.
The other 4 specimens from Capron and Lake Ashby I designate as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Capron, Florida (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (4519).

Distribution.
Figure 438 . ALBERTA: Mobile. FLORIDA: Kissimmee; Sanford; Steinhatchee R. GEORGIA: Dade Co., Grant's Blowing Spring.
MISSISSIPPI: Pascagula. SOUTH CAROLINA: Myrtle Beach; Sassafras Mtn.

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#______________________________
##Fig 442 . Hyperaspis borealis.
#______________________________

Top

Hyperaspis borealis Dobzhansky
Fig. 442 a-e; Map, Fig. 444

Hyperaspis oregona borealis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 76.
Hyperaspis oregona: Belicek, 1976, p. 314.
Hyperaspis borealis: Hatch, 1961, p. 76.
Hyperaspis obscura Malkin, 1943a, p. 110.—Hatch, 1961, p. 159. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis simuloides Hatch, 1 96 1, p. 159. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis schuhi Hatch, 1961, p. 160. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis elali Nutting, 1980, p. 262. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.10 to 3.0 mm, width 1.50 to 2.0 mm.
Form elongate, somewhat oval.
Elytron black with discal and lateral vittae joined at apex (Fig. 442 d), pattern variable as in Figure 442 d, e.
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 442 a-c.

Discussion.
The fully marked form resembles H. quadrivittata and H. oregona but so many color variants occur in this species
that male genitalia are the only positive criteria for recognizing H. borealis. Dobzhansky (1941) described borealis as a subspecies of oregona,
but H. borealis belongs in the undulata group while H. oregona is in the postica group.
The names I place in synonymy are all color variants of H. borealis, and the male genitalia form the basis of this synonymy.

Type locality.
Of borealis, Lake Cle-Elum, Washington; of obscura, Lake of the Woods, Klamath Co., Oregon; of simuloides, Almota, Washington; of schuhi, Sprague

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 443 . Hyperaspis consimilis.
#_________________________________

River, 5 mi. E. Bly, Oregon; of elali, Yosemite National Park, Tuolumne Co., California.

Type depository.
Of borealis, obscure, and elali, CAS: of simuloides and schuhi, USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 444 . BRITISH COLUMBIA: Vancouver; Yale. CALIFORNIA: Alameda Co., Hayward; Trinity Co., Trinity River; Tuolomne Co., Yosemite Nat. Park.
OREGON: Corvallis; Harper; Klamath Falls; McMinnville. WASHINGTON: Coupeville; Sunnyside; Fidalgo I; King Co., Seattle; Kittitas; North Bend; Thurston Co., Offut L.;
Olympia; Olympic N. F., Hurricane Rdge; Port Angeles; Pullman; Puyallup; Seaview; Skagit Co., Clear L.; Snohomish Co., Chase L.; Sultan.

Top

Hyperaspis consimilis LeConte
Fig. 443 a-d; Map, Fig. 444

Oxynchus consimilis LeConte, 1852, p. 134.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 202.
Hyperaspis consimilis: Crotch, 1873, p. 381.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 233.—LeConte, 1880, p. 189.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 78.
Hyperaspis disconotata canadensis Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 63. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis moerens: Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 444 . Distribution. Hyperaspis borealis (dot); H. consimilis (star); H. spiculinota (open star); H. quadrfvittata (open circle); H. brunnescens (circled star).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 2.70 mm, width 1.70 to 1.90 mm.
Form elongate, oval, moderately convex.
Elytron with narrow, complete lateral vitta, one median, basal spot, one oblique discal vitta extending from disc nearly to apical vitta (Fig. 443 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, finely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 443 a-c.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern of H. consimilis is most like that of H. troglodytes,
but the male genitalia are so dissimilar in these 2 species that I place them in different groups.
Crotch (1873) first considered H. consimilis to be a junior synonym of H. moerens LeConte, and this opinion has been followed by authors ever since.
In fact, H. moerens is much more closely allied to H. quadrivittata than to H. consimilis, and I regard H. consimilis as a valid species.
Because of this confusion as to the true identity of H. consimilis, Dobzhansky (1941) described as new the form he called H. disconotata canadensis,
which is identical in all respects to H. consimilis.
The type of H. consimilis is a unique (holotype) female labeled "(blue clipped dise)/4661/Type 6720 (red paper)/H. consimilis Lee.".

Type locality.
Of consimilis, Lake Superior; of canadensis, Whitford Lake, Alberta.

Type depository.
Of consimilis, MCZ; of canadensis, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 444 . ALBERTA: Whitford Lake. QUEBEC: Duparquet. NEW YORK: Cascade.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 445 . Hyperaspis spiculinota.
#__________________________________

Top

Hyperaspis spiculinota Fall
Fig. 445 a-d; Map, Fig. 444

Hyperaspis spiculinota Fall, 1901, p. 232.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 197.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 72.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.0 mm, width 1.70 to 2.10 mm.
Form elongate, feebly oval, dorsoventrally flattened.
Elytron with wedge shaped discal spot, spot on lateral margin in apical half, and transverse apical spot sometimes touching lateral spot (Fig. 445 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, finely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 445 a-c.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern is like that of a variation of H. quadrioculata,
but the strongly flattened form and the wedge shaped discal spot on each elytron are characteristic of H. spiculinota.
The type of male genitalia causes me to place this species in the undulata group rather than the postica group
where it would appear to belong on the basis of external characters. A single male type remains in the Fall collection labeled
"Pom Cal 10/19/95/Type spiculinota/MCZ Type 24544 (red paper)/ H.C. Fall collection".
Since Fall had more than one type specimen, I designate this male as the lectotype.

Type locality.
Pomona, California (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 444 . CALIFORNIA: Claremont; Pasadena; Santa Barbara Co.; Santa Paula.
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#__________________________________
##Fig. 446 . Hyperaspis brunnescens.
#__________________________________

quadrivittata group

Female pronotum with narrow yellow border (except H. brunnescens and H. jasperensis);
form elongate, flattened; color pattern of elytron often vitiate;
male genitalia with strong lateral projection near apex of basal lobe.

Of the species included here, H. jasperensis is atypical in that the male head is black (the only species of Hyperaspis known to have that characteristic)
and the female pronotum is entirely black. The body form and male genitalia of H. jasperensis are of the quadrivittata type,
therefore I include it in the quadrivittata group in spite of the aberrant color pattern.

Top

Hyperaspis brunnescens Dobzhansky
Fig. 446 a-c; Map, Fig. 444

Hyperaspis brunnescens Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 77.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 2.50 mm, width 1.60 to 1.80 mm.
Form elongate, oval, subdepressed.
Pronotum of male mostly dull yellow; pronotum of female brownish black with indistinct, yellow lateral border.
Elytron brownish black with 2 vittae, one complete marginal vitta and oblique discal vitta (Fig. 446 c).
Surface of elytron dull, strongly alutaceous.
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, barely perceptibly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 446 a, b.

Discussion.
The dull dorsal surface and vitiate color pattern of the elytron are distinctive for H. brunnescens.
Hyperaspis quadrivittata has the same elytral pattern but is shiny on the dorsum.

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 447 . Hyperaspis quadrivittata.
#____________________________________

Type locality.
Illinois.

Type depository.
USNM (54219).

Distribution.
Figure 444 . ILLINOIS: State record. IOWA: Clarke Co.

Top

Hyperaspis quadrivittata LeConte
Fig. 447 a-e; Map, Fig. 444

Hyperaspis quadrivittata LeConte, 1852, p. 133.—Crotch, 1873, p. 381.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 233.—LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 522.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 195.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.— Belicek, 1976, p. 313.
Hyperaspis quadrivittata quadrivittata: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 74.
Hyperaspis tetraneura Casey, 1908, p. 420.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Belicek, 1976, p. 313.
Hyperaspis quadrivittata variety tetraneura: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 75.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.70 mm, width 1.30 to 1.80 mm.
Form elongate, oval, subdepressed.
Elytron black with vittae as described for H. brunnescens except some specimens with lateral vitta incomplete (Fig. 447 d, e).
Postcoxal line as described for H. brunnescens except area within line strongly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 447 a-c.

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#______________________________
##Fig. 448 . Hyperaspis moerens.
#______________________________

Discussion.
This is one of the most easily recognized species of Hyperaspis because of the strongly vitiate appearance and elongate form (see comments under H. brunnescens).
Hyperaspis oregona of the postica group has the same basic color pattem, but the male genitalia of the 2 specimens are not at all alike and they are nearly allopatric.

The unique (holotype) female type of quadrivittata is labeled "(green disc)/4659/ Type 6719 (red paper)/H. quadrivittata LeC."
LeConte (1852) stated that the type was "found near Long's Peak." The type of tetraneura in the Casey collection is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Of quadrivittata, Long's Peak, Colorado; of tetraneura, Boulder, Colorado.

Type depository.
Of quadrivittata, MCZ; of tetraneura, USNM (35207).

Distribution.
Figure 444 . ALBERTA: Cypress Hills; Edmonton; Medicine Hat; Waterton. ARIZONA: Chiricahua Mts.; IDAHO: Boville. NORTH DAKOTA: Billings Co.; Grant Co., Lake Tschida.
OREGON: Brothers; Harney Co., Tencent Lake; Prineville. WASHINGTON: Moses Canyon. WYOMING: Lonetree.

Top

Hyperaspis moerens (LeConte)
Fig. 448 ; Map, Fig. 450

Oxynychus moerens LeConte, 1850, p. 238.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 239.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 202.
Hyperaspis (Oxynychus) moerens: Mulsant, 1850, p. 694.
Hyperaspis moerens: LeConte, 1880, p. 189.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 78.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.25 mm, w dth 1.70 mm.
Form oval, subdepressed, pronotum abruptly narrower than elytral base, narrowed epically.
Elytron black with obscure,

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 449 . Hyperaspis protensa.
#_______________________________

obliquely triangular spot on apical declivity (Fig. 448 ).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, finely punctate.
Male genitalia not known.

Discussion.
I have seen only the type series (females) and one other female specimen of this species.
The abruptly narrowed form of the pronotum is not shared by any other species of North American Hyperaspis, and I have no doubt that this is a valid species.
No males were available, therefore the placement of moerens in this group is based on an external similarity to quadrivittata, which may be superficial.
Two types presently exist in the LeConte collection, one of which, labeled "(blue clipped disc)/4671/Tyepe 6721 (red paper)/Oxynychus moerens Lec. (Hyper. Muls.)",
I designate and label as the lectotype, the other as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Lake Superior (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 450 .

Top

Hyperaspis protensa Casey
Fig. 449 a-d, Map, Fig. 450

Hyperaspis protensa Casey, 1908, p. 417.-Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 57.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.50 to 2.20 mm, width 1.0 to 1.50 mm.
Form elongate, parallel sided.
Elytron black with complete villa on lateral margin (Fig. 449 d), vitta often incomplete.
Postcoxal line not approaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line dull, alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 449 a-c.

Discussion.
The color pattern of this southwestern species is similar to that of H. inflexa and H. caseyi,
but the elongate, narrow form of H. protensa is completely unlike the short, rounded form of the other 2 species.
Thus far H. protensa is known

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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 450 . Distribution. Hyperaspis moerens (star); H. protensa (dot); H. punctuate (open circle); H. simulans (square); H. imitator (open star).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Only from Arizona, and it is not likely to be confused with any other species of Hyperaspis occurring there.
The type is a unique female (holotype) in the Casey collection.

Type locality.
Nogales, Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (351 85).

Distribution.
Figure 450 . ARIZONA: Dragoon Mts., Stronghold. Graham Mts.; Huachucha Mts., Copper Canyon; Pajarito Mts., Sycamore Canyon;
Pinaleno Mts.; Santa Catalina Mts.; Santa Cruz Co., Parker Canyon; Santa Rita Mts., Box Canyon, Madera Canyon.


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#______________________________
##Fig 451 . Hyperaspis punctata.
#______________________________

Top

Hyperaspis punctata LeConte
Fig. 451 a-b; Map, Fig. 450

Hyperaspis punctata LeConte, 1880, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 194.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 67.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.70 to 2.30 mm, width 1.25 to 1.80 mm.
Form elongate, nearly parallel sided, subdepressed.
Elytron black with discal spot, apical spot, and irregular vitta on lateral margin from base past midpoint (Fig. 451 d).
Postcoxal line removed from hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line dull, alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 451 a-c.

