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Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758
HONEY BEE
Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761, emend; Apis gregaria Geoffroy, 1762; Apis cerifera Scopoli, 1770; Apis caffra_homonym Lepeletier, 1836; Apis nigritarum Lepeletier, 1836; Apis daurica Fischer de Waldheim, 1843; Apis australis Keisenwetter, 1860, unnecessary replacement name; Apis mellifica germanica Pollmann, 1879; Apis mellifica var nigrita_homonym Lucas, 1882; Apis mellifica mellifica var lehzeni Buttel-Reepen, 1906; Apis mellifica var banatica Grozdanic, 1926; Apis remipes armeniaca Skorikov, 1929; Apis mellifera major Ruttner, 1976; Apis mellifera nubica Ruttner, 1976; Apis mellifera carpatica Barac, 1977; Apis mellifica rodopica Petrov, 1991; Apis mellifica adami Ruttner, 1975; Apis mellifera adami Ruttner, 1975; Apis mellifica unicolor var friesei Buttel-Reepen, 1906, unavailable; Apis mellifera adansoni Latreille, 1804; Apis (Apis) mellifera anatoliaca Maa, 1953; Apis mellifera acervorum_homonym Skorikov, 1929; Apis (Apis) mellifera artemisia Engel, 1999, replacement name; Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz, 1822; Apis mellifica carnica Pollmann, 1879; Apis mellifera carniolica Koschevnikov, 1900, emend; Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann, 1879; Apis mellifica hymettea Pollmann, 1879, unnecessary replacement name; Apis mellida_sic caucasia Pollmann, 1889; Apis mellifera caucasica Gorbachev, 1916, emend; Apis mellifica var cecropia Kiesenwetter, 1860; Apis mellifera cecropia Kiesenwetter, 1860; Apis mellica cypria Pollmann, 1879; Apis mellifera cypria Pollmann, 1879; Apis mellifica intermissa iberica_homonym Goetz, 1964, unavailable; Apis mellifera iberica_homonym Ruttner, 1988; Apis (Apis) mellifera iberiensis Engel, 1999, replacement name; Apis mellifica unicolor var syriaca Buttel-Reepen, 1906, unavailable; Apis (Apis) intermissa Maa, 1953; Apis mellifera intermissa Maa, 1953; Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner, 1976; Apis fasciata_homonym Latreille, 1804; Apis mellifera lamarckii Cockerell, 1906, replacement name; Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806; Apis liguria Smith, 1861, nomen nudum; Apis liguria Dalla Torre, 1896, nomen nudum; Apis mellifera litorea FG Smith, 1961; Apis mellifera macedonica Ruttner, 1988; Apis mellifera meda Skorikov, 1929; Apis mellifera monticola FG Smith, 1961; Apis mellica var remipes Gerstäcker, 1862; Apis mellifera remipes Gerstäcker, 1862; Apis mellifera armeniaca Skorikov, 1929; Apis remipes transcaucasica Skorikov, 1929; Apis mellifera ruttneri Sheppard, Arias, Grech, and Meixner, 1998; Apis mellifica var sahariensis Baldensperger, 1932; Apis mellifera sahariensis Baldensperger, 1932; Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836; Apis mellifera siciliana Grassi, 1881; Apis mellifica mellifica var siziliana Buttel-Reepen, 1906, emend; Apis mellifera sicula Montagano, 1911; Apis mellifera simensis Meixner, Leta, Koeniger, and Fuchs, 2011; Apis cerifera_homonym Gerstäcker, 1862; Apis (Apis) mellifera sossimai Engel, 1999, replacement name; Apis (Apis) mellifera syriaca Skorikov, 1929; Apis mellifera taurica Alpatov, 1935; Apis mellifera unicolor Latreille, 1804; Apis aenigmaticus Rayment, 1925; Apis trigona Rayment, 1925; Lebah; European Honey Bee

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Apidae   Apis
Subgenus: Apis

Apis mellifera, Honey Bee, queen surrounded by workers
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 20
Apis mellifera, Honey Bee, queen surrounded by workers

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Links
    Extracted from 2017 Bees of Maryland: A Field Guide http://bio2.elmira.edu/fieldbio/beesofmarylandbookversion1.pdf

    A radically different bee from our native species. No close relatives inhabit the Western Hemisphere. Lifestyle unique and not mirrored by any native species. Morphology equally unique.

