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Abies Mill.
FIR
Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae

Abies fraseri
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Abies fraseri

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Abies fraseri
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Abies fraseri
Abies fraseri
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Abies fraseri

Abies fraseri
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Abies fraseri
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general

Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle

Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles

Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch

Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle
Kinds

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Essigella ( @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Mindarus abietinus @ AMNH_PBI (20)
Braconidae  Pauesia ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Xenostigmus bifasciatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Coccidae  Physokermes concolor @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Diaspididae  Abgrallaspis ithacae @ CSCA_TCN (2)

Aonidiella aurantii @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Aspidiotus cryptomeriae @ CSCA_TCN (2)

Chionaspis pinifoliae @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Diaspidiotus ehrhorni @ CSCA_TCN (6)

Fiorinia externa @ UCR_ENT (1)

Stramenaspis kelloggi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Lygaeidae  Kolenetrus plenus @ AMNH_IZC (2)

Phlegyas abbreviatus @ AMNH_IZC (2)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (19)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Deraeocoris incertus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Deraeocoris rubroclarus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Lygus punctatus @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Myrtlemiris astartephila @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phytocoris juliae @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (14)

Pilophorus crassipes @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Phymatidae  Lophoscutus lepidus @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Thyreocoridae  Galgupha atra @ AMNH_IZC (4)
_  Anomaloptera costatus @ AMNH_IZC (8)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (4)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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The Gymnosperm Database

map

Range of Abies (Farjon 1990).

photograph

Detail of an A. concolor shoot showing leaf structure (white dots are stomata) and leaf attachment to twig [C.J. Earle].

photo

Seeds of A. lasiocarpa floating on the water. One strategy that many conifers use to defeat seed predators is to produce no cones in most years, with a superabundance produced occasionally during "mast years" [C.J. Earle, 2009.09.26].

 

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Abies

Miller 1754

Common names

Fir [English]; نراد [Arabic]; 冷杉属 [Chinese]; Tanne [German]; sapin [French]; abete [Italian]; モミ属 [Japanese]; Пихта [Russian]; abies [Spanish].

Taxonomic notes

Linnaeus initially (1753) assigned all firs, spruces and pines to the genus Pinus . Miller forthwith (1754) assigned firs to the genus Abies (type species: A. alba ). Various authors have assigned it to ranks above the level of family: Order Abietales Koehne 1893; Family Abietaceae Bercht. et J. Presl 1820; Subfamily Abietoideae Rich. ex Sweet 1826; Tribe Abieteae Rich. ex Dumort. 1827; and Subtribe Abietinae Eichler 1887. The genus has lately been revised by Rushforth (1987), with a full review of previous classification schemes provided by Farjon and Rushforth (1989). The classification used here is almost verbatim from Farjon (2010). As such, there are 48 species. The infrageneric classification is as follows:

Section Subsection Link to Species
Abies Miller A. alba
A. x borisii-regis
A. cephalonica
A. cilicica
A. nebrodensis
A. nordmanniana
Piceaster Spach emend. Farjon et Rushforth A. numidica
A. pinsapo
Bracteata Engelm. emend. Sargent A. bracteata
Momi Franco Homolepoides (Franco) Farjon et Rushforth A. homolepis
A. kawakamii
A. recurvata
Firmae (Franco) Farjon et Rushforth A. beshanzuensis
A. firma
Holophyllae Farjon et Rushforth A. chensiensis
A. holophylla
A. pindrow
A. ziyuanensis
Amabilis (Matzenko) Farjon et Rushforth A. amabilis
A. mariesii
Pseudopicea Hickel emend. Farjon et Rushforth Delavayianae Faijon et Rushforth A. delavayi
A. densa
A. fabri
A. fanjingshanensis
A. fargesii
A. forrestii
A. spectabilis
A. yuanbaoshanensis
Squamatae E. Murray A. squamata
Balsamea Engelm. emend. Farjon et Rushforth Laterales Patschke emend. Farjon et Rushforth A. balsamea
A. lasiocarpa
A. sibirica
Medianae Patschke emend. Farjon et Rushforth A. fraseri
A. koreana
A. nephrolepis
A. sachalinensis
A. veitchii
Grandis Engelm. emend. Farjon et Rushforth A. concolor
A. durangensis
A. grandis
A. guatemalensis
Oiamel Franco Religiosae (Matzenko) Farjon et Rushforth A. religiosa
A. vejarii
Hickelianae Farjon et Rushforth A. hickelii
A. hidalgensis
Nobilis Engelm. A. magnifica
A. procera

"In Abies several traditionally accepted species have closely allied sibling species, e.g., A. balsamea-A. fraseri, A. bifolia-A. lasiocarpa , and A. magnifica-A. procera . Other species may be more distinct morphologically, but many of these still appear to have evolved in geographic isolation without strong reproductive barriers developing. Thus, when distributions of species overlap, introgression between the taxa is the rule; this may make it difficult to assign certain individuals to a species" (Hunt 1993). Although this opinion was formulated in regard to certain North American firs, it is exceptionally appropriate to the firs of southwest China, particularly those of subsection Delavayianae . Accurate determination of taxonomic relationships between these species will likely require genetic studies.