Discussion.
This species and H. protensa are practically identical in body form and color pattern except that H. punctata has a discal spot on the elytron.
The genitalia are similar but not identical, however, it is conceivable that these are forms of a single species.
Material from northern Mexico is needed to ascertain the actual distribution of both punctata and protensa.
A female in the LeConte collection labeled "Tex./184/Type 6717 (red paper)/H. punctata Lec". is here designated and labeled as the lectotype.
An additional female is designated a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 450 . TEXAS: Bexar Co., Salado Creek, Fort Sam Houston; Flatonia; Perryton; Sanderson.

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 452 . Hyperaspis simulans.
#_______________________________

Top

Hyperaspis simulans Casey
Fig. 452 a-d; Map, Fig. 450

Hyperaspis simulans Casey, 1899, p. 128.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 197.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 79.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 2.70 mm, width 1.60 to 1.90 mm.
Form regularly oval, moderately convex.
Elytron entirely black except vague yellow area may be present on humeral angle (Fig. 452 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, distinctly punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 452 a-c.

Discussion.
The regularly oval form and nearly black, immaculate appearance characterize H. simulans externally,
and enable it to be separated from other southwestern species of Hyperaspis.
I have seen a single female from Reno, Nevada, which I regard as H. simulans,
but this specimen has a small spot just posterior to the middle of the elytron on the lateral margin.
Casey's type of simulans is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Arizona.

Type depository.
USNM (35208).

Distribution.
Figure 450 . ARIZONA: Huachucha Mts.; Santa Cruz Co., Adobe Canyon. NEVADA: Reno.

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#_______________________________
##Fig. 453 . Hyperaspis imitator.
#_______________________________

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Hyperaspis imitator , new species
Fig. 453 a-d; Map, Fig. 450

Description.
Male, length 2.0 mm, width 1.60 mm.
Form oval, moderately convex.
Pronotum black with lateral area yellow; elytron black with discal spot and lateral yellow villa from base to apex (Fig. 453 d).
Punctures on head fine, separated by a diameter or less; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron slightly coarser than on pronotum, separated by less than to twice a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely punctured laterally, punctures becoming fine, sparse toward midline.
Abdominal sterna with fine, dense punctures except basal 2 sterna coarsely punctured.
Postcoxal line not approaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, sparsely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 453 a-c.

Female, similar to male except length 2.25 mm, width 1.75 mm;
head black; lateral pronotal border not as broadly yellow.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: San Antonio, Olmos Park, 28-VI-1947, B. E. White Coll., sweeping Ceanothus sp. (CAS).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype. (CAS).

The male genitalia of H. imitator place it in the H. quadrivittata group; the dorsal color pattern of the male is exactly like that of H. bensonica males,
but the female pronotum is yellow laterally, entirely black in H. bensonica. Because of the similarity in color pattern and also body form,
males of H. imitator will probably be mixed with males of H. bensonica unless genitalia are examined.
The holotype and allotype are the only specimens of H. imitator examined. The specific name refers to the resemblance of H. imitator to H. bensonica.
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#__________________________________
##Fig. 454 . Hyperaspis jasperensis.
#__________________________________

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Hyperaspis jasperensis Belicek
Fig. 454 a-d; Map, Fig. 455

Hyperaspis jasperensis Belicek, 1976, p. 316.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.50 to 2.00 mm, width 1.0 to 1.50 mm.
Form elongate, slender, oblong. Head brownish black in both sexes.
Pronotum brownish black in both sexes except lateral margin slightly paler.
Elytron entirely brownish black (Fig. 454 d).
Postcoxal line nearly reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, slightly flattened along margin, area within line alutaceous, barely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 454 a-c.

Discussion.
The black female head, oblong form, and immaculate elytron characterize this little species.
In addition to material from the type locality and the Northwest Territories, I regard 2 specimens from Colorado and one from Wyoming as being H. jasperensis.
The latter 3 specimens are more flattened dorsoventrally than Alberta specimens, but the male genitalia are so similar that I consider them nonspecific.

Type locality.
Alberta, Jasper National Park, Bald Hills.

Type depository.
CNC

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#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 455 . Distribution. Hyperaspis jasperensis (star); H. bolters (square); H. Trifurcata (open circle).
#__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Distribution.
Figure 455 . NORTHWEST TERRITORIES: Dempster, Richardson Mts. COLORADO: Argentine Pass. WYOMING: Yellowstone Nat. Park.

Hyperaspis species not assigned to groups

Two species, H. bolteri LeConte and H. trifurata Schaeffer, are included here because they seem to have no affinities with other Hyperaspis,
either North American species or species from south of the United States.
I prefer to treat them in this way rather than create a probably meaningless "group" for each.

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#______________________________
##Fig. 456 . Hyperaspis bolteri.
#______________________________

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Hyperaspis bolteri LeConte
Fig. 456 a-d; Map, Fig. 455

Hyperaspis bolteri LeConte, 1880, p. 186.—Casey, 1899, p. 121.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 522.—Leng, 1 920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 185.—Wingo, 1952, p. 26.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.0 to 3.25 mm, width 2.10 to 2.65 mm.
Form regularly oval, convex.
Male pronotum with narrow yellow area laterally; female pronotum entirely black; surface of pronotum dull, strongly alutaceous, punctures nearly invisible.
Elytron dull black with yellowish orange lateral vitta broadly expanded onto disc medially (Fig. 456 d).
Postcoxal line widely separated from hind margin of first abdominal sternum, flattened along margin, area within line depressed basally, alutaceous7 finely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 456 a-c.

Discussion.
Specimens of H. bolteri have been seen only from Illinois, Indiana, and Kansas.
The highly distinctive color pattern and extremely dull pronotal surface characterize this species.
A female in the LeConte collection labeled "Ill./Type 6706 (red paper)JHyperaspis bolteri Lec." is here designated and labeled the lectotype.

Type locality.
Illinois (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 455 . INDIANA: Pine (Lake Beach). KANSAS: State record.

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 457 . Hyperaspis trifurcata.
#_________________________________

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Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer
Figs. 457a-i; Map, Fig. 455

Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer, 1905, p. 143.—Casey, 1908, p. 420.—Leng, 1920, p. 211.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 63.
Hyperaspis durangoensis Casey, 1924, p. 167.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 187.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 64. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis disjunctus Casey, 1924, p. 168.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 187.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 64. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.30 to 3.0 mm, width 1.80 to 2.40 mm.
Form oval, convex. Head sparsely pubescent except pubescence on clypeus dense, long.
Pronotum of both sexes black with narrow, reddish yellow, lateral border.
Elytron black with variable red or yellow pattern (Fig. 457 e-i).
Postcoxal line not reaching hind margin of first abdominal sternum, evenly curved throughout, area within line alutaceous, densely punctured.
Male genitalia as in Figure 457 a-c.

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern is somewhat variable, but always distinctive for this species.
No other North American species of Hyperaspis has a comparable color pattern.
The labrum and clypeus are extremely hairy, although there is no pubescence on the Irons.
Comparison of the genitalia of H. trifurcata with those of H. durangoensis has shown them to be identical,
therefore I regard H. durangoensis as a junior synonym of H. trifurcata.
Hyperaspis disjunctus is only a color variant of trifurcata from the same type locality as H. durangoensis, and is also a junior synonym.
There are 2 types of H. durangoensis in the Casey collection and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the other specimen as a paralectotype.
The type of H. disjunctus is a unique female (holotype). I have seen 2 type specimens of H. trifurcata and here designate and label a male labeled
"Tex./trifurcata type/ Cotype No. 42550 U.S.N.M." as the lectotype, the other specimen as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Of durangoensis (lectotype here designated) and disjunctus, Durango City, Durango, Mexico; of trifurcata, Texas (lectotype here designated).
Type depository.
Of durangoensis (35168), disjunctus (35169), and trifurcata (42550), (USNM).
Distribution.
Figure 455 . ARIZONA: Pima Co., Tucson. TEXAS: S. of Alamo; Alice; Brownsville; College Station; Corpus Christi; El Paso; Falfurrias;
Floresville; Isabel; Kerrville; Laredo; Refugio Co., Tivoli; Sabinal; San Antonio; San Diego; Seguin; Uvalde; Victoria.

Genus Brachiacantha

Brachiacantha Dejean, 1837, p. 458.—Melsheimer, 1847, p. 178.—LeConte, 1852, p. 130.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317.
Brachyacantha: Chevrolat, 1842, p. 704 (unjustified emend^lation).—Mulsant, 1850, p. 520.—Crotch, 1873, p. 377.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 210.—Chapuis, 1876, p. 228.— Weise, 1885, p. 5.—Gorham, 1894, p. 184.—Wickham, 1894, p. 299.—Casey, 1899, p. 116.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 520.—Leng, 1911, p. 281.—Wheeler, 1911, p. 169.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 202.—Wingo, 1952, p. 18.— Hatch, 1961, p. 161.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 44. Type-species; Coccinella dentipes F., by subsequent designation of Crotch, 1873, p. 377.

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 458 . Brachiacantha sp. a. Antenna. b, c. Front tibiae. d. Abdomen. e. Female genitalia.
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Hyperaspini with body elongate oval to rounded, strongly convex; dorsal surface glabrous except head indistinctly pubescent.
Head usually entirely yellow in male, at least with clypeus brown or black in female. Antenna 11-segmented (Fig. 458 a); antennal insertion concealed.
Eye narrowly emarginated by expansion of epistoma. Scutellum wider than long. Epipleuron of elytron narrow, not descending externally,
strongly excavated for reception of middle and hind femoral apices. Prosternum with or without 2 carinae, if carinae present, then only slightly convergent epically.
Anterior tibia grooved or flanged, with spine at about basal 2/5 (Fig. 458 b, c); tarsal claw with large, basal, quadrate lobe.
Abdomen with 7 apparent sterna in male, 6 in female; sexual modification present on sterna 3-6 in male (depending on group).
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete (Scymnus type) (Fig. 458 d). Male genitalia with basal lobe symmetrical or asymmetrical;
paramere not rooted in phallobase, longer than phallobase (Figs. 459a, 471a);
sipho strongly sclerotized with fan-like membranous lobes in apical 1/3 (except indubitabilis and lepida groups) (Fig. 459 c).
Female genitalia with simple spermathecal capsule, infundibulum present, coxal plate transverse (Fig. 458 e).

The spine on the anterior tibia and the emarginate eyes will distinguish Brachiacantha from all other hyperaspine genera.
Brachiacantha is a New World genus containing approximately 50 species and subspecies which range from Canada to Argentina.
The original spelling of the generic name, Brachiacantha, was published by Dejean (1837) without a generic description, but the name was validated by the

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inclusion of several previously described species. Chevrolat (1842) emended the name to Brachyacantha,
an unjustified emendation which has been used by all subsequent authors except Melsheimer (1847), LeConte (1852), and Belicek (1976).

The larvae of members of this genus for which data are available feed on Coccidae in ant nests.
This was well documented by Wheeler (1911), who found larvae of B. quadripunctata quadripunctata in nests of "Lasius umbratus var. aphidicola"
at Great Blue Hill near Boston, Massachusetts. Wheeler also mentioned the recording of similar observations by Smith (1886), Schwarz (1890), and Mann (1911).
Adult host preferences are almost completely unknown. Hosts mentioned in the literature are "mealybugs," "root coccids and root aphids;"
Pemphigus sp.; Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell); Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell).

This genus was revised by Leng (1911), and his classification has remained unchanged since then except for descriptions of some new species.
The classification proposed herein is based on Leng's, but there are a number of changes in synonymy.
Twenty six species and subspecies are here considered to occur north of Mexico.