    Field Marks: ♀♂Long hairs emerging from eyes, Abdomen has variable transverse bands of amber and dark brown integument and pale hair. Abdomen, amber bands primarily on first two segments transitioning to all dark segments at tip (note, it is not uncommon to find bees with NO amber in abdomen). Abdomen, pale hair bands largely on segments 35, note hairs bands located on base of segments not rims like most other bees. Wings held above back, edges touching but rarely overlapping. ♀Hind legs broadened, tibia and basitarsus flat and very wide, tibia with no hairs in the shiny central portion. ♂Almost never seen, feeds only in hive on honey, does not visit flowers, leaves only to mate and immediately perish. Only Maryland bee where eyes meet atop its head.
    Flight Season: Throughout.
    Size Relative to Honey Bee: 1X.
    Position of Wings Feeding on Flowers: Held parallel to one another over back, often touching but overlapping little.
    Location of Pollen Carrying Hairs: Carries pollen as a mix of pollen and nectar in a ball on outside of hind tibia
    Similar Genera: Colletes - The Spring Group of Colletes are about the same size as Honey Bees, similarly visit blooming trees and shrubs, and are roughly the same tan/brown coloration of darker Honey Bees. Lacks the hairy eyes, wide bare hind tibia/basitarsus, and lap their wings over their back. Face with long hair, abdomen often with bands of pale hair on rim.
    Nest: Hives in hollow trees, building cavities, and hives.
    Flowers: Visits a wide variety of flowers.

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  • Slovenian Museum of Natural History
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  • CalPhotos

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Apis mellifera, European Honey Bee, colony
© Copyright Alan Cressler 2011 · 11
Apis mellifera, European Honey Bee, colony
Apis mellifera
Lynette Schimming · 10
Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 9
Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 9
Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera drone pupa
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 9
Apis mellifera drone pupa
Apis mellifera
© Nancy Lowe, 2008-2012 · 8
Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera
© Linda Dahlberg, 2009-2016 · 8
Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 8
Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 8
Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera queen cell
Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 8
Apis mellifera queen cell

Apis mellifera
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture · 8
Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture · 8
Apis mellifera

Apis mellifera FEM mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Apis mellifera FEM mm .x f
Apis mellifera Male Lat CompPS
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Apis mellifera Male Lat CompPS

UGCA196286 01.female_front.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female front
UGCA196286_01
UGCA196286 02.female_front_top.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female front top
UGCA196286_02

UGCA196286 03.female_side.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female side
UGCA196286_03
UGCA196286 04.female_rear.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female rear
UGCA196286_04

UGCA196286 05.female_rear_tip.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female rear tip
UGCA196286_05
UGCA196286 06.female_top.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female top
UGCA196286_06
Overview

The following material taken with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962. Bees of the Eastern United States, Volume II. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Tech. Bul. No.152, 557 p.

Apis is an Old World genus, and none of the species is native to the Americas. Of the four included species, only the domesticated honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been introduced into North America, but it is widespread throughout the continent.

In contrast with the bumblebees, the species of Apis are perennially social, colonies persisting over the winter from one season to the next for periods of three or four years. Moreover, these is, no intergradation in size or structure between the queen and the worker caste, and queens never engage in foraging activities or nest building. Queens and workers are genetically similar; the development of a fertilized egg into one or the other dependent upon the size of the cell and the character of the food supplied the larva by the workers. Males or drones, of course, result from unfertilized eggs, as in most other Hymenoptera, but they also require large for the development of the larva.

In Apis the hind tibial spurs are absent, the jugal lobe of the hind wing is present, and the marginal cell of the front wing is narrow and elongate, its tip approaching the apex of the wing. The head is characterized by the densely hairy eyes, while the labrum is transverse, broad and very short.


