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Picea engelmannii . Engelm
ENGELMANN SPRUCE
Abies engelmannii (Engelm) Engelm

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Picea

Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general

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Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles
Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles

Picea engelmannii, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, leaf - entire needle
Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch

Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch
Picea engelmannii, twig - after fallen needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, twig - after fallen needles

Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, twig - showing attachment of needles
Picea engelmannii, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, leaf - entire needle

Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, bark - of a small tree or small branch
Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general

Picea engelmannii, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, whole tree - general

Picea engelmannii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, cone - female - mature open
Picea engelmannii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea engelmannii, cone - female - mature open

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma abietis @ BPI (1)

Phoma galli-chermis @ BPI (18)

Phoma lineolata @ BPI (1)

Phoma @ BPI (1)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Amphisphaeria applanatoidis @ BPI (1)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella pilifera @ BPI (1)

Ceratostomella @ BPI (2)
Anthocoridae  Acompocoris lepidus @ AMNH_IZC (3)

Tetraphleps uniformis @ AMNH_IZC (6)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Elatobium abietinum @ CSUC_TCN (1)
Arcyriaceae  Arcyria versicolor @ BPI (1)
Asterinidae  Asterina nuda @ BPI (1)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (3)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria piceae @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis pinastri @ BPI (1)
Braconidae  Ephedrus ( @ AMNH_PBI (10)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis bicolor @ BPI (3)

Ceratocystis perfecta @ BPI (1)

Ceratocystis tenella @ BPI (1)

Ceratocystis truncicola @ BPI (2)

Ceratocystis vesca @ BPI (1)
Coleosporiaceae  Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli @ 190992A (1); 190992B (1); BPI (143)

Chrysomyxa ledi @ BPI (2)

Chrysomyxa ledicola @ BPI (12)

Chrysomyxa piperiana @ BPI (2)

Chrysomyxa pyrolae @ BPI (12)

Chrysomyxa weirii @ BPI (29)

Chrysomyxa @ BPI (2)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora arida @ BPI (1)

Coniophora byssoidea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora cerebella @ BPI (1)

Coniophora corrugis @ BPI (3)

Coniophora olivacea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (3)
Corticiaceae  Corticium arachnoideum @ BPI (4)

Corticium byssinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium corruge @ BPI (3)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (3)

Corticium giganteum @ BPI (2)

Corticium lividocoeruleum @ BPI (1)

Corticium lividum @ BPI (4)

Corticium plumbeum @ BPI (1)

Corticium radiosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium subsulphureum @ BPI (1)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium coloradense @ BPI (3)

Peridermium engelmannii @ BPI (1)

Peridermium harknessii @ BPI (1)

Peridermium ornamentale @ BPI (1)

Peridermium parryanum @ BPI (1)

Peridermium @ BPI (2)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces aurantia @ BPI (1)

Guepiniopsis alpina @ BPI (2)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Atropellis @ BPI (1)

Cenangella @ BPI (1)

Pezicula livida @ BPI (1)

Pezicula @ BPI (1)
Echinodontiaceae  Echinodontium tinctorium @ BPI (2)
Exidiaceae  Exidia recisa @ BPI (1)

Guepinia alpina @ BPI (1)

Guepinia monticola @ BPI (4)

Guepinia @ BPI (1)
Helminthosphaeriaceae  Diplococcium resinae @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium abietis @ BPI (2)

Cenangium @ BPI (1)

Tympanis @ BPI (1)
Hericiaceae  Hericium abietis @ BPI (1)

Hericium coralloides @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (12)

Dasyscyphus incarnatus @ BPI (4)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (2)

Lachnellula chrysophthalma @ BPI (7)

Lachnum engelmannii @ BPI (2)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete fimbriata @ BPI (3)

Hymenochaete fuliginosa @ BPI (1)
Hyphodermataceae  Hypochnicium bombycinum @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Acrostalagmus @ BPI (2)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia athabascensis @ BPI (1)

Vararia granulosa @ BPI (2)

Vararia racemosa @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia juniperi @ BPI (1)

Herpotrichia nigra @ 624688A (1); 624672B (1); 624689B (1); BPI (58); 624689A (1); 624672A (1); 624688B (1)