North American Brachiacantha can be divided into 4 groups based on the type of male genitalia and modifications of the male abdominal sterna.
I designate these as the dentipes, ursina, lepida and indubitabilis groups. Morphological distinctions are discussed under each group heading.
The male genitalia of Brachiacantha species are not diagnostic in many instances, and other, often less satisfactory characteristics such as color, body form, etc.,
must be used to recognize species.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Brachiacantha

1. Anterior tibia with arcuate flange on outer margin (Fig.458 c); male abdomen with 3rd sternum bicuspid (Fig. 460 d) .... 2
- Anterior tibia not noticeably flanged, or if so, then flange not arcuate (Fig. 458 b); male abdomen with 3rd sternum lacking cusps (Fig. 458 d) .... 15
2(1). Elytron with transverse median band only (Fig. 470 e); Arizona, Texas .... subfasciata Mulsant
- Elytron with transverse median band or not, if median band present, then additional maculation also present; Arizona, Texas and elsewhere .... 3
3(2). Species occurring east of the Mississippi River .... 4
- Species occurring west of the Mississippi River .... 6
4(3). Form oval to rounded; elytron with median band composed of connected spots (Fig. 459 d); Florida .... decora Casey
- Form distinctly oblong; elytron with median band usually appearing entire .... 5
5(4). First abdominal sternum with area within postcoxal line yellow or yellowish brown; male pronotum yellowish orange except feeble dark maculae at base (Fig. 463 e); 3rd abdominal sterna of male with cusps reduced (Fig. 463 d); Mississippi .... soltaui, n. sp.
- First abdominal sternum with area within postcoxal line black, brown, or only partially yellow; male pronotum mostly black or dark brown, 3rd abdominal sternum of male with cusps prominent (Fig. 462 d); Mississippi and elsewhere .... dentipes (F.)
6(3). Species occurring in California, Nevada, Oregon (Fig. 464 ) .... blaisdelli Nunenmacher
- Species occurring east of Nevada and Oregon .... 7
7(6). Specimens from Arizona .... 8
- Specimens not from Arizona .... 10
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8(7). Punctures on head fine, about equal in diameter to eye facet; median 1/3 of 3rd and 4th abdominal sterna with punctures fine, nearly absent; elytron with single, median, orange band (Fig. 470 e) .... subfasciata Mulsant
- Punctures on head coarse, diameter larger than eye facet; median 1/3 of 3rd and 4th abdominal sterna distinctly, densely punctured; elytron never with single, median, orange band .... 9
9(8). Male head entirely yellow; 6th abdominal sternum of male strongly concave medially; Arizona and elsewhere .... tau LeConte
- Male head black except vertex and frons with orange spot; 6th abdominal sternum of male nearly flat; Santa Rita Mts., Arizona .... stephani, n. sp.
10(7). Length less than 3.50 mm; male abdomen with cusps on 3rd abdominal sternum reduced, 4th sternum with equally reduced cusps (Fig. 468 d); south Texas .... barberi, n. sp.
- Length more than 3.50 mm; male abdomen with prominent cusps on 3rd abdominal sternum, 4th sternum without cusps, or if present, reduced; south Texas and elsewhere .... 11
11(10). Form oval to rounded; elytron with median band composed of connected spots, apical spot present (Fig. 459 d), all maculation yellow; south Texas .... decora Casey
- Form oblong; elytron with median band more or less straight, apical spot present or not, or elytron mostly yellow, all maculation orange or yellowish orange except some northern specimens of tau with maculation yellow; south Texas and elsewhere .... 12
12(11). Male abdomen with cusps on 3rd sternum separated by the width of a cusp or more (Fig. 460 d) .... 13
- Male abdomen with cusps separated by 1/2 the diameter of a cusp, or cusps connected by an intermediate ridge (Fig. 466 d) .... 14
13(12). Length 4.20 mm or more; punctures on head coarse, diameter larger than eye facet; median 1/3 of 3rd and 4th abdominal sterna distinctly, densely punctured; Montana and Idaho to west Texas .... tau LeConte
- Length 4.0 mm or less; punctures on head fine, about equal in diameter to eye facet; median 1/3 of 3rd and 4th abdominal sterna with punctures fine, nearly absent; south Texas .... subfasciata Mulsant
14(12). Male abdomen with cusps on 3rd sternum distinctly, strongly connected by a ridge, ridge feebly, triangularly depressed medially (Fig. 466 d); elytron usually with single apical spot (Fig. 466 f), pattern often variable (Fig. 466 e, I); south and central Texas .... quadriflum LeConte
- Male abdomen with cusps on 3rd sternum distinctly separated (Fig. 462 e), if slightly connected, then intermediate ridge strongly, arcuately depressed medially; elytron never with single apical spot; Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico .... dentipes (F.)
15(1). Elytron yellow with 2 median black spots, plus 2 black spots on suture confluent with spots on opposite elytron (Fig. 493 d) .... lepida Mulsant
Elytron not as described above .... 16
16(15). Anterior tibia with prominent, rounded tooth on outer margin near tarsal insertion, tooth angled inward (Fig. 479 d); Arizona .... arizonica Schaeffer
- Anterior tibia with feeble tooth on outer margin near tarsal insertion, tooth not angled inward (Fig. 458 b) Arizona and elsewhere .... 17
17(16). Elytron black with large basal and apical spots (Fig. 482 d); Florida .... 18
- Elytron not as described above; Florida and elsewhere .... 19
18(17). Form oval (Fig. 483 d); spots on elytron orange, anterior spot entire .... querceti Schwarz
- Form round (Fig. 482 d); spots on elytron yellow, anterior spot with hind margin partially divided .... schwarzi, n. sp.

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19(17). Elytron yellow, suture and 2 spots black (Fig. 489 d), spots sometimes feebly confluent with suture; Manitoba and Alberta to Colorado, Nebraska (also see illustris) .... albifrons(Say)
- Elytron black with yellow spots, or mostly yellow with variable black maculation, not as described above .... 20
20(19). Elytron black, maculation variable but always lacking discal spot, species occurring east of Texas .... 21
- Elytron black with discal spot, or mostly yellow with variable black maculation; Texas and elsewhere .... 22
21(20). Elytron with basal and apical spots, male with additional feeble anterolateral spot (Fig. 486 d) .... quadripunctata quadripunctata (Melsheimer)
- Elytron with basal and apical spots, plus median spot on lateral margin, male with additional anterolateral spot sometimes connected to basal spot (Fig. 487 d) .... quadripunctata flavifrons Mulsant
22(20). Maculation on elytron consisting of 3 spots, 2 median, one apical, without basal spot (Fig. 491 d); spine on anterior tibia slender, occurring east of Mississipi River .... indubitabilis Crotch
- Maculation on elytron not as described above, or if so, then occurring west of Mississippi River; spine on anterior tibia usually broad, triangular .... 23
23(22). Elytron with 5 large yellow spots, spots may be partially confluent or confluent to the extent that the elytron is mostly yellow; length less than 3.0 mm; Texas and Louisiana .... 24
- Elytron with maculation variable, if with 5 yellow spots, then spots reduced in size, or species not occurring in Texas or Louisiana .... 25
24(23). Outline of spots on elytron indistinct, often partly confluent or mostly confluent(Fig. 485 d, e) .... bollii Crotch
- Outline of spots on elytron distinct, spots not confluent (Fig. 480 d) .... testudo Casey
25(23). Elytron with spots confluent in apical 1/2, humeral and basal spot present (Fig. 484 d); Florida .... floridensis Blatchley
- Elytron not as described above; Florida and elsewhere .... 26
26(25). Length less than 3.0 mm; form oval; head coarsely, densely punctured; elytron with 5 small, yellow spots (Fig. 474 d) .... decempustulata (Melsheimer)
- Length usually more than 3.0 mm (except felina); form oblong oval or round; head finely, indistinctly punctured; elytron with color pattern variable, but usually with 5 yellow spots .... 27
27(26). Form round (Fig. 471 d) .... 28
- Form elongate oval (Fig. 478 d) .... 29
28(27). Length 3.0 mm or less; male pronotum with anterior margin of median black area irregular, slightly emarginate at middle (Fig. 472 d) .... felina (F.)
- Length 3.0 mm or more; male pronotum with anterior margin of median black area straight, not emarginate at middle (Fig. 471 d) .... rotunda, n. sp.
29(27). Elytron with 5 large, yellow spots (Fig. 476 d); eastern Canada and Virginia to Manitoba and Iowa .... ursina (F.)
- Elytron with 5 yellow spots, or with variable maculation; occurring mostly west of 100th meridian .... 30
30(29). Elytron usually black with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 476 d), or with variable maculation (Fig. 476 e, f); South Dakota to New Mexico, west to British Columbia and northern California .... uteella Casey
- Elytron yellow with sutural margin and 2 spots black, black areas often confluent; Manitoba to Colorado, west to Alberta and Idaho .... 31
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31(30). Black spots on elytron usually not confluent (Fig. 489 d); form slender, elongate, distribution mostly Great Plains .... albifrons(Say)
- Black spots on elytron nearly always confluent (Figs. 490d-f); form oval, robust; high altitudes, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming .... illustris Casey

dentipes group

Anterior tibia with arcuate flange on margin, widest just before spine (Fig. 458 c); abdomen of male with 3rd sternum bicuspid (Fig. 460 d), 4th and 5th sterna modified;
basal lobe of male genitalia asymmetrical, apex usually abruptly bent to the left in ventral view (Fig. 459 a), sipho with fan-like membranous lobes (Fig. 459 c).

This group contains Leng's (1911) group 1 and group 2 which I have combined because the features of the tibia, male abdomen,
and male genitalia are essentially the same in both groups. Leng used the body shape and color pattern to distinguish his "groups" from each other,
however, I do not consider these characteristics significant at the group level.

Top

Brachiacantha decora Casey
Fig. 459 a-e; Map, Fig. 461

Brachyacantha decora Casey, 1899, p. 119.—Bowditch, 1902, p. 206.
Brachyacantha bistripustulata var. decora: Leng, 1911, p. 298.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.
Brachyacantha bistripustulata ab. decora: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 203.
Brachyacantha bistripustulata var. minor Leng, 1911, p. 298.—Leng, 1920, p. 213. New Synonymy.
Brachyacantha bistripustulata ab. minor Korschefsky, 1931, p. 203.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.0 to 4.20 mm, width 2.30 to 3.20 mm.
Form oval to rounded.
Pronotum of male mostly yellow with median black area not reaching anterior margin; pronotum of female black except broad lateral area yellow.
Elytron black with yellow apical spot and median band composed of 2 connected spots (Fig. 459 d).
Postcoxal line angulate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 459 a-c.

Discussion.
The yellow maculation on the elytron and oval to rounded body form will distinguish B. decora from other species occurring in south Texas.
This name may be only a synonym or a subspecies of B. bistripustulata F. (Fig. 459 e)
but I prefer to regard B. decora as a valid species until the Mexican and Central American species are examined in detail.
There are 5 type specimens in the Casey collection, and I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remainder as paralectotypes.

The type of B. bistripustulata var. minor Leng is apparently a depauperate example of B. decora having the median band on the elytron composed of separated spots.
The type locality is Brownsville, therefore the name minor cannot be maintained in subspecific status. The type specimen was not located.

Type locality.
Of decora and minor, Brownsville, Texas (lectotype of decora here designated).

Type depository.
Of decora, USNM (35574); of minor, not located.

Distribution.
Figure 461 . ARIZONA: Phoenix. FLORIDA: Broward Co., Andytown; Dade Co., Matheson Hammock; Miami; Monroe Co., Key Largo; Palm Beach

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#________________________________
##Fig. 459 . Brachiacantha decora.
#________________________________

Co., Lake Worth; West Palm Beach. TEXAS: Beeville; Big Bend National Park; Brownsville; Del Rio; Devils River; Edna; Harlingen; Mission;
New Braunfels; Richmond; Sabinal; San Antonio; Uvalde; Victoria; Webb Co., 30 mi. E. Laredo.

Top

Brachiacantha tau LeConte
Fig. 460 a-g; Map, Fig. 461

Brachiacantha tau LeConte, 1859d, p. 28.
Brachyacantha tau: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 212.—Leng, 1911, p. 305.—Leng, 1920, p. 213.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.

Diagnosis.
Length 4.40 to 5.50 mm; width 3.0 to 3.80 mm.
Form oblong.
Pronotum of male mostly yellow with small, black, basal area in northern specimens,
mostly black with narrow anterior margin and broad lateral area yellow in southern specimens;
pronotum of female mostly black except broad lateral area yellow, anterior margin narrowly yellow in most northern specimens.
Color pattern on elytron variable from mostly yellow or orange in northern specimens (Fig. 460 e), to a pattern

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#_____________________________
##Fig. 460 . Brachiacantha tau.
#_____________________________

resembling that of B. decora in southern specimens (Figure 460 f, g).
Postcoxal line angulate; male abdominal cusps separated by more than the width of a cusp (Fig 460 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 460 a-c.

Discussion.
The pale northern specimens are easily recognized, but the usually darker southern specimens can be confused with other species of the dentipes group
unless the male abdominal cusps are compared as indicated by statements in the key to species.
LeConte ( 1859) had a single male type specimen (holotype) labeled "(green disc)/male sign/Type 6703(red paper)/B. tan Lee".

Type locality.
Fort Riley, Kansas.