Description

Tree: Like most other genera of Pinaceae, species of Abies are typically monoecious evergreen trees with a spire-like or conic crown that often becomes flattened or rounded in old trees. Near the alpine treeline, trees may grow with reduced stature and a contorted growth form, often forming krummholz at the upper limits of tree growth. Their form differs from most genera of Pinaceae in its exceptional uniformity; Abies typically possess a single straight trunk with regularly spaced branch whorls produced at the rate of one whorl per year, so that it is sometimes possible to determine the age of a tree 50 years old simply by counting branch whorls. The branch pattern is also exceptionally regular, with a single terminal and two lateral shoots produced each year at the tip of most active branches. Thus, Abies displays a geometric regularity of form that is only a little less common in Picea and Larix , is rather unusual in Pinus , and is not found in Tsuga .

Bark: Smooth and thin on young trees, bearing resin blisters, in age often thick and furrowed or flaking in plates. In most species the bark provides little protection against fire, although a few species are fire-tolerant.

Branches: Whorled, spreading, flattened into a horizontal plane, with irregular internodal branches occasionally produced by epicormic sprouting.

Shoots: Short (spur) shoots are absent. Twigs may be grooved or smooth; prominent leaf scars, circular to broadly elliptic, flush with twig surface, are slightly depressed or slightly raised evenly all around.

Leaves: Borne singly, persisting 5 or more years (maximum 53 years in A. amabilis ), spirally arranged but often proximally twisted so as to appear either 1-ranked (pointing up like toothbrush bristles) or 2-ranked, sessile, typically constricted and often twisted above the somewhat broadened base, sheath absent; linear-lanceolate, flat, with two white stomatal bands beneath, keeled below, rounded or notched at the apex, with two resin ducts. Since many species are early seral and form dense stands, there is often a conspicuous structural difference between shade foliage, just described, and sun foliage, growing near the top of the crown in full sunlight. Sun foliage is more or less erect, incurved to nearly falcate, thickened or quadrangular. When identifying species, reference is made to mature shade foliage, unless otherwise noted. Buds are ovate or oblong with a rounded or pointed apex; terminal buds are surrounded by 4-5 secondary buds. Cotyledons 4-10.

Cones: Borne on year-old twigs, maturing in 1 season, erect, ovoid to cylindric, generally resinous, dehiscent (falling apart on maturity), cone axis persisting as an erect 'spike' on branch.

Cone scales: Lacking apophysis and umbo, rounded with a hidden or sometime protruding lobed bract (esp. see A. bracteata ).

Pollen cones: Axillary, densely clustered along undersides of current year's twigs, globular or conic, appearing in the spring, pendant, yellow to red, green, blue, or purple, leaving gall-like protuberances after falling.

Seeds: Winged, with a resin sac at the wing-seed juncture.

Wood: Lacks resin ducts.

Sources: Li (1975), Silba (1986), Rushforth (1987).

x =12 (Hunt 1993).

"Notes on the following features, made at the time of collection of specimens, are useful in identification.

  • "Size and placement of resin canals in the leaves as seen in cross section with a hand lens when a leaf is pulled apart or cut with a sharp knife.
  • "Stance of the leaves, e.g., whether they are in flat sprays ('2-ranked') or point up like brush bristles ('1-ranked'), and whether some on a twig point in a direction different from others on the same twig.
  • "Differences in color and glaucousness of the lower and upper leaf surfaces.
  • "Shape of leaf apex as observed with a hand lens.
  • "Distribution of stomates - and number of rows of stomates - on the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces, particularly midway between base and apex of leaf.
  • "Leaf-scar periderm color. Pull a leaf from a twig and note, with a hand lens, the color of the scar's periphery.
  • "Presence or absence of resin on the buds (collect a few extra buds for dissection). If buds are not available (as in the early part of the growing season), collect older branch material bearing old bud scales.
  • "Cone color of both pollen and seed cones (binoculars are handy to note this feature of the seed cones)" (Hunt 1993).

Distribution and Ecology

N America, C America, Europe, N Africa, Asia (S to Himalaya, S China, and Taiwan), i.e., temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere, chiefly in mountainous regions (Li 1975). Excepting the two boreal species, A. balsamea (in North America) and A. sibirica (in Eurasia), the genus is confined to mountainous areas in the subtropical and temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Within this realm, its distribution is confined largely according to its ecological requirements and its paleobotanical history.

For information on ecological requirements, paleobotany and modern distribution, see Farjon (1990).

Big tree

The greatest diameter and stem volume are found in A. procera , though greater heights have been reported in A. grandis . The record trees for both species are found in Washington State, in the northwest United States.

Oldest

Probably A. amabilis . Again, found in Washington State, though comparably old trees probably occur in Canada: British Columbia.