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Anacardiaceae  Rhus trilobata @ BBSL (1)
Apiaceae  Coriandrum sativum @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Daucus carota @ MLSB__N16- (10); BBSL (1); PN- (2)

Heracleum lanatum @ BBSL (1)

Perideridia kelloggii @ BBSL (1)

Perideridia sp @ BBSL (1)

Scandix pecten-veneris @ BBSL (2)
Apocynaceae  Apocynum androsaemifolium @ BBSL (1)

Apocynum sp @ BBSL (1)

Cycladenia humilis @ BBSL (5)
Araliaceae  Aralia racemosa @ BBSL (3)
Asclepiadaceae  Asclepias fascicularis @ BBSL (4)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ BBSL (1)

Aster novae-angliae @ BBSL (1)

Aster sp @ UCMS_ENT (4)

Aster @ I_LKD (1)

Baccharis halimifolia @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Baccharis pilularis @ BBSL (1)

Balsamorhiza sp @ BBSL (2)

Carduus pycnocephalus @ BBSL (4)

Carthamus tinctorius @ BBSL (1)

Centaurea solstitialis @ BBSL (2)

Chrysanthemum frutescens @ BBSL (1)

Chrysothamnus sp @ BBSL (1)

Cichorium intybus @ PN- (2); MLSB__N16- (10)

Cirsium arvense @ MLSB__N16- (13); BBSL (1)

Cirsium sp @ BBSL (9)

Cirsium spp @ PN- (1)

Cirsium vulgare @ MLSB__N16- (2)

Echinacea purpurea @ I_PDA (1); I_LKD (1)

Enceliopsis argophylla @ BBSL (2)

Ericameria nauseosa @ BBSL (3)

Ericameria parryi @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Erigeron glaucus @ BBSL (1)

Erigeron sp @ BBSL (3)

Eupatorium maculatum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Grindelia sp @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (2)

Gutierrezia sarothrae @ BBSL (1)

Haplopappus sp @ BBSL (1)

Helianthus annuus @ UCMS_ENT (2); BBSL (4)

Helianthus maximiliani @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Holocarpha heermannii @ BBSL (2)

Hypochaeris glabra @ BBSL (1)

Madia elegans @ BBSL (6)

Pectis sp @ BBSL (1)

Picris echioides @ BBSL (1)

Pityopsis falcata @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Senecio sp @ BBSL (1)

Silybum marianum @ BBSL (4)

Solidago sp @ BBSL (1); UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago tenuifolia @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Sonchus oleraceus @ BBSL (1)

Tagetes sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Tanacetum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Taraxacum @ I_HHGA (2)

Viguiera sp @ BBSL (1)

Wyethia scabra @ BBSL (1)

Wyethia sp @ BBSL (1)
Berberidaceae  Podophyllum peltatum @ BBSL (1)
Bignoniaceae  Chilopsis linearis @ BBSL (1)
Boraginaceae  Borago officinalis @ UCMS_ENT (5)

Ehretia anacua @ BBSL (5)
Brassicaceae  Brassica napus @ UCMS_ENT (4)

Brassica rapa @ UCMS_ENT (7)

Brassica sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Erysimum 'Bowles @ I_LKD (1)

Erysimum Bowles @ I_LKD (3)

Isatis tinctoria @ BBSL (3)

Lesquerella congesta @ BBSL (5)

Stanleya pinnata @ BBSL (3)
Cactaceae  Sclerocactus glaucus @ BBSL (6)
Capparaceae  Cleome lutea @ BBSL (2)

Cleome serrulata @ BBSL (45)
Caprifoliaceae  Lonicera @ I_JSA (1)
Caryophyllaceae  Gypsophila paniculata @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Chenopodiaceae  Salsola sp @ BBSL (1)
Clethraceae  Clethra alnifolia @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Clethra @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Convolvulaceae  Bonamia ovalifolia @ BBSL (1)

Convolvulus arvensis @ BBSL (2)
Crassulaceae  Sedum sp @ BBSL (2)
Cucurbitaceae  Cucurbita maxima @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Cucurbita @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Fabaceae  Astragalus falcatus @ BBSL (1)

Astragalus missouriensis @ BBSL (2)

Astragalus oniciformis @ BBSL (2)