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 461 . ARIZONA: Huachucha Mts.; Patagonia, Williams. COLE
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#_________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 461 . Distribution. Brachyacantha decora (dot); B. tau (star); B. dentipes (shaded).
#_________________________________________________________________________________________

ORADO: Boulder; Valmont Butte; Fort Collins; Wray. IDAHO: Hansen; Idaho Falls. MONTANA: state record. NEW MEXICO: Rio Arriba Co.
TEXAS: Alpine. UTAH: Cache Co., Cornish; Logan Canyon; Manti; Millard Co., Parowan; Provo Canyon; Torrey; Utah Co.

Top

Brachyacantha dentipes (F.)
Fig. 462 a-h; Map, Fig. 461

Coccinella dentipes F., 1801, p. 381.—Olivier, 1808, p. 1051.—Say, 1835, p. 202.
Brachyacantha dentipes: Mulsant, 1850, p. 525. - Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Casey, 1899, p. 120.—Nunenmacher, 1909, p. 162.—Leng, 1911, p. 300.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 204.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 44.
Brachyacantha socialis Casey, 1899, p. 119.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.
Brachyacantha dentipes socialis Leng, 1911, p. 301.
Brachyacantha dentipes ab. socialis: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 204.
Brachyacantha dentipes var. separata Leng, 1911, p. 31.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.
Brachyacantha dentipes ab. separata: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 204.

Diagnosis.
Length 4.75 to 6.30, width 3.60 to 4.60 mm.
Form oblong, sometimes slightly oval.
Pronotum of male mostly black except narrow anterior margin and wide lateral area yellow or orange;
pronotum of female similar to male except anterior margin black.
Elytron black with orange or yellow apical spot and irregular median band varying in width and shape (Fig. 462 f-h).
Postcoxal line angulate; male abdominal cusps separated by about 1/2 the diameter of a cusp (Fig. 462 d, e).
Male genitalia as in Figure 462 a-c.

Discussion.
This is the most widely distributed member of the dentipes group and can usually be recognized by the characters given in the key.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 462 . Brachiacantha dentipes.
#__________________________________

I must include 2 previously proposed names, separate and socialis, with B. dentipes because I cannot find stable characters to differentiate species or subspecies.
The northern, and particularly the western specimens have noticeably more yellow or orange on the elytra than do those from Missouri, North Carolina, etc., southward.
This is not constant however, occasional southern specimens are as pale as any

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western specimens. The size and deptth of separation of the cusps on the male 3rd abdominal sternum seem to differ.
The cusps are reduced in size, and not distinctly separated in most northern and western specimen (Fig. 462 e)
but large and deeply separated in most southern specimens (Fig. 462 d).
This character also varies because specimens in long series from Mobile, Alabama, and St. Louis, Missouri, have most of the males with large cusps,.
A few males in each series have the small cusps characteristic of northern and western specimens.
The type of socialis is a unique male (holotype) in the Casey collection, the type of dentipes is also apparently unique, but was not examined.
The type of separata was not located; a female labeled as a paratype from southern Illinois is in the USNM collection.

Type locality.
Of dentipes, "Habitat in Carolina"; of socialis, Kansas, of separate, Virginia.

Type depository.
Of dentipes, ZMC; of socialis, USNM (35575); of separate, not located.

Distribution.
Figure 461 . New England and Ontario to Florida, west to Colorado and New Mexico.

Top

Brachiacantha soltalii , new species
Fig. 463 a-e; Map, Fig. 465

Description.
Male, length 5.0 mm, width 3.80 mm.
Form oblong, sow. chat oval.
Head and pronotum yellow except pronotum with small, irregular, basal brown area.
Elytron black with humeral angle, median basal, and apical spot orange (Fig. 463 e).
Ventral surface dark brown except metepisternum yellow, leg reddish yellow, area within postocxal line and most of abdomen yellowish brown.
Punctures on head fine, dense, separated by a diameter or less; pronotal punctures coarser then on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron equal in size to pronotal punctures, separated by less than to twice a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured, punctures nearly contiguous laterally.
Abdominal sterna coarsely, densely punctured, punctures contiguous laterally, nearly contiguous medially.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum rounded, area within line polished, coarsely, densely punctured;
cusps on third abdominal sternum reduced, connected by arcuate ridge (Fig. 463 d).
Sterna 5 and 6 deeply concave medially, sternum 4 weakly concave medially.
Genitalia as in Figure 463 a-c.

Female, length 5.30 mm, width 4.0 mm.
Similar to holotype except head black with large, median orange spot; pronotum black except large lateral area reddish yellow.

Variation. Length 5.0 to 5.30 mm, width 3.80 to 4.0 mm.

Holotype.
Male. MISSISSIPPI: Southern Mississippi, June 11, 1893, Collection H. Soltau (USNM 101343).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 7 (Fig. 465 ). All with same data as holotype. (USNM).
Males of this species are easily recognized because of the nearly all yellow pronotum and reduced cusps on the third abdominal sternum.
Females may be confused with females of B. dentipes, however, the entirely yellow or yellowish brown area within

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#________________________________
##Fig 463 . Brachiacantha soltaui.
#________________________________

the postcoxal line on the first abdominal sternum of B. soltaui is a constant character in all specimens of the type series.
In B. dentipes, the same area is usually entirely black or brown, or only partially yellowish brown.
The species is named for H. Soltau, the collector.

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 464 . Brachiacantha blaisdelli.
#____________________________________

Top

Brachiacantha blaisdelli Nunenmacher
Fig. 464 a-f; Map, Fig. 465

Brachyacantha blaisdelli Nunenmacher, 1909, p. 162.—Leng, 1911, p. 304.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 204.

Diagnosis.
Length 4.40 to 5.0 mm, width 3.0 mm to 3.40 mm.
Form oblong, narrow, elongate.
Pronotum of male black except anterior margin broadly yellow, with large reddish yellow area laterally;
pronotum of female black except large lateral area orange.
Elytron black with orange maculation varying from a form with irregular median band and apical spot to a form with median band
and apical spot obscurely connected (Fig. 464 e, f).
Postcoxal line angulate; male abdominal cusps widely separated, large, prominent (Fig. 464 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 464 a-c.

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#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig 465 . Distribution. Brachiacantha soltaui (circled star); B. blafsdelli (star); B. quadrillum (dot); B. stepkani (triangle).
#________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Discussion.
This species is the only member of the dentipes group with an extreme western distribution.
The body form is more narrow and elongate than in any other member of the group.
The male abdominal cusps are widely separated as in B. tau,
but the cusps are much more prominent than those of B. tau.
Nunenmacher (1909) stated that he had 2 type specimens,
I here designate and label one of these (male) as the lectotype,
the other (female) as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Goldfield, Esmeralda Co., Nevada (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 465 . CALIFORNIA: Humboldt Co.; Mendocino Co.; Modoc Co., Lake City; Napa Co.; Sacramento Co., Galt; Siskiyou Co., Etna; Sonoma Co., Rio Nido; Tehachapi Pass. NEVADA: Esmeralda Co., Goldfield. OREGON: Grant's Pass.

Top

Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte
Fig. 466 a-g; Map, Fig. 465

Brachiacantha quadrillum LeConte, 1858, p. 89.
Brachyacantha quadrillum: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1874b,p.211.—Gorham, 1894, p. 186.—Leng, 1911, p. 303.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.80 to 4.75, width 2.60 to 3.50 mm.
Form oval, somewhat oblong.
Pronotum of male and female black with large lateral area reddish yellow.
Elytron black with reddish yellow maculation varying from a form with only an apical spot to forms with an additional discal spot, or discal spot plus median lateral

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#____________________________________
##Fig. 466 . Brachiacantha quadrillum.
#____________________________________

spot, discal and lateral spot sometimes feebly connected (Fig. 466 e-g).
Postcoxal line slightly angulate; male abdominal cusps connected by a ridge triangularly depressed medially (Fig. 466 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 466 a-c.

Discussion.
Most examples of B. quadrillum can be recognized by the elytral color pattern
because the presence of a single apical spot on the elytron is a character not shared by other members of the group.
Those specimens having additional maculation can still be recognized as B. quadrillum most of the time
because the additional maculation is obscure and tentative in appearance.
The type of B. guadrillum is a unique female (holotype) labeled "(red disc)"/Type 6704(red paper)/B. quadrillum LeC. Lindh.".

Type locality.
New Braunfels, Texas.

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 467 . Brachiacantha stephani.
#__________________________________

Type depository.
MCZ.

Distribution.
Figure 465 . TEXAS: Austin; Beeville; Brownsville; Calvert, Dallas; Del Rio; Edna; Gainesville; Hondo; Kerrville; Lubbock; New Braunfels; Sabinal; San Antonio; San Marcos.

Top

Brachiacantha stephani , new species
Fig. 467 a-e; Map, Fig. 465

Description.
Male, length 4.0 mm, width 2.75 mm.
Form oblong, slightly oval.
Head black with orange spot on vertex.
Pronotum black except anterior margin narrowly yellow, small lateral area reddish yellow.
Elytron black with reddish yellow apical spot and median band composed of 2 connected spots (Fig. 467 e).
Ventral surface black except metepisternum yellow, apex of femur, tibia, and tarsus reddish yellow.
Punctures on head coarse, dense, separated by a diameter or less; pronotal punctures equal in size to head punctures, separated by one to 3 times a diameter;
punctures on elytron larger than on pronotum, separated by less then to twice a diameter.
Metasternum densely, coarsely punctured, punctures becoming nearly contiguous laterally.
Abdominal sterna densely, coarsely punctured, punctures contiguous laterally, nearly contiguous medially.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum slightly angulate, area within line polished, impunctate except along anterior margin of sternum;
cusps on third sternum not reduced, separated by more than the width of a cusp (Fig. 467 d);
sternum 4 weakly concave medially, sternum 5 slightly more concave than sternum 4, sternum 6 flat, lacking median depression.
Genitalia as in Figure 467 a-c.

Female, length 4.5 mm, width 3.0 mm.
Similar to holotype except pronotum black on anterior margin, yellowish red lateral area larger.

Variation.
Length 4.0 to 4.80 mm, width 2.75 to 3.20 mm. The median band on

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 468 . Brachiacantha barberi.
#_________________________________

each elytron may not be partially divided, therefore does not appear to be composed of 2 connected spots.

Holotype.
Male. ARIZONA: Santa Rita Mts., Madera Canyon, 26 Aug. 1970, K. Stephan Coll (FSCA).

Allotype.
Female. Same data as holotype. (FSCA).

Paratypes.
Total 5 (fig. 465). ARIZONA: Santa Rita Mts., Madera Cyn., July 21, 1969; same data except dates Aug. 3, Aug. 18, 1968, and July, 1970. (FSCA) (USNM).

The head of the male is not entirely yellow in B. stephani, a character which will separate that sex from B. tau and B. subfasciata,
the other species of this group occuring in Arizona. Females of B. stephani and B. tau are not easily separated;
in fact I have not found any character that will accomplish this.
This species is named for Karl Stephan, the collector of part of the type series and an avid Coleopterist.

Top

Brachiacantha barberi , new species
Fig. 468 a-e; Map, Fig. 469

Description.
Male, length 3.30 mm, width 2.50 mm.
Form oval, slightly rounded.
Head yellow.
Pronotum black except wide anterior border and large lateral area reddish yellow.
Elytron black with yellow apical spot, median band, and small humeral spot, median band composed of 2 connected spots (Fig. 468 e).
Ventral surface black except metepisternum yellow, leg reddish yellow, abdomen yellowish brown except median 1/3 of first 2 abdominal sterna black.
Punctures on head extremely fine, barely perceptible; pronotal punctures coarse, dense, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron equal in size to pronotal punctures, separated by one to 2 times a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely, densely punctured, punctures separated by a diameter medially, becoming coarser and contiguous laterally.
Abdominal sterna

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig, 469. Distribution. Brachiacantha barberi (triangle), B. subfasciata (star); B. rotunda (dot).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________

feebly, sparsely punctured medially, punctures becoming coarse, contiguous laterally.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum rounded, area within line smooth, sparsely punctured;
cusps on 3rd sternum extremely reduced, separated by the width of a cusp (Fig. 468 d);
sternum 4 with cusps nearly equal in size to those on sternum 3;
sternum 5 feebly depressed medially, sternum 6 flat, not depressed medially.
Genitalia as in Figure 468 a-c.