Herpotrichia quinqueseptata @ BPI (12)

Herpotrichia @ BPI (1)

Lophiosphaera seaveri @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius fugax @ BPI (2)

Merulius serpens @ BPI (1)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (2)

Phlebia livida @ BPI (1)

Phlebia mellea @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (30)

Atractotomus kolenatii @ AMNH_PBI (15)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Deraeocoris diveni @ AMNH_ENT (27)

Deraeocoris incertus @ AMNH_ENT (49)

Deraeocoris piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (81)

Deraeocoris picipes @ AMNH_ENT (34)

Deraeocoris @ AMNH_PBI (11)

Dichaetocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (4); AMNH_ENT (43)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (9); AMNH_ENT (9)

Dichrooscytus rainieri @ AMNH_PBI (1); AMNH_ENT (1)

Dichrooscytus rubidus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Knightomiroides contortae @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Lygus convexicollis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthops scutellatus @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Pappus piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (32)

Phytocoris heidemanni @ AMNH_ENT (5)

Phytocoris inops @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris knowltoni @ AMNH_ENT (8)

Phytocoris neglectus @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Phytocoris yollabollae @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pinalitus approximatus @ AMNH_ENT (11)

Pinalitus rostratus @ AMNH_ENT (8)

Pinalitus rubrotinctus @ AMNH_ENT (4)

Pinalitus solivagus @ AMNH_ENT (11)

Plagiognathus pemptos @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Psallovius dimorphicus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Mytilinidiaceae  Mytilinidion quinqueseptatum @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria balsamea @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)

Nectria veuillotiana @ BPI (2)

Tubercularia atomospora @ BPI (2)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (2)
Odontotremataceae  Odontotrema majusculum @ BPI (1)
Ophiostomataceae  Leptographium engelmannii @ BPI (3)

Verticicladiella abietina @ BPI (1)
Papilionidae  Graphium @ BPI (2)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora byssoides @ BPI (1)

Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (1)

Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (3)

Peniophora crassa @ BPI (4)

Peniophora gigantea @ BPI (3)

Peniophora glebulosa @ BPI (2)

Peniophora globifera @ BPI (13)

Peniophora hastata @ BPI (1)

Peniophora ludoviciana @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pertenuis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subalutacea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subsulphurea @ BPI (1)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium infestans @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete carnosa @ BPI (3)

Phanerochaete velutina @ BPI (1)
Phymatidae  Lophoscutus lepidus @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Physciaceae  Calicium parietinum @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Cryptoporus volvatus @ BPI (2)

Fomes annosus @ BPI (2)

Fomes carneus @ BPI (2)

Fomes nigrolimitatus @ BPI (6)

Fomes officinalis @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (34)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (7)

Fomes putearius @ BPI (6)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (7)

Fomes tenuis @ BPI (1)

Fomes viticola @ BPI (2)

Fomes yamanoi @ BPI (1)

Lentinus sepiarius @ BPI (1)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (11)

Polyporus abietinus @ 200793B (1); 200793A (1); BPI (5)

Polyporus alboluteus @ BPI (21)

Polyporus amorphus @ BPI (10)

Polyporus aurantiacus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus borealis @ BPI (5)

Polyporus confluens @ BPI (1)

Polyporus crispellus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus immitis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus lapponicus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus leucospongia @ BPI (8)

Polyporus osseus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (6)

Polyporus smallii @ BPI (1)

Polyporus umbellatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (3)

Polyporus @ BPI (1)

Poria byssina @ BPI (2)

Poria calcea @ BPI (3)

Poria callosa @ BPI (14)

Poria carbonica @ BPI (1)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (1)

Poria crustulina @ BPI (10)

Poria myceliosa @ BPI (2)

Poria pereffusa @ BPI (1)

Poria selecta @ BPI (1)

Poria sericeo-mollis @ BPI (1)

Poria sinuosa @ BPI (1)

Poria stellae @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (17)

Poria taxicola @ BPI (3)

Poria vesiculosa @ BPI (1)

Poria vincta @ BPI (5)

Poria xantha @ BPI (4)