Dendrochronology

Species of Abies tend to occur on sites with ample moisture and deep soils, where they grow quickly and do not attain great ages. Such conditions characterize closed forest situations, where competition between individuals tends to obscure the effect of large-scale factors, such as climate, on tree growth. Moreover, the tree rings are often difficult to discern and the wood decays quickly after tree death. Consequently, Abies has received relatively little attention in comparison with, say, Pinus or Picea . What work has been done, has largely focused on ecological problems such as stand age structure and forest regeneration after disturbance.

Ethnobotany

"North American firs are cut for pulpwood and lumber and, largely from plantations, for Christmas trees. They are also grown as ornamentals. Species of Abies frequently have a pleasant odor; their foliage has been used as a stuffing material for pillows. Most commercial products with "pine odors" are in fact scented with essential oils distilled from Abies foliage by Russian farmers" (Hunt 1993).

Observations

Remarks

" Abies " was the Latin name for an Old World species (Weber 1987).

Citations

Farjon, Aljos. 1990. Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea . Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Farjon, Aljos. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers . Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers.

Farjon, A. and K. D. Rushforth. 1989. A classification of Abies Miller (Pinaceae). Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46(1):59-79.

Hunt, Richard S. 1993. Abies. Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.): Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 2. Oxford University Press.

Li Hui-Lin. 1975. Flora of Taiwan , V.1, parts 1-8. Taipei: Epoch Publishing.

Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary , abridged 4th edition. V.1, p.11.

Silba, J. 1986. An international census of the Coniferae. Phytologia memoir no. 8. Corvallis, OR: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke.

Rushforth, K. D. 1987. Conifers . New York: Facts on File. 232p.

Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado Flora: Western Slope . Niwot, Colorado: University Press.

See also

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Edited by Christopher J. Earle


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Last Modified 2017-12-29

Following served from Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00000905 wa1999%20l64%20h201
   
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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   
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https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ABIES ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ABIES
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ABIES ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ABIES
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Abies Mill.
fir

Image of Abies

General Information
Symbol: ABIES
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration:  
Growth Habit :  
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   I,N
SPM   N
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Abies thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Abies Mill. – fir

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 15 species of Abies . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Abies alba</i>
Mill.
Abies alba
silver fir Distribution of <i>
Abies amabilis</i>
(Douglas ex Loudon) Douglas ex Forbes
Abies amabilis
Pacific silver fir Distribution of <i>
Abies balsamea</i>
(L.) Mill.
Abies balsamea
balsam fir Distribution of <i>
Abies bracteata</i>
(D. Don) D. Don ex Poit.
Abies bracteata
bristlecone fir Distribution of <i>
Abies concolor</i>
(Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
Abies concolor
white fir Distribution of <i>
Abies firma</i>
Siebold & Zucc.
Abies firma
Momi fir Distribution of <i>
Abies fraseri</i>
(Pursh) Poir.
Abies fraseri
Fraser fir Distribution of <i>
Abies grandis</i>
(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.
Abies grandis
grand fir Distribution of <i>
Abies guatemalensis</i>
Rehder
Abies guatemalensis
Guatemalan fir Distribution of <i>
Abies homolepis</i>
Siebold & Zucc.
Abies homolepis
Nikko fir Distribution of <i>
Abies lasiocarpa</i>
(Hook.) Nutt.
Abies lasiocarpa
subalpine fir Distribution of <i>
Abies lowiana</i>
(Gordon & Glend.) A. Murray bis
Abies lowiana
Sierra white fir Distribution of <i>
Abies magnifica</i>
A. Murray bis
Abies magnifica
California red fir Distribution of <i>
Abies procera</i>
Rehder
Abies procera
noble fir Distribution of <i>
Abies veitchii</i>
Lindl.
Abies veitchii
Christmastree

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
CalPhotos (ABIES)
Flora of North America (ABIES)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ABIES)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (ABIES)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Moderate Low Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Moderate Moderate High

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Abies+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Abies+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 22
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Abies sp.%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 0000 0000 0312 0135 [detail]
© 2012 Zoya Akulova

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus lambertiana, Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1090 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1056 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 0786 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 0785 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Artemisia tridentata, Ceanothus velutinus, Pinus jeffreyi, Ribes cereum )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 0700 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus contorta )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 0519 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1199 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1207 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1211 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Ceanothus cordulatus, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus chrysolepis, Quercus wislizeni )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1519 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Ceanothus cordulatus, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus chrysolepis, Quercus wislizeni )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1520 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Ceanothus cordulatus, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus chrysolepis, Quercus wislizeni )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1521 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Ceanothus cordulatus, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus chrysolepis, Quercus wislizeni )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1522 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1907 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 1930 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2316 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2317 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2496 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2499 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2648 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Abies sp.
Abies sp.
(shown with Pinus lambertiana, Pinus sp. )
ID: 5555 5555 0000 2703 [detail]
2005 The Regents of the University of California

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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