Female, length 3.10 mm, width 2.30 mm.
Similar to male except clypeus and lateral margin of frons brown;
abdomen mostly yellowish brown except median 1/3 of first sternum black.

Variation.
Length 2.85 to 3.40 mm, width 2.10 to 2.60 mm. One type specimen has the median band on the elytron nearly straight, not appearing as 2 connected spots;
abdomen is often almost entirely yellowish brown, the median area of the first sternum brown or dark brown.

Holotype.
Male. TEXAS: Corpus Christi, 4/29/96, Marlatt (USNM 101344).

Allotype.
Female. TEXAS: Brownsville, 18.24.V.04, HS Barber collector. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 6 (Fig. 469 ). TEXAS: Brownsville, 1.VI.04, H.S. Barber collector; Brownsville, VI.25-30, J. O. Martin, collector;
Esprza (Esperanza) Rch, Brownsville, VIII.23; Kingsville, C.T. Reed colt.; Macdona, VII-29, J.W. Green, collector. (CAS) (USNM).

The only species known to occur in south Texas with which B. barberi might be confused is B. subfasciata, see remarks under that species.
This species is named for H. S. Barber.
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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 470 . Brachiacantha subfasciata.
#_____________________________________

Top

Brachiacantha subfasciata Mulsant
Fig. 470 a-f; Map, Fig. 469

Brachyacantha subfasciata Mulsant, 1850, p. 527.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 211.—Gorham,1894,p.187.—Leng, 1911, p. 302.—Leng,1920,p.212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.50 to 4.00 mm, width 2.60 to 3.0 mm.
Form oblong, slightly oval.
Pronotum of male black with narrow anterior margin and narrow area on anterolateral angle yellow;
female pronotum entirely black or with very small yellow area on anterolateral angle.
Elytron usually black except a median orange band present (Fig. 470 e), south Texas specimens with additional apical spot (Fig. 470 f).
Postcoxal line slightly ungulate; male abdominal cusps widely separated (Fig. 470 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 470 a-c.

Discussion.
The typical form occurs in Arizona and is recognizable by the dorsal

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color pattern. The south Texas specimens have an additional apical spot on each elytron, resembling H. barberi.
However, H. barberi is consistently smaller and more rounded in body form.
Two type specimens were found in the Paris Museum, a male in the general collection, and a female in the Sicard collection.
The male labeled "Museum Paris/143/Brachyacantha subfasciata Muls., auct. det." is here designated and labeled the lectotype.
The female labeled "Coll. Mniszech/Mexique" is designated a paralectotype.

Type locality.
"Mexique" (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
PM.

Distribution.
Figure 469 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Douglas; Pima Co., Pantano; Sta. Catalina Mts., Molino Basin.
TEXAS: Brownsville; Crockett Co., Ozona; Del Rio; Kerrville; San Antonio; Sinton, Welder Wildlife Res.; Uvalde; Webb Co., Laredo.

ursina group

Anterior tibia not noticeably flanged, or if so, then flange not arcuate, widest at middle or just before tibial excavation (Fig. 458 b);
abdomen of male without cusps on 3rd sternum (Fig. 458 d), 5th sternum modified;
basal lobe of male genitalia symmetrical, apically truncate (Fig. 471 a), sipho with fan-like membranous lobes (Fig. 472 c).
The ursina group contains all of the species in Leng's (1911) Group 4 except B. indubitabilis.
I also include B. querceti from Leng's Group 6 because the male genitalia are of the B. ursina type.

Top

Brachiacantha rotunda , new species
Fig. 471 a-d; Map, Fig. 469

Description.
Male, length 3.50 mm, width 2.70 mm.
Form round.
Head yellow except clypeus yellowish brown.
Pronotum black except narrow anterior margin and apical angle yellow.
Elytron black with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 471 d).
Ventral surface black to dark brown except mouthparts, tibia, and tarsus yellow.
Clypeus narrow, anterior angle rounded.
Punctures on head fine, separated by one to 3 times a diameter; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron slightly coarser than on pronotum, separated by less than to slightly more than a diameter.
Metasternum coarsely punctured, punctures sparse medially, nearly contiguous laterally.
Abdominal sterna finely punctured, punctures sparse medially, contiguous laterally.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum rounded, area within line alutaceous, sparsely, coarsely punctured; median depression of 4th and 5th sterna feeble.
Genitalia as in Figure 471 a-c.
Female, length 3.80 mm, width 2.0 mm.
Similar to holotype except yellowish brown area on clypeus enlarged, vertex black, narrow margin beside eye yellowish brown;
pronotum with anterior margin black.

Variation.
Length 3.10 to 4.0 mm, width 2.20 to 3.0 mm.

Holotype.
Male. VIRGINIA: Massanutten Mt., Sept.21,1941, E. A. Chapin (USNM 101345).

Allotype.
Female. VIRGINIA: same data as holotype. (USNM).

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 471 . Brachiacantha rotunda.
#_________________________________

Paratypes.
Total 54 (Fig. 469 ). ONTARIO: Aubrey Island, St. Lawrence Is. National Park, Sept. 15, 1976, Oct. 2, 1976, W. Reid; Bell's Corners, VI-7-1950, S.D. Hicks;
Hastings, 8 May-01, Evans; Miners Bay, 26-V-1931, G. S. Walley; Ridgeway, 5/30/91, E.P.U. Colt; St. Lawrence Is. National Park, Grenadier I., Centre, 2-9:VII: 1975, Sigler;
Thwartway Island, St. Lawrence Is. National Park, Sept. 9, 1976, W. Reid. QUEBEC: Aylmer, 18-V-1934, W. J. Brown. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Washington, 5-IV, H. S. Barber.
IOWA: Independence, V-15, Wickham; Iowa City, 5-30-16, L. Buchanan. KENTUCKY: Cadiz, May 24, 1954, K. Stephan.
MARYLAND: Beltsville, VIII-21-1958, H. P. Lanchester; S. Mts. near Myersville, Sept. 2, 15; Oakland, V-24-1942, Dieke; Westminster, V-15-1940, Dieke.
MASSACHUSETTS: Blue Hills, W. M. Mann; Mt. Tom; Springfield, 14 May, 1919, Geo Dimmock; Tyngsboro, VIII-II- 14. MISSOURI: Webster Groves, 6- 10-31.
NEW JERSEY: Big Timber Cr., 1 1-19-1900; Towaco, VI-19-43, A. Nicolay; Lakehurst, 9/1/07, V30-25; Midvale, VIII-30-42, A. Nicolay.
NEW YORK: Bangall, IX-17-13, G. P. Engelhardt; Buffalo, 6-5-87, E.P.V. coil; Buffalo, 22 July 1933, J. G. Franclemont; "Cent.";
Ithaca, 12 May 1937, 1938, J. G. Franclemont; Lancaster, 5/20/89, E.P.V. coil; L. I. Yaphank VIII-13-10;
West Point, May 30, 1909, Oct. 10, 1909, May 8, 1910, Sept. 15, 1915, W. Robinson. OHIO: Jefferson, R. J. + M. B. Sim; Knox Co., IX-18- 1940.
PENNSYLVANIA: Dauphin Co., VI-5-27, J. N. Knull; Mt. Holly Spgs., IX- 1-1918.
VIRGINIA: Top Mt. Elliott, Augusta Co., 4473 A., 20-6-34, H. A. Allard; Edinburgh, IX-13-1945, Dieke; Fava. Co., Belvoir, VI-2-1940, Dieke; Glencarlyn,

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#_______________________________
##Fig 472 . Brachiacantha felina.
#_______________________________

IX- 14,19, H. F. Wickham; same as type data; Nelson Co., Aug. 7, 1910, W. Robinson. (CAS) (CNC) (FSCA) (USNM).

In addition to the key characters, the clypeus with rounded anterior angles and darkened surface are of help in distinguishing B. rotunda from B. ursina
with which it is most likely to be confused. Males of B. ursina nearly always have the head, including the clypeus, entirely yellow,
and the clypeal angles are abrupt in both sexes. It is surprising that B. rotunda should have remained undetected after both Casey and Leng worked on Brachiacantha,
particularly in view of the very noticeable difference in body shape. The specific epithet refers to the round body form.

Top

Brachiacantha felina (F.)
Fig. 472 a-d; Map, Fig. 473

Coccinellafelina F., 1775, p. 87.—Fabricius, 1781,p. 106.—Fabricius,1787,p.61— Fabricius, 1792, p. 290.—Fabricius, 1801, p. 385.—Olivier, 1791, p. 79.
Brachyacantha felina: Mulsant, 1850, p. 1046.—Crotch, 1873, p. 377.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 307.—Leng, 1911, p. 312.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 45.
Brachiacantha fulvopustulata Melsheimer, 1847,p. 178.
Brachyacantha fulvopustulata: Crotch, 1874b, p. 43.—Leng, 1911, p. 312.
Brachyacantha felina var. fulvopustulata: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 3.0 mm, width 1.65 to 2.50 mm.
Form round.
Pronotum of male black with anterior margin and anterolateral angle yellow, apex of black area irregular, slightly emarginate at middle;
female pronotum usually black except anterolateral angle yellow, often with narrow, yellow, anterior border.
Elytron black with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 472 d).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 472 a-c.

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#______________________________________________
##Fig. 473 . Distribution. Brachiacantha felina.
#______________________________________________

Discussion.
The round form of this species causes it to resemble B. rotunda, but there is a distinct size differential between these species,
as well as a difference in the male prenatal color patterns as indicated in the key to species.
A specimen in the LeConte collection is labeled "Melsh. fulvopustulata/(ragged red paper", but I do not consider it a type because it has 5 spots on each elytron.
Melsheimer specifically stated that his type had 4 spots on each elytron.

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#________________________________________
##Fig. 474 . Brachiacantha decempustulata.
#________________________________________

Type locality.
Of felina, "Amer. bor." (type not examined); offulvopustulata, Pennsylvania.

Type depository.
Of felina, not located; of fulvopustulata, not located.

Distribution.
Figure 473 . Massachusetts to North Carolina, west to Iowa and Louisiana.

Top

Brachiacantha decempustulata (Melsheimer)
Fig. 474 a-d; Map, Fig. 475

Hyperaspis 10-pustulata Melsheimer, 1847, p. 179.
Brachiacantha 10-pustulata: LeConte, 1852, p. 133.
Brachyacantha 10-pustulata: Mulsant, 1856, p. 149.—Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 211.—Wickham, 1894, p. 304.—Casey, 1899, p. 117.—Blatchley, 1010, p. 520.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.
Brachyacantha felina 10-pustulata: Leng, 1911, p. 313.
Brachyacantha ursina var. troglodytes Mulsant, 1850, p. 534. New Synonymy.
Brachyacantha stellata ab. troglodytes: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207. Brachyacantha stellata Casey, 1899, p. 1 1 7.—Blatchley,1910, p. 5 20.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317.
Brachyacantha ursina stellata: Leng, 1911, p. 310.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.0 to 2.50 mm, width 1.60 to 2.0 mm. Description as for felina except form oval; spots on elytron smaller (Fig. 474 d); male genitalia as in Figure 474 a-c.

Discussion.
In addition to the key characters and reduced size of the elytral spots,
this species also has sparse elytral punctures that are usually separated by more than the diameter of a puncture,
whereas in B. felina and B. rotunda they are usually separated by a diameter or less.
Melsheimer (1847) had a single type specimen of B. decempustulata which is now in the LeConte collection labeled "Melsh./10 pustu-

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 475 . Distribution. Brachiacantha decempustulata (shaded, disjunct localities dotted).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________

lata". A single female type of B. troglodytes labeled "Amer. bar., Mannerheim" is here designated and labeled as the lectotype.
There are 2 female types of B. stellata in the Casey collection.
The first of these is here designated and labeled as the lectotype, the other specimen as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Of decempustulata, Pennsylvania; of troglodytes, "Amer. bor." (lectotype here designated); of stellata, Indiana (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of decempustulata, MCZ; of troglodytes, DLM; of stellata, USNM (35567).

Distribution.
Figure 475 . New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Wisconsin and Louisiana. Disjunct localities; Barnes Co., Baldhill Dam, and Griggs Co., North Dakota.