Astragalus sp @ BBSL (2)

Astragalus speirocarpus @ BBSL__BBSLID (2)

Baptisia tinctoria @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Baptisia @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Dalea sp @ BBSL (1)

Hedysarum boreale @ BBSL (4)

Lathyrus latifolius @ BBSL (1); MLSB__N16- (1)

Lotus corniculatus @ BBSL (1)

Lupinus sellulus @ BBSL (1)

Lupinus sp @ BBSL (3)

Medicago sativa @ BBSL (4)

Melilotus albus @ MLSB__N16- (14)

Melilotus officinalis @ MLSB__N16- (6); BBSL (3)

Melilotus sp @ BBSL (1)

Prosopis glandulosa @ BBSL (17)

Securigera varia @ PN- (1)

Trifolium barnebyi @ BBSL (48)

Trifolium hirtum @ BBSL (6)

Trifolium hybridum @ MLSB__N16- (4)

Trifolium incarnatum @ I_JP (4)

Trifolium longipes @ BBSL (1)

Trifolium pratense @ PN- (25); MLSB__N16- (53); BBSL (1)

Trifolium repens @ MLSB__N16- (17); UCMS_ENT (1); PN- (5)

Trifolium @ AMNH_BEE (6)

Vicia americana @ RMBL_ENT (1)
Freilich, j.  1630 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)
G. cangialosi  915 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Haemodoraceae  Anigozanthos @ I_LKD (1)
Herndon, j.d.  1537 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)
Hippocastanaceae  Aesculus californica @ BBSL (2)
Hydrophyllaceae  Eriodictyon sp @ BBSL (2)

Hesperochiron californicus @ BBSL (1)

Nemophila sp @ BBSL (2)

Phacelia distans @ BBSL (1)

Phacelia hastata @ BBSL (1)

Phacelia sp @ BBSL (3)
J. rykken  1031 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

1039 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

1081 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

1106 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

808 @ JRYB__SHEN (2)

928 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
K. kingsley  2788 @ JRYB__SHEN (2)

3527 @ JRYB__SHEN (4)

3528 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Lamiaceae  Agastache foeniculum @ UCMS_ENT (19)

Agastache rupestris @ BBSL (1)

Lavandula sp @ BBSL (1)

Mentha sp @ BBSL (2)

Nepeta cataria @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Nepeta sp @ BBSL (2)

Salvia clevelandii @ I_LKD (1)

Salvia dorrii @ BBSL__BBSLID (1)

Salvia greggii @ BBSL (1)

Salvia leucantha @ BBSL (1)

Salvia nemorosa @ BBSL (2)

Salvia sp @ BBSL (2)

Salvia ulignosa @ BBSL (1)

Salvia victoria @ BBSL (1)
Liliaceae  Allium acuminatum @ BBSL (25)

Allium campanulatum @ BBSL (9)

Allium cernuum @ BBSL (25)

Allium sp @ BBSL (15)

Camassia quamash @ BBSL (3)

Camassia sp @ BBSL (4)
M.l. epps  808 @ JRYB__SHEN (2)
Onagraceae  Camissonia eastwoodiae @ BBSL (1)

Camissonia sp @ BBSL (2)

Clarkia unguiculata @ BBSL (1)
Papaveraceae  Arctomecon californica @ BBSL (22); BBSL__LMNRA (1)

Arctomecon humilis @ BBSL (9)
Phytolaccaceae  Phytolacca americana @ PN- (3)
Plantaginaceae  Plantago lanceolata @ PN- (10); MLSB__N16- (17)
Polemoniaceae  Gilia sp @ BBSL (2)
Polycitoridae  Salix sp @ BBSL (2)
Polygonaceae  Eriogonum effusum @ BBSL (5)

Eriogonum pelinophilum @ BBSL (10)

Fallopia japonica @ UCMS_ENT (10)
Ranunculaceae  Anemone hupehensis @ I_LKD (1)

Clematis ligusticifolia @ BBSL (1)

Clematis virginiana @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Ranunculus alismifolius @ BBSL (1)