Poria @ BPI (5)

Trametes carnea @ BPI (1)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (2)

Trametes isabellina @ BPI (4)

Trametes pini @ BPI (1)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (3)

Trametes subsinuosa @ BPI (1)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (7)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsorella caryophyllacearum @ BPI (3)

Melampsorella cerastii @ BPI (4)

Melampsorella elatina @ BPI (4)

Melampsorella @ BPI (6)
Pyronemataceae  Humaria theleboloides @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Sinea @ AMNH_PBI (5)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Lophodermium filiforme @ BPI (3)

Lophodermium piceae @ BPI (5)

Lophodermium @ BPI (2)

Therrya @ BPI (1)

Tryblidiopsis pinastri @ BPI (9)

Tryblidiopsis @ BPI (1)
Schizoporaceae  Hyphodontia hastata @ BPI (1)

Hyphodontia subalutacea @ BPI (1)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina monticola @ BPI (1)
Sistotremataceae  Repetobasidium mirificum @ BPI (1)
Sparassidaceae  Sparassis radicata @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia abietina @ BPI (1)

Odontia arguta @ BPI (1)

Odontia barba-jovis @ BPI (1)

Odontia bicolor @ BPI (2)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (5)

Aleurodiscus weirii @ BPI (2)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (4)

Stereum radiatum @ BPI (5)

Stereum rugisporum @ BPI (8)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (3); 276007B (1); 276007A (1)

Stereum sulcatum @ BPI (19)

Stereum tuberculosum @ BPI (1)
Trichosphaeriaceae  Trichosphaeria barbula @ BPI (2)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium abietinum @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Radulum orbiculare @ BPI (1)

Radulum @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Anthostomella conorum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon diathrauston @ BPI (1)
_  Caldesiella viridis @ BPI (1)

Clithris crispa @ BPI (1)

Endoconidiophora coerulescens @ BPI (1)

Endoconidiophora @ BPI (1)

Grandinia alutacea @ BPI (5)

Grandinia aspera @ BPI (1)

Grandinia granulosa @ BPI (1)

Grandinia @ BPI (2)

Hypochnus atropurpureus @ BPI (1)

Neopeckia coulteri @ BPI (4)

Pellicularia vaga @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia @ BPI (1)

Phragmotrichum chailletii @ BPI (2)

Rhopographus hysteriiformis @ BPI (3)

Sclerophoma macrospora @ BPI (1)

Scoleconectria cucurbitula @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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The Gymnosperm Database

photograph

Cones on a tree near timberline, Great Basin National Park, Nevada [C.J. Earle].

photograph

A group of tree clumps near timberline in the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming [Dr. Linda B. Brubaker, 1990.08].

photograph

Krummholz mats showing frost damage from the prior winter; Middle Tiffany Mtn., Washington [C.J. Earle, 2000.07.21].

photograph

A sapling showing damage from spruce budworm infestation [C.J. Earle, 2000.09].

off-site photos

 

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Conservation status

Picea engelmannii

Parry ex Engelmann 1863

Common names

Engelmann spruce, silver spruce, white spruce, mountain spruce ( Peattie 1950 ), épinette d'Engelmann (Canadian French), pino real (Spanish) ( Taylor 1993 ).

Taxonomic notes

Two subspecies, engelmannii (described here) and mexicana .

"In the northern part of its range, it hybridizes freely and completely intergrades with P. glauca " ( Taylor 1993 ). This hybrid is commonly called "interior spruce" or P. glauca var. albertiana . In the Chilliwack River Valley of British Columbia, P. engelmannii occurs with and hybridizes with Picea sitchensis . The area is near sea level and the Fraser Valley, yet comes right out of the heart of the North Cascades. This hybrid may occur elsewhere, where the species' ranges are contiguous (such as the Federation Forest/Crystal Mountain area of Washington) but has not been seen yet ( Van Pelt 1999 ). All three species ( P. engelmannii, glauca , and sitchensis ) hybridize is a zone in the interior Skeena River valley in British Columbia (Sutton et al. 1994).