Top

Brachiacantha ursina (F.)
Fig. 476 a-f; Map, Fig. 477

Coccinella ursina F., 1787, p. 61. - 1792, p. 291. - 1801, p. 386.—Olivier, 1791, p. 80.
Brachyacantha ursina: Mulsant, 1850, p. 532.—Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Wickham, 1894, p. 304.—Casey, 1899, p. 117.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 520.—Leng, 1911, p. 309.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 45.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317 (in part).
Brachyacantha congruens Casey, 1899, p. 117.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 520.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317.
Brachyacantha ursina congruens: Leng, 1911, p. 310.
Brachyacantha ursina ab. congruens: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.
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#________________________________
##Fig. 476 . Brachiacantha ursina.
#________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 3.0 to 4.0 mm, width 2.10 to 2.80 mm.
Form elongate oval.
Pronotum of male black except anterior margin and anterolateral angle broadly yellow, apical margin of black area indented.
Elytron usually with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 476 d), specimens from Iowa and Minnesota often with spots partially confluent (Fig. 476 e, f).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 476 a-c.

Discussion.
This is the most commonly collected eastern species of Brachiacantha, but the dorsal color pattern is remarkably uniform.
There is a tendency for the elytral spots to become somewhat confluent in upper midwest specimens,
but, if anything, these specimens are more easily recognizeable than the typical form because no other species occurring in that region has a similar appearance.
The combination of large size (3.0 to 4.0 mm long) and elongate, oval- body form will separate ursina from other eastern Brachiacantha having the saline color pattern.
I agree with Belicek

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#___________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 477 . Distribution. Brachiacantha ursina (shaded, disjunct locality starred); B. uteella dot).
#___________________________________________________________________________________________________

(1976) who placed congruens Casey as a synonym of ursina.
There are 7 types of "congruens" in the Casey collection, however, 4 of these are actually felina.
I here designate and label a male in the type series as the lectotype, the remaining 3 examples of congruens as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Of ursina, "America boreali" (type not examined); of congruens, Hot Spnng, French Broad River, North Carolina. (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
Of ursina, not located, of congruens, USNM (35568).

Distribution.
Figure 477 . Nova Scotia to South Carolina, west to Manitoba and Iowa.

Top

Brachiacantha uteella Casey
Fig. 478 a-d; Map, Fig. 477

Brachyacantha uteella Casey, 1908, p. 412.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317.
Brachyacantha ursina uteella: Leng, 1911, p. 310.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.
Brachyacantha stellata ab. uteella: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 208.
Brachyacantha uteella sonorana Casey, 1908, p. 413.—Belicek, 1976, p. 317.
Brachyacantha ursina sonorana: Leng, 1911, p. 311.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.
Brachyacantha ursina ab. sonorana: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.
Brachyacantha fenyesi Leng,1911, p. 316.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205. New Synonymy.
Brachyacantha lengi Nunenmacher, 1912, p. 449.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205. New Synonymy.


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#_________________________________
##Fig. 478 , Brachiacantha uteella.
#_________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 2.60 to 4.60 mm, width 2.0 to 3.40 mm.
Form elongate oval.
Pronotum of male black except anterior margin and anterolateral angle broadly yellow, apical margin of black area indented.
Color pattern on elytron variable, typical form black with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 478 d), basal spot often faint, or spots expanded, partially confluent.
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 478 a-c.

Discussion.
I regard B. uteella as a valid species, widespread and variable in western North America. Leng (1911) and Belicek (1976) considered uteella a subspecies of B. ursina.
I have not seen intergrade material between the 2, and they are widely separated geographically, therefore it seems logical to accord each specific rank.
The unique female type (holotype) of sonorana Casey is not separable from examples of uteella from Arizona and Utah,
therefore I regard sonorana to be a junior synonym of uteella. Both fenyesi Leng and lengi Nunenmacher are apparently inseparable from uteella,
and I also consider them as junior synonyms. Leng (1911) listed 3 Colorado localities from which he had type specimens.
I can locate only one male from any of these localities labeled "Glenwood Spgs., Col./July/Chas. W. Leng collection/ U.S.N.M. paratype 40413 (red paper)"
which I here designate and label as the lectotype. Within the known geographic range, the only species with which B. uteella might be confused is B. albifrons.
The darkest color forms of B. albifrons and the lightest forms of B. uteella may have very similar color patterns,
however B. albifrons is a narrowly oval species with weakly rounded sides and B. uteella is a broader species with more strongly rounded sides.
They are mostly allopatric with some overlap (Fig. 477 ).

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 479 . Brachiacantha arizonica.
#___________________________________

Type locality.
Of uteella, Milford, Utah; of sonorana, Colonia Garcia, Chihuahua, Mexico; offenyesi, Glenwood Springs, Colorado (lectotype here designated); of lengi, Weitchpee, Humboldt Co., California.

Type depository.
Of uteella (3 5 5 69) and sonorana (3 5 5 70), USNM: of fenyesi, USNM (40413), of lengi, CAS.

Distribution.
Figure 477 . BRITISH COLUMBIA: Osoyoos, Richter Pass. ARIZONA: Bright Angel; Coconino Co.; Flagstaff; Huach. Mts.; Pinal Mts.; Tucson; Williams.
CALIFORNIA: Lundy; Trinity Co., Carrville. COLORADO: Boulder; Colorado Springs; Durango; Estes Park; Glenwood Springs; Gunnison; Muckanawago. IDAHO: Murtaugh.
MONTANA: Kalispell. NEVADA: Washoe Co., Gerlach. NEW MEXICO: Santa Fe. OREGON: Corvallis; Crater Lake; Harney Co.; Huntington. SOUTH DAKOTA: Oglala, White River.
UTAH: Bicknell; Milford; Pinto; Roosevelt; Vernal. WASHINGTON: Naches River, Yakima Co., Satus Creek. WYOMING: Carbon Co.; Grand Teton Pk.

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Top

Brachiacantha arizonica Schaeffer
Fig. 479 a-f; Map, Fig. 481

Brachyacantha arizonica Schaeffer, 1908, p. 125.—Leng, 1911, p. 314.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschfsky, 1931, p. 203.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.90 to 3.60 mm, width 2.30 to 2.75 mm.
Form round.
Pronotum of male with broad anterior margin and anterolateral angle yellow; female pronotum similar to male except yellow anterior border and anterolateral angle reduced.
Elytron typically black with 4 yellow spots, basal and humeral spot confluent (Fig. 479 e);
pattern variable, often with trace of 5th spot on lateral margin, or all spots confluent (Fig. 479 f).
Anterior tibia with prominent tooth on outer margin near tarsal insertion, tooth angled inward (Fig. 479 d).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 479 a-c.

Discussion.
I have seen this species only from Arizona. The round form, confluent humeral and basal spots, and unique form of the outer anterior tibial tooth characterize B. arizonica.
There are 7 type specimens of B. arizonica; I here designate and label a male as the lectotype, the remaining 6 as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Huachucha Mts., Arizona (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (42552).

Distribution.
Figure 481 . ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mts.; Palmerlee; Flagstaff; Oak Creek; Globe; Greenlee Co.; Huachucha Mts.; Santa Rita Mts.; Tucson.

Top

Brachiacantha testudo Casey
Fig. 480 a-d; Map, Fig. 481

Brachyacantha testudo Casey, 1899, p. 118.—Bowditch, 1902, p. 206.—Leng, 1911, p. 312.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.25 to 3.30 mm, width 1.75 to 2.50 mm.
Form rounded, slightly oval.
Male pronotum black except apical margin and anterolateral angle yellow; female pronotum similar to male except anterior margin narrowly yellow.
Elytron black or brown with 5 yellow spots (Fig. 480 d), spots sometimes partially confluent.
Postcoxal line slightly angulate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 480 a-c.

Discussion.
The rounded form, 5 spots on each elytron, and extreme south Texas distribution make correct identification of this species easy.
There are 2 female types of B. testudo in the Casey collection, and I here designate and label one as the lectotype, the other as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Brownsville, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
USNM (35571).

Distribution.
Figure 481 : TEXAS: Brownsville; Cameron Co.; Pt. Isabel. San Antonio; Uvalde Co., Uvalde.

Top

Brachiacantha schwarzi , new species
Fig. 482 a-d; Map, Fig. 481

Description.
Male, length 3.0 mm, width 2.40 mm.
Form round.
Head yellow.
Pronotum black except anterior margin and anterolateral angle yellow, apical margin of black area uneven.
Elytron black except 2 yellow, fused spots occupying basal 1/2, large apical spot present (Fig. 482 d).
Ventral surface black except leg yellow, 6th and

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#_________________________________
##Fig. 480 . Brachiacantha testudo.
#_________________________________

#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 481 . Distribution. Brachiacantha arizonica (dot); B. testudo (triangle); B. schwarzi (square); B. querceti (open star);
## B. floridensis (circled star); B. bollii (star).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 482 . Brachiacantha schwarzi.
#__________________________________

7th abdominal sterna reddish brown.
Punctures on head fine, separated by less than a diameter; pronotal punctures coarser than on head, separated by a diameter or less;
punctures on elytron coarser than on pronotum, separated by a diameter or less.
Metasternum coarsely punctured, punctures sparse medially, slightly denser laterally.
Abdominal sterna finely, densely punctured throughout except median area of first sternum impunctate, polished.
Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum rounded, area within line somewhat alutaceous, mostly impunctate.
Median depression of 4th and 5th sterna feeble.
Genitalia as in Figure 482 a-c.

Female, length 2.75 mm, width 2.10 mm.
Similar to holotype except head black, frons yellow; pronotum entirely black except narrow anterolateral angle yellow; abdomen entirely black.

Variation.
Length 2.30 to 3.20 mm, width 1.80 to 2.60 mm. The basal and humeral spots on each elytron are either distinctly divided at the hind margin, or nearly completely fused.

Holotype.
Male. FLORIDA: Gainesville, 11-V-1930 (USNM 101346).

Allotype.
Female. FLORIDA: Jacksonville, Collection Ashmead. (USNM).

Paratypes.
Total 30 (Fig. 481 ). FLORIDA: Alachua Co., 30-III-54, H. A. Denmark colt; Alachua Co., 10-III-55, H. V. Weems, Jr. colt; Alachua Co., 4-VIII-1977, H. Greenbaum;
Alachua Co., Devil's Millhopper, 26-II-26, G. B. Merrill coil; Alachua Co., Gainesville, Austin Cary Forest, Vic. Hatchett Creek, 8-III-1976, Flight Trap, G. B. Fairchild;
Alachua Co., Gainesville, Austin Cary Forest, 24-IX-1976, 28-VI1976, 20-IX-76, 9-11-IX-75, 12-VII-76, G. B. Fairchild, Flight Trap;
Alachua Co., Gainesville, Doyle Conner Bldg. 1-6-12-1972, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Alachua Co., 9 mi. N.W. Gainesville, UF Hort Unit, SR 232, 18-28-VIII-1977, H. N. Greenbaum;
Alachua Co., W. of Gainesville, Pierce's Homestead, 22-II 4-III-76, Malaise Trap,

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#__________________________________
##Fig. 483 . Brachiacantha querceti.
#__________________________________

W. H. Pierce; Gainesville; Gainesville, V-29-64, VIII-8-64, VIII-9-64, R. E. White coil; Gainesville, 2-1955, L.A. Hetrick;
Gainesville, Doyle Conner Bldg., Dodge, 5X-72; Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building, 27-VII-73, H. V. Weems, Jr., Malaise Trap;
Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building, 8-IX-1973, H. V. Weems, Jr., Malaise Trap; Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building, 5-7-I-1974, H. V. Weems, Jr., Malaise Trap;
Green Cove Spgs., 24-III-1952, J. R. Vockeroth; Jacksonville, 30-IV-67, C. F. Zeiger call; Lake Kerr, Ocala Nat. For., 23-III-61, R. E. Woodruff;
Wakulla Co., 20-IV-55, F. W. Mead. GEORGIA: Loundes Co., XI-12-62, collr. E. I. Hazard. (FSCA) (CNC) (USNM).

This species and B. querceti Schwarz resemble each other closely and are the only North American species of Brachiacantha having the elytral color pattern as in Figure 482 d.
Characters of value in distinguishing these 2 species are: head of B. querceti yellow (male) or dark brown (female);
head of B. schwarzi yellow (male) or black with yellow frontal area (female);
female pronotum entirely black or dark brown in B. querceti, with anterolateral angle yellow in B. schwarzi; elytral spots orange in B. querceti, yellow in B. schwarzi;
base of elytron with one apparent spot in B. querceti, 2 partially divided spots or one large spot with ragged posterior margin in B. schwarzi;
body oval in B. querceti, round in B. schwarzi. In addition, they appear to be allopatric within Florida, but this might be an artifact of collecting.

