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Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
BRACKEN
Pteris aquilina L; Western Brackenfern

Life   Plantae   Pteridophyta   Dennstaedtiaceae   Pteridium

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

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Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Joshua Wimberly 2012 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum

Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridium aquilinum
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pteridium aquilinum

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
_  Plantae @ I_GSJW (7)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia macrospora @ BPI (11)

Pestalotia pteridis @ BPI (1)
Aphididae  Macrosiphum ( @ NCSU (5); AMNH_PBI (4)

Mastopoda pteridis @ NCSU (7)

Sitobion ( @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Aulographaceae  Aulographum filicinum @ BPI (1)
Bertiaceae  Bertia moriformis @ BPI (1)
Braconidae  Aphidius ( @ AMNH_PBI (10)

Ephedrus ( @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Cicadellidae  Colladonus flavocapitatus @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Colladonus holmesi @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium filicinum @ BPI (1)
Cryptomycetaceae  Cryptomyces pteridis @ 669175B (1); BPI (16); 669175A (1)

Cryptomyces @ 040311B (1)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium leptospermum @ BPI (2)

Gloeosporium necans @ BPI (3)

Gloeosporium obtegens @ BPI (5)

Gloeosporium pteridis @ BPI (45); 395453A (1); 395453B (1)

Marssonina necans @ BPI (3)

Mollisia arenula @ BPI (9)

Mollisia pteridina @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis aquilina @ BPI (1)

Phomopsis fischeri-eduardi @ 358491A (1); BPI (1); 358491B (1)
Dothideaceae  Dothidea pteridis @ 866745B (1)

Monographos aspidiorum @ BPI (11)

Scirrhia aspidiorum @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cyathicula cyathoidea @ BPI (1)

Heteropatella alpina @ 392554A (1); 392554B (1)

Micropodia pteridina @ BPI (1)

Pezizella aspidiicola @ BPI (2)

Pezizella chrysostigma @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus pteridis @ 661966B (1); 661966C (1); 661966A (1)

Microscypha grisella @ BPI (1)

Trichopeziza pulverulenta @ BPI (1)

Urceolella carestiana @ BPI (1)
Leptopeltidaceae  Leptopeltis aquilina @ 872603A (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Lophiosphaera lophospora @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Monalocoris filicis @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora pteridis @ BPI (1)

Didymella lophospora @ BPI (2)

Mycosphaerella aquilina @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella prominula @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella @ 602256B (1); 602256A (1)

Ramularia obtegens @ BPI (1)

Septoria aquilina @ BPI (10)
Nectriaceae  Fusarium pteridis @ 452751A (1); 452752B (1); 452752A (1); BPI (1); 452751B (1)

Fusidium pteridis @ BPI (3)
Nidulariaceae  Nidula niveotomentosa @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Leptosphaeria aquilina @ BPI (2)
Phyllachoraceae  Catacauma flabellum @ BPI (4)

Phyllachora flabella @ BPI (7)

Phyllachora pteridis @ BPI (22); 866745A (1)

Phyllachora @ BPI (2)
Pucciniastraceae  Uredinopsis aspera @ BPI (19)

Uredinopsis hashiokai @ BPI (2)

Uredinopsis hirosakiensis @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis kameiana @ BPI (21)

Uredinopsis macrosperma @ BPI (71); 040311A (1)

Uredinopsis mirabilis @ BPI (50)

Uredinopsis pteridis @ BPI (65)

Uredinopsis virginiana @ BPI (51)
Rhytismataceae  Leptostroma aquilinum @ BPI (1)

Leptostroma filicinum @ BPI (5)

Leptostroma litigiosum @ BPI (2)

Leptostroma myriospermum @ BPI (1)

Leptostroma pteridis @ 391236B (1); 391236C (1); BPI (17); 391236A (1); 391234B (1); 391234A (1)

Melasmia imitans @ BPI (1)

Thyriostroma pteridis @ BPI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Valdensia heterodoxa @ BPI (1)
Stictidaceae  Stictis radiata @ BPI (2)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium cremeum @ BPI (2)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium deciduum @ BPI (1)
_  Ascochyta necans @ BPI (2)

Ascochyta pteridis @ BPI (14)

Camarographium stephensii @ BPI (2)

Camarosporium pteridis @ BPI (2)

Chalara brachyspora @ BPI (1)

Chalara pteridina @ BPI (2)

Cryptomycella pteridis @ BPI (2)

Cryptomycina pteridis @ BPI (20)

Cryptosporina pteridis @ BPI (1)

Dothithyrella litigiosa @ BPI (1)

Fumago vagans @ BPI (1)

Fusicolla pteridis @ BPI (1)

Leptopeltella filicina @ 872603B (1); BPI (2)

Leptosporella filicina @ BPI (1)

Leptostromella aquilina @ BPI (6)

Leptostromella filicina @ BPI (1)

Leptothyrium litigiosum @ BPI (8)

Metopolophium dirhodum @ CSCA_TCN (2)

Rhopographus filicinus @ BPI (2)

Septogloeum septorioides @ BPI (1)

Sphaeriostromella aquilina @ BPI (2)

Sphaeriostromella pteridina @ 392497A (1); BPI (2); 392498A (1); 392497B (1); 392498B (1)

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Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
 
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Dennstaedtiaceae | Pteridium

1. Pteridium aquilinum (Linnaeus) Kuhn in Decken, Reisen Ost-Afrika. 3(3): 11. 1879.

Bracken, fougère-aigle commune

Pteris aquilina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1075. 1753

Petioles scattered along creeping stems, 0.3--3.5 m, shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially, base not strongly distinct from stem. Blades broadly deltate, papery to leathery, sparsely to densely hairy abaxially, rarely glabrous. Pinnae often opposite to subopposite [alternate]; proximal pinnae often prolonged basiscopically, each proximal pinna nearly equal to distal part of leaf in size and dissection (except in var. caudata ). Segments alternate, numerous.

Varieties 12 (4 in the flora): almost worldwide.

In accord with the most recent revision (R. M. Tryon 1941) of the genus, Pteridium is treated here as a single widespread species composed of two subspecies with 12 varieties. So treated, it is probably the most widespread species of all vascular plants, with the exception of a few annual weeds (F. H. Perring and B. G. Gardner 1976). The plants are generally aggressive, invading disturbed areas as weeds in pastures, cultivated fields, and roadsides. In Europe, it was harvested and burned to produce potash. Although croziers are eaten in many temperate cultures, bracken has been shown to contain thiaminase (and other compounds with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties).

Disagreement exists among taxonomists regarding the rank that should be accorded to the taxa treated herein as varieties. In a survey of the genus, C. N. Page (1976) noted uniform chromosome numbers and flavonoid compositions of the varieties. D. B. Lellinger (1985) separated the genus into at least two species based on morphology, recognizing as species the subspecies of R. M. Tryon (1941). J. T. Mickel and J. M. Beitel (1988) reported sympatric occurrence in Mexico of three taxa that maintained consistent characteristics and only rarely produced plants with combined characteristics. They suggested that these three taxa should be considered as species that occasionally hybridize. P. J. Brownsey (1989) reported that two different brackens in Australia formed sterile hybrids and should be treated as species. Modern systematic studies are needed to evaluate the status and rank of the four North American varieties. As treated below, Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens , var. latiusculum , and var. pseudocaudatum are in subsp. aquilinum , and var. caudatum is in subsp. caudatum (Linnaeus) Bonaparte.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+decompositum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+decompositum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+pubescens&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+pubescens&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+latiusculum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pteridium+aquilinum+var.+latiusculum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2017-11-21 14:01:28 gmt
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