Additional synonymy for var. engelmannii ( Taylor 1993 ):

  • Picea glauca (Moench) Voss subsp. engelmannii (Parry ex Engelmann) T.M.C. Taylor;
  • P. columbiana Lemmon;
  • P. engelmannii var. glabra Goodman.

Description

"Trees to 45 m, rarely to 60 m; trunk to 1.2 m, rarely 2 m diam.; crown narrowly conic. Bark gray to reddish brown. Branches spreading horizontally to somewhat drooping; twigs not pendent, rather stout, yellow-brown, finely pubescent, occasionally glabrous. Buds orange-brown, 3-6mm, apex rounded. Leaves 1.6-3(3.5) cm, 4-angled in cross section, rigid, blue-green, bearing stomates on all surfaces, apex sharp-pointed." Seed cones violet or deep purple, ripening buff-brown, "3-7(8) cm; scales diamond-shaped to elliptic, widest above middle, 13-20 × 9-16 mm, flexuous, margin at apex irregularly toothed to erose, apex extending 3-8mm beyond seed-wing impression. 2 n =24" ( Taylor 1993 ).

Distribution and Ecology

Canada: Alberta, British Columbia; USA: Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico; as krummholz at the alpine timberline ( Taylor 1993 ). See also Thompson et al. (1999) . UHardy to Zone 3 (cold hardiness limit between -39.9°C and -34.4°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 ).

The subsp. mexicana occurs in N Mexico and southern Arizona and New Mexico ( Taylor and Patterson 1980 : p.438) at 1000-3000 m in montane and subalpine forests.

Distribution data from USGS (1999) . Points plotted as tree icons represent isolated or approximate locations.

Big tree

The largest tree, the North Joffre Spruce in British Columbia, is 220 cm dbh and 41 m tall. A tree named the Easy Pass Tower growing along the North Cascades Highway (Washington Route 20) near the Easy Pass Trailhead is 67.7 m tall and 169 cm dbh (Robert Van Pelt e-mail 2004.02.04). Quite a few comparably tall trees grow in the vicinity. A larger tree from the Payette Lake (Idaho) at 63 m 3 had the largest volume ever recorded for this species, but fell victim to bark beetles ( Van Pelt 1999 ).

Oldest

Tree FCC 23 in central Colorado had a crossdated age of 911 years ( Brown et al. 1995 , cited in RMTRR 2006) . Also, a crossdated age of 852 years for specimen FCC 19, collected in 1994(?) from a stand near the alpine timberline at the headwaters of Fool Creek in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Also, a crossdated age of 760 years for a specimen from near Peyto Glacier in Alberta collected by B.H. Luckman ( Brown et al. 1995 ). I believe this was from a living tree collected in the late 1980s or early 1990s.

Dendrochronology

Have one Medicine Bow chronology ( Earle 1993 ), and numerous population studies exist.

Ethnobotany

Observations

Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir form one of the most common forest associations in the Rocky Mountains. They can be seen, for example, in all Rocky Mountain National Parks from Jasper in Canada to Rocky Mountain in Colorado. They also form a dominant forest type in eastern North Cascades National Park and the Pasayten Wilderness in Washington. The southernmost Engelmann spruce stand in the U.S. can be found atop the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona; this population is now referred to subsp. mexicana ( Taylor and Patterson 1980 : p.438).

Remarks

Citations

B. C. S. Sutton, S. C. Pritchard, J. R. Gawley, C. H. Newton, and G. K. Kiss. 1994. Analysis of Sitka spruce–interior spruce introgression in British Columbia using cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA probes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24(2):278-285.

This page co-edited with Michael P. Frankis, 1998.12.

See also

Burns and Honkala 1990 .

FEIS database .

LaRoi, G.H. and J.R. Dugle. 1968. A systematic and genecological study of Picea glauca and P. engelmannii , using paper chromatography of needle extracts. Canadian Journal of Botany 46:649-687.

Van Pelt 1996 .

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Picea

5. Picea engelmannii Engelmann, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis. 2: 212. 1863.

Engelmann spruce, épinette d'Engelmann, pino real

Varieties 2 (1 in the flora): North America, Mexico.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Picea+engelmannii&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Picea+engelmannii&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant
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Updated: 2018-01-18 03:55:59 gmt
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