Ranunculus californicus @ BBSL (1)
Rhamnaceae  Ceanothus velutinus @ BBSL (1)
Rosaceae  Adenostoma fasciculatum @ BBSL (6)

Fragaria sp @ BBSL (3)

Horkelia sp @ BBSL (2)

Malus @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Potentilla sp @ BBSL (2)

Prunus maritima @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Purshia sp @ BBSL (1)

Rosa rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Rutaceae  Citrus x @ I_LKD (1)
Rykken, j.  1511 @ JRYA__NOCA (2)
Salicaceae  Salix humilis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Salix @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Scrophulariaceae  Buddleia @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Penstemon sp @ BBSL (1)
Solanaceae  Brugmansia @ I_WRR (2)
Tamaricaceae  Tamarix pentandra @ BBSL__SALTL (4)
Tropaeolaceae  Tropaeolum majus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Tropaeolum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Verbenaceae  Caryopteris incana @ BBSL (1); I_LKD (1)

Caryopteris ×clandonensis @ BBSL (1)

Verbena bonariensis @ I_LKD (1)
Zygophyllaceae  Kallstroemia sp @ BBSL (1)

Larrea sp @ BBSL (8)

Larrea tridentata @ BBSL (2)
_  2007-09-29 14 @ (2)

2007-09-29 16 @ (1)

Asteraceae sp @ BBSL__SALTL (1)

Bee @ LAR (7)

Brassicaceae sp @ BBSL (2)

Calyptridium umbellatum @ BBSL (2)

Eremocarpus setigerus @ BBSL (1)

George @ I_WRR (1)

Indian @ I_WRR (2)

Lamiaceae sp @ BBSL (1)

M Spring @ PN- (50)

Withheld @ BBSL__CAVE (308); BBSL__ZION (302); BBSL__PINN (609); BBSL__LMNRA (1); BBSL__YOSE (283); BBSL (4834)

apple @ NLA (79)

blueberry @ NLA (9)

caneberry @ NLA (19)

cucurbit @ NLA (75)

cuphea @ I_LKD (1)

flower @ I_WRR (1)

meadow @ NLA (1)

peach @ NLA (3)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Reduviidae  Arilus cristatus @ I_SAM (1); I_JP (1)

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Following served from Jerry A. Payne, USDA ARS, www.invasive.org
   
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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/ffbfebc7-e974-40ba-89b2-3a4fb709f215 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/ffbfebc7-e974-40ba-89b2-3a4fb709f215
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/ffbfebc7-e974-40ba-89b2-3a4fb709f215

Following modified from Slovenian Museum of Natural History
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previous Wild Bee photo gallery

 

Worker on Vaccinium myrtillus . Dragomer, Debeli hrib, April 2004.

 

Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

 

 

Palaearctic-Ethiopian species. Its natural distribution in Slovenia cannot be figured out because of cultivation. Today it is present in all parts of the country.

Polylectic social species. Nests in tree cavities.

In Slovenia two subspecies exist, but they interbreed and hybrids are common:

A. m. carnica Pollmann, 1879 ( top photo ),

West Balkan subspecies, widely distributed in Slovenia;

A. m. ligustica Spinola, 1806 ( bottom photo ),

Apenninic subspecies, common in the sub-Mediterranian region of Slovenia.

 

Worker of the Italian subspecies on Mentha . Brje pri Komnu, Kras, July 2010.

Trigona melina tropical eusocial bee

 

Andrej Gogala: Bee fauna of Slovenia

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Arthropoda  
 Class Insecta  
 Order Hymenoptera  
 Family Apidae  
 Genus Apis  
  Apis mellifera    Linnaeus, 1758 
Provider: Liang-Yi Chiu & Shu-Pei Chen 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Citation: Sonan, J. 1927. On the Apinae of Formosa(Hymenoptera: Apidae). Trans. Nat. Soc. Formosa 17: 221-227.; Wu, 1965
Name Code: 340636
  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Apis+mellifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Apis+mellifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal
&pull 20q v4.662 20091102: Error 501 Protocol scheme 'https' is not supported (LWP::Protocol::https not installed) https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Apis+mellifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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