Top

Brachiacantha querceti Schwarz
Fig. 483 a-d; Map, Fig. 481

Brachyacantha querceti Schwarz, 1878, p. 362.—Casey, 1899, p. 118.—Leng, 1911, p. 324.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 207.
Diagnosis.
Length 2.20 to 2.80 mm, width 1.65 to 2.25 mm.
Form oval, slightly elongate.
Male head entirely yellow; female head entirely brown.
Pronotum of male black, narrowly yellow on anterior margin, anterolateral angle narrowly yellow; fe

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#_____________________________________
##Fig. 484 . Brachiacantha floridensis.
#_____________________________________

male pronotum entirely black or brown.
Elytron as described for B. schwarzi, except basal spot entire, not partially divided (Fig. 483 d), spots orange.
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 483 a-c.
Discussion.
See remarks under B. schwarzi, n. sp., for comparative statements. There are 3 types of B. querceti in the USNM collection, all females.
I here designate and label one specimen as the lectotype, the other 2 as paralectotypes.
Type locality.
Tampa, Florida (lectotype here designated).
Type depository.
USNM 4514.
Distribution.
Figure 481 . FLORIDA: Estero; Manatee Co., Myakka Head; Pollc Co.; Punta Gorda; St. Petersburg; Tampa; Venice; Vero Beach.

Top

Brachiacantha floridensis Blatchley
Fig. 484 a-d; Map, Fig. 481

Brachyacantha floridensis Blatchley, 1916, p. 93.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Blatchley, 1930, p. 39.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 mm, width 1.80 mm.
Form oval, lateral margin strongly curved.
Male head entirely yellow; female head black except frontal area yellow; male pronotum black except apical 1/3 yellow, female pronotum black except anterolateral angle yellow.
Elytron with distinctly separated basal and humeral spots, apical spots completely confluent (Fig. 484 d).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 484 a-c .

Discussion.
I have seen only a type and one other specimen of this species.
Superficially B. floridensis resembles B. bollii Crotch, but actually the closest relationship is with B. schwarzi and B. guerceti,
from which B. floridensis differs in elytral pattern. Should the elytral pattern prove to be extremely variable,
then B. schwarzi and B. floridensis are probably synonymous. Blatchley (1930) designated a male specimen as the lectotype^7 but the specimen in the PU collection is a female.

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#________________________________
##Fig. 485 . Brachiacantha bollii.
#________________________________

Type locality.
Ocala, Florida

Type depository.
PU.

Distribution.
Figure 481 . FLORIDA: LaCross; Ocala.

Top

Brachiacantha bollii Crotch
Fig. 485 a-e; Map, Fig. 481

Brachyacantha bollii Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Gorham, 1894, p. 188.—Casey, 1899, p. 118.—Leng, 1911, p. 314.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 204.— J. Chapin, 1974, p. 46.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.40 to 3.0 mm, width 1.90 to 2.30 mm.
Form rounded, slightly elongate.
Head yellow in both sexes except apex of female clypeus slightly darkened;
male pronotum black except anterior 1/3 yellow, female pronotum black except anterolateral angle broadly yellow.
Elytron typically with 5 large, round spots (Fig. 485 d), spots often confluent in basal 1/2 (Fig. 485 e).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 485 a-c.

Discussion.
This species and B. testudo are similar in appearance, but the elytral spots are rarely confluent in B. testudo,
when they are confluent the apical spots have the tendency to coalesce rather than the basal spots as in B. bolli.
Crotch (1873) had more than one type specimen, therefore I here designate and label a male in the LeConte collection labeled
"Dallas Tex. Boll/male sign/Type 4462(red paper)/B. bollii Crotch" as the lectotype, and a female labeled "Dallas Tex. Boll" as a paralectotype.

Type locality.
Dallas, Texas (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
MCZ.

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#_______________________________________________________
##Fig. 486 . Brachiacantha quadripunctata quadripunctata.
#_______________________________________________________

Distribution, Figure 481 . LOUISIANA: Natchitoches; Rapides Parish; Vernon Parish; Vowell's Mill. TEXAS: Ardmore; Dallas; Harrison Co.; Kerrville.

Top

Brachiacantha quadripunctata quadripunctata (Melsheimer)
Fig. 486 a-e; Map, Fig. 488

Brachiacantha 4-punctata Melsheimer, 1847, p. 178.
Brachyacantha 4-punctata: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 521.—Leng, 1911, p. 316.
Brachyacantha quadripunctata: Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206. Wingo, 1952, p. 27.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 46 (in part).
Brachiacantha basalis Melsheimer, 1847, p. 177.
Brachyacantha basalis: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Casey, 1899, p. ll8.—Leng, 1911, p. 317.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206.—Wingo, 1952, p.27.
Brachyacantha diversa Mulsant, 1850, p. 538.—Leng, 1911, p. 316.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206.
Brachyacantha confusa Mulsant, 1850,p. 537.—Crotch,1874b,p.212.—Leng, 1911, p. 319.—Wingo, 1952, p. 27.
Brachyacantha 4-punctata confusa: Leng, 1911, p, 319.
Brachyacantha quadripunctata ab. confusa: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206.
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#___________________________________________________
##Fig. 487 . Brachiacantha quadripunctata flavifrons.
#___________________________________________________

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 4.0 mm, width 2.0 to 3.20 mm.
Form round.
Male head yellow, female head black; male pronotum usually black except narrow apical margin and anterolateral angle yellow, but often with anterior 1/3 yellow.
Elytron black with basal and apical spot (female) or with additional numeral spot often confluent with basal spot (male) (Fig. 486 d, e).
Postcoxal line ungulate.
Male genitalia as in Figure 486 a-c.

Discussion.
The dorsal color pattern, although somewhat variable, is usually sufficient as an identification character.
Melsheimer (1847) apparently had a single female type specimen of B. quadripunctata now in the LeConte collection labeled "Melsh. 4-punctata/(ragged red paper)/".
This specimen will be labeled as the holotype. Exactly the same statements apply to the holotype of B. basalis labeled "Melsh. basalis/(ragged red paper)."
I here designate and label a male in the Dejean collections labeled "Amer. bar., LeConte" as the lectotype of B. diversa,
and a female in the same collection with identical data as the lectotype of B. confusa.

Type locality.
of quadripunctata, Pennsylvania; of basalis, Pennsylvania; of diversa and confusa, "Amer. bor." (lectotypes here designated).

Type depository.
of quadripunctata and basalis, MCZ; of diversa and confusa, DLM.

Distribution.
Figure 488 . Massachusetts and New York to Virginia and Tennessee, west to Iowa and Kansas.

Top

Brachiacantha quadripunctata flavifrons Mulsant
Fig 487 a-d; Map, Fig. 488

Brachyacantha flavifrons Mulsant, 1850, p. 531. Crotch, 1874b, p. 212.—Casey, 1899, p 118.
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#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 488 . Distribution. Brachiacantha quadripunctata quadripunctata (shaded); B. quadripunctata flavifrons (dot), B. illustris (circled star); B. albifrons (star).
#____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Brachyacantha ursina flavifrons: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.
Brachyacantha quadripunctata flavifrons: Leng, 1920, p. 212.
Brachyacantha 4-punctata flavifrons: Leng, 191 1, p. 319.
Brachyacantha quadripunctata ab.flavifrons: Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206.
Hyperaspis carolina Casey, 1924, p. 164.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 185.
Brachyacantha carolina: Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 85.

Description as for B. quadripunctata, except elytron with one marginal spot in addition to basal and apical spots (Fig. 487 d).
Male genitalia as in Figure 487 a-c.

I agree with Leng's (1911) placement of B. flavifrons as a subspecies of B. quadripunctata because the color pattern differences exhibit a geographic correlation;
B. flavifrons having a mostly southern distribution and B. quadripunctata a northern distribution.
I here designate and label a male in the Dejean collection labeled "Amer. bor., LeConte" as the lectotype.
I agree with Dobzhansky that carolina is a synonym of flavifrons. The type of carolina is a unique female (holotype).

Type locality.
Of flavifrons, "l'Amerique septentrionale" (lectotype here designated); of carolina, Southern Pines, North Carolina.

Type depository.
Of flavifrons, DLM; of carolina, USNM (35211).

Distribution.
Figure 488 . ALABAMA: Grand Bay; Mobile; Spring Hill. FLORIDA: Jacksonville; Leon Co., Tallahassee; Liberty Co., Torreya St. Pk.; Mount Pleasant; Nassau Co., Hilliard.
GEORGIA: Beachton; Grady Co.; Jekyll Island. NORTH CAROLINA: Chadborne; Tryon. SOUTH CAROLINA: Meredith.

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 489 . Brachiacantha albifrons.
#___________________________________

Top

Brachiacantha albifrons (Say)
Fig. 489 a-f; Map, Fig. 488

Coccinella albifrons Say, 1824, p. 94.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1049.
Brachiacantha albifrons: LeConte, 1852, p. 132.
Brachiacantha albifrons: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1824b, p. 212.—Casey 1899, p. 119.—Leng, 1911, p. 320.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 203.
Brachyacantha pacifica Casey, 1899, p. 119.—Leng, 1911, p. 321.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.50 to 4.40 mm, width 2.40 to 3.0 mm.
Form slender, elongate.
Head yellow in both sexes, female with clypeal apex brown;
male pronotum black

***Sames as page 594

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 489 . Brachiacantha albifrons.
#___________________________________

Top

Brachiacantha albifrons (Say)
Fig. 489 a-f; Map, Fig. 488

Coccinella albifrons Say, 1824, p. 94.—Mulsant, 1850, p. 1049.
Brachiacantha albifrons: LeConte, 1852, p. 132.
Brachiacantha albifrons: Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1824b, p. 212.—Casey 1899, p. 119.—Leng, 1911, p. 320.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 203.
Brachyacantha pacifica Casey, 1899, p. 119.—Leng, 1911, p. 321.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 206. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 3.50 to 4.40 mm, width 2.40 to 3.0 mm.
Form slender, elongate.
Head yellow in both sexes, female with clypeal apex brown; male pronotum black

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#___________________________________
##Fig. 490 . Brachiacantha illustris.
#___________________________________

Brachiacantha indubitabilis is the only North American species in this group,
and I consider it unlikely that any neotropical species possesses the extremely characteristic male genitalia of this species.
The external morphology of B. indubitabilis would place it in the ursina group,
but I propose a monotypic group for this species because of the distinctive male genitalia.

Top

Brachiacantha indubitabilis Crotch
Fig. 491 a-d; Map, Fig. 492

Brachyacantha indubitabilis Crotch, 1873, p. 379.—Casey, 1899, p. 120.—Leng, 191 1, p. 315.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.

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#_______________________________________
##Fig. 491 . Brachiacantha indubitabilis.
#_______________________________________

Hyperaspis triplicans Casey, 1924, p. 163.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 1 1. New Synonymy.
Hyperaspis triplicans microsticta Casey, 1924, p. 163.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 192,198.—Dobzhansky, 1941, p. 1 1. New Synonymy.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 3.20 mm, with 1.80 to 2.60 mm.
Form oval.
Male head yellow, female head yellowish brown except frons usually paler yellow;
male pronotum black except anterior % yellow, female pronotum black except lateral 1/4 yellow.
Elytron black with 3 yellow spots (Fig. 491 d).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 491 a-c.

Discussion.
The presence of only 3 elytral spots in a unique arrangement, 2 median, one apical, will usually identify this species.
In addition, the anterior tibial spine is usually long and slender, although some examples of B. indubitabilis do not differ strikingly from B. ursina in this respect.
Dobzhansky (1941) considered Hyperaspis triplicans and H. t. microsticta Casey junior synonyms of Hyperaspis pratensis LeConte.
Examination of the types shows that they are junior synonyms of B. indubitabilis.
Crotch (1873) had more than one type specimen of B. indubitabilis,
therefore I here designate and label a female in the LeConte collection labeled "Type 8244(red paper)/ B. indubitabilis Crotch" as the lectotype.

Type locality.
Of indubitabilis, Illinois (lectotype here designated); of triplicans and microsticta, Southern Pines, N.C.

Type depository.
Of indubitabilis, MCZ; of triplicans (35210) and of microsticta (35212), USNM.

Distribution.
Figure 492 . Massachusetts and New York to North Carolina, west to Iowa and Illinois.

lepida group

Anterior tibia as in the ursina group; abdomen of male with only 5th sterna modified, apex of 5th sternum barely perceptibly depressed; male genitalia with basal

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#_____________________________________________________
##Fig. 492 . Distribution. Brachiacantha indubitabilis.
#_____________________________________________________

lobe asymmetrical, apex obliquely truncate (Fig. 493 a), sipho without fan-like membranous lobes (Fig. 493 b).

Brachiacantha lepida is the only species I include in the group, but there are probably other neotropical species that fit the criteria outlined here.

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#________________________________
##Fig. 493 . Brachiacantha lepida.
#________________________________

Top

Brachiacantha lepida Mulsant
Fig. 493 a-d

Brachyacantha lepida Mulsant, 1850, p. 523.—Crotch, 1873, p. 378.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 210.—Gorham, 1894, p. 185.—Leng, 1911, p. 324.—Leng, 1920, p. 212.— Korschefsky, 1931, p. 205.

Diagnosis.
Length 2.50 to 3.60 mm, width 1.70 to 2.40 mm.
Form oval.
Head yellow in both sexes; pronotum with black area in basal l/2 sharply emarginate.
Elytron yellow with 2 lateral black spots and a discal and apical spot joined with those on opposite elytron (Fig. 493 d).
Postcoxal line rounded.
Male genitalia as in Figure 493 a-c.

Discussion.
The elytral color pattern of B. lepida is unique within the genus, making it easily recognizable.
Crotch (1873) listed it from "Texas", but it seems not to have been found in Texas or anywhere north of Mexico since.
I have included it on the chance that it might still be collected north of Mexico.
I have located 3 type specimens of lepida and here designate and label a male labeled "Mexico" as the lectotype.
One paralectotype in the Paris Museum bears no data and one paralectotype in the British Museum (NH) is labeled "Named by Mulsant."

Type locality.
Mexico (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
DLM.

Distribution.
Mexico to Costa Rica.

Tribe Cryptognathini

Cryptognathini Gordon, 1971, p. 181. Oeniini Casey, 1899, p. 74.—Chapin, 1940, p. 263.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 218.—Gordon, 1971, p. 184. Type-genus preoccupied.

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Scymninae with form round, convex; dorsal surface glabrous.
Head directed ventrally or slightly posteriorly, usually at least partly concealed behind prosternum.
Antenna short, compact 8- 10 segmented.
Maxillary palpus with apical segment ovate to securiform.
Prosternum narrowly or widely produced in front of coxal cavity, not emarginate; prosternal lobe widely separating coxae.
Epipleuron descending externally, or horizontal, foveate for reception of femoral apices.
Metasternum and first abdominal sternum deeply impressed for reception of remora.
Leg with femur and tibia expanded and modified for reception of tibia and tarsus, anterior leg with strongly modified tibia; tarsal claw feebly toothed at base.
Abdomen with 5 visible sterna.
Postcoxal line incomplete.

This tribe is native to the neotropics, but at least one species has been introduced into other regions for biocontrol purposes.
Gordon (1971) reviewed the tribe at the generic level and recognized 4 valid genera, one of which occurs in the United States.

Genus Cryptognatha Mulsant

Cryptognatha Mulsant, 1850, p. 497.—Crotch, 1874b, p. 206.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 218.—Chapin, 1964, p. 231.—Gordon, 1971, p. 183. Type-species; Cryptognatha auriculata Mulsant, by subsequent designation of Crotch, 1874b.

Cryptognathini with length 1.10-3.10 mm.
Clypeus with anterior margin upturned, anterior angle usually sharp (Fig. 494 a).
Antenna usually 10-segmented, club apparently 4-segmented (Fig. 494 b).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus securiform (Fig. 494 c).
Anterior leg with tibia strongly expanded for reception of tarsus, outer edge sinuate^7 slightly narrower than femur.
Abdomen with postcoxal line incomplete, extending nearly to lateral margin (Fig. 494 d).
Male genitalia symmetrical.
Female genitalia with genital plate elongate, triangular (Fig. 494 e).

The genus most likely to be confused with Cryptognatha is Delphastus, but Cryptognatha has the elytral epipleura descending externally
and the form of the clypeal apex (Fig. 494 a) is broad and truncate medially. The only species of this genus in North America is C. nodiceps Marshall
which was introduced from Trinidad into Florida for biocontrol of coconut scales in 1936. I have seen 2 recently collected specimens from Miami, Florida,
the area in which it was released in 1936. It may have existed there since 1936 and 1938, or these specimens may be the result of an accidental introduction.
Members of this genus are scale feeders with Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret) and Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) recorded as hosts,
but many other scale insects undoubtedly also serve as hosts. Cryptognatha has not been taxonomically treated as a whole;
Chapin (1964) reviewed those species occurring in Colombia.

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Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall
Fig. 494 a-j

Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall, 1912, p. 321.—Korschefsky, 1931, p. 219.—Chapin, 1965b, p. 249.

Diagnosis.
Length 1.20 to 1.66 mm, width 0.90 to 1.35 mm.
Form round, convex.
Color pale yellow, pronotum pale reddish yellow, with or without 2 yellowish brown basal lines on each side of middle at base;
elytron with variable dark brown pattern

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#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 494 . Cryptognatha nodiceps. a. Head. b. Antenna. c. Maxillary palpus. d. Postcoxal lines. e. Female genitalia. f-h. Male genitalia. i-j. Habitus and variation.
#_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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(Figs. 494i, j); pro-, mesa- and metasterna reddish yellow.
Postcoxal line incomplete.
Male genitalia as in Figure 494 f-h.
Female genitalia as in Figure 494 e.

Discussion.
The host records I have seen for this species have all been Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret).
In addition to the United States, C. nodiceps has been introduced and established in Fiji and the Mariana Islands.
There are 4 types of nodiceps. The first of these, a male labeled
"Type H.T. (white disc with orange border)/Trinidad C. W. Hewer 1902-207/Cryptognatha nodiceps, Mshl. Type",
I designate and label as the lectotype. The remaining 3 are designated as paralectotypes.

Type locality.
Cedros, Trinidad (lectotype here designated).

Type depository.
BMNH.

Distribution.
FLORIDA: Miami.

Subfamily Chilocorinae

Chilocorinae Sasaji, 1968, p. 20.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 48.—Belicek, 1976, p. 293.

Coccinellidae with clypeus expanded laterally.
Antenna reduced, 10-segments or less.
Apical segment of maxillary palpus cylindrical with truncate apex; maxillary cardo expanded or strongly sclerotized.
Pronotum strongly descending laterally, deeply concave on anterior margin.
Base of elytron distinctly broader than base of pronotum.
Metasternum impressed for reception of middle remora.
Tibia often angulate externally.

Sasaji (1968) erected this subfamily for 3 tribes, Telsimiini, Platynaspini, and Chilocorini.
Only the Chilocorini occur in the Western Hemisphere.

Tribe Chilocorini Costa

Chilocorini Costa, 1849, p. 9.—Weise, 1885a, p. 4.—Casey, 1899, p 104.—Leng, 1908, p. 33.—Blatchley, 1910, p. 517.—Leng, 1920, p. 217.—Mader, 1927, p. 23.—Wingo, 1952, p. 24.—Mader, 1955, p. 772.—Chapin, 1965a, p. 234.—J. Chapin, 1974, p. 48.—Belicek, 1976, p. 293.

Coccinellinae with length 2.0 to 8.0 mm; form oval to nearly circular; dorsal surface glabrous or pubescent.
Antenna short, terminal segments forming fusiform club, base concealed beneath genal extension of clypeus which is shelflike and partially divides eye.
Prosternal process without carinae.
Abdomen usually with 6 visible sterna in male, 5 in female, sometimes 5 in both sexes, or 6 in both sexes.
Tibia simple or angulate externally; with or without apical spurs.
Tarsus cryptotetramerous; claw simple, or swollen at base, or with basal tooth.
Male genitalia symmetrical or asymmetrical.
Female genitalia with long sperm duct, infundibulum present or absent.

There are 5 native North American genera; one introduced genus is established in California. The tribe is worldwide in distribution, but most species are tropical.
The presence of a strongly expanded gena that partially divides the eye is an excellent diagnostic character, particularly in the North American fauna.
Chapin (1965a) revised the genera of Chilocorini for the world.

KEY TO GENERA OF CHILOCORINI

1. Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum merging with posterior margin of sternum (Fig. 528 b) .... Chilocorus Leach

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- Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum not merging with posterior margin of sternum .... 2
2(1). Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum parallel and close to posterior margin of first sternum (Fig. 527 b) .... Halmus Mulsant
- Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum recurved epically, complete or not .... 3
3(2). Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum complete (Fig. 495 b) .... 4
- Postcoxal line on first abdominal sternum incomplete (Fig. 504 c) .... 5
4(3). Tarsal claw without basal tooth (Fig. 495 c) .... Brumoides Chapin
- Tarsal claw with basal tooth (Fig. 511 c) .... Exochomus Redtenbacher
5(3). Elytron without reflexed margin, with marginal bead; length less than 4.0 mm .... Arawana Leng
- Elytron with marginal feebly reflexed, with or without marginal bead; length more than 5.0 m m .... Axion Mulsant

Brumoides Chapin

Brumoides Chapin, 1965a, p. 237.—Belicek, 1976, p. 320. Type-species; Coccinella suturalis Fabricius, by original designation.

Chilocorini with form oval, convex, upper surface glabrous.
Antenna 8-segmented, club 3-segmented with apical segment partly embedded in penultimate (Fig. 495 a).
Apical segment of maxillary palpus securiform.
Prosternal lobe narrow, truncate epically.
Elytral margin slightly reflexed; epipleuron descending, not foveolate for reception of femoral apices.
Abdomen with 6 visible sterna in male, 5 in female.
Postcoxal line complete (Fig. 495 b).
Leg slender, femur not inflated; tibial spur present; tarsal claw slightly thickened at base, without angular basal tooth (Fig. 495 c).
Male genitalia symmetrical.
Female genitalia with long sperm duct; small infundiblulum present (Fig. 496 a).

Brumoides is found worldwide but I am able to recognize only 3 species that occur in the United States and Canada.
This is a genus that will bear further study and I am not satisfied that the arrangement of species and subspecies presented here is entirely correct.
The male genitalia of all species are extremely similar to one another and the female infundibulum is apparently somewhat variable within each species.
The dorsal color patterns of the species often overlap, or the same pattern will recur in more than one species,
thus color pattern is often not adequate in itself to distinguish species. The meagre host data I have seen recorded is as follows:
Coccidohystrix insolitus (Green), Dactylopius confuses (Cockerell), Pseudococcus sp.

KEY TO SPECIES OF Brumoides

1. Dorsal surface completely black; form elongate (Fig. 503 e) .... blumi (Nunenmacher)
- Dorsal surface usually not entirely black, or if so, then form rounded (Fig. 501 b) .... 2
2(1). Form nearly round (Fig. 50 lb); border of elytron definitely explanate, anterolateral angle pronounced .... histrio (Fall)
- Form elongate (Fig. 499 b); border of elytron feebly explanate, anterolateral angle not pronounced .... 3
3(2). Dorsal punctures dense, coarse; eastern United States, New York and New Jersey west to Wisconsin .... septentrionis davisi (Leng)
- Dorsal punctures fine, not dense; western United States and Canada .... 4
4(3). Elytron strongly alutaceous; pronotal angle and propleuron black; Hudson Bay and
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#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
##Fig. 495 . Brumoides sp. a. Antenna. b. Postcoxal lines. c. Tarsus. d g. Habitus and variation of B. septentrionis septentrionis.
#_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Alaska south to Colorado, northern Arizona and California .... septentrionis septentrionis (Weise)
- Elytron smooth, shiny; pronotal angle and propleuron not black; western Texas to Colorado and Idaho .... septentrionis hogei (Gorham)

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Brumoides septentrionis septentrionis (Weise)
Fig. 495 d-g; Map, Fig. 497

Brumus septentrionis Weise, 1885b, p. 230.—Weise, 1904, p. 360.—Horn, 1886, p. xiv.—Gorham, 1894, p. 177.—Casey, 1908, p. 412.—Korschefsky, 1932, p. 266.
Exochomus (Brumus) septentrionis: Leng, 1908, p. 42.
Brumoides septentrionis: Chapin, 196 Sa, p. 239.—Belicek, 1976, p. 320.
Exochomus ovoideus Casey, 1899, p. 107.—Belicek, 1976, p. 320.
Brumus ovoideus: Casey, 1908, p. 412.
Exochomus (Brumus) septentrionis var. ovoideus: Leng, 1908, p. 42
Brumoides ovoideus